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Medical Problems Related to Air Travel

Takahashi, George Y.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1985 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
Air travel has become the preferred method of transportation for many Canadians, some of whom would otherwise be unable to travel long distances. Airline medical departments will provide advice and assistance with prior notification. The pressurized cabin has a slightly hypoxic atmosphere, so cardiac and chronic pulmonary patients require individual evaluations before departure. Severely anemic patients and those with neurological disorders may need to take special precautions, as will those with conditions affected by pressure changes. Aside from a few contraindications, the majority of patients can enjoy the benefits of commercial air travel, with proper guidance from their family physician.

Air travel and children’s health issues

Fonte: Pulsus Group Inc Publicador: Pulsus Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
With more children travelling by air, health care professionals should become more familiar with some of the unique health issues associated with air travel. A thorough literature search involving a number of databases (1966 to 2006) revealed very few evidence-based papers on air travel and children. Many of the existing recommendations are based on descriptive evidence and expert opinion. The present statement will help physicians to inform families about the health-related issues concerning air travel and children, including otitis media, cardiopulmonary disorders, allergies, diabetes, infection and injury prevention. An accompanying document (Information for Parents and Caregivers) is also available in this issue of Paediatrics & Child Health (pages 51-52) to help answer common questions from parents.

Air travel and venous thromboembolism.

Mendis, Shanthi; Yach, Derek; Alwan, Ala
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On the whole it appears that there is probably a link between air travel and venous thrombosis. However, the link is likely to be weak, mainly affecting passengers with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The available evidence is not adequate to allow quantification of the risk. There are insufficient scientific data on which to base specific recommendations for prevention, other than that leg exercise should be taken during travel. Further studies are urgently needed in order to identify prospectively the incidence of the condition and those at risk.

Forecasting the geographical spread of smallpox cases by air travel.

Grais, R. F.; Ellis, J. H.; Glass, G. E.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
Instituting air travel restrictions to slow the geographical spread of smallpox cases would have significant consequences and present serious logistical concerns. Public health decision makers must weigh the potential benefits of such restrictions against their negative impact. The goal of this research is to provide a basic analytical framework to explore some of the issues surrounding the use of air travel restrictions as a part of an overall containment strategy. We report preliminary results of a compartmental model for the inter-city spread of smallpox cases resulting from US domestic air travel. Although air traffic can be halted within hours as was shown following the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, these results suggest that the consequences of halting domestic air travel may not be outweighed by public health benefits.

Air travel can be safe and well tolerated in patients with clinically stable pulmonary hypertension

Thamm, Melanie; Voswinckel, Robert; Tiede, Henning; Lendeckel, Friederike; Grimminger, Friedrich; Seeger, Werner; Ghofrani, Hossein A.
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
Our aim was to determine what proportion of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) has undertaken air travel contrary to the general medical advice and to characterize these patients according to disease severity and medical treatment. In cooperation with Pulmonale Hypertonie e.V., the German patient organization, a questionnaire was distributed. In total, 430 of 720 questionnaires were returned completed. Of the 179 patients who travelled at least once by air, the distribution of New York Heart Association functional classes I/ II/ III/ IV was 2/ 77/ 74/ 8, respectively; 83 patients were receiving monotherapy; 58 patients were receiving a combination of two or more therapies; 57 patients were on long-term ambulatory oxygen treatment; and 29 patients used supplemental oxygen while travelling. Overall, 20 adverse events were reported, mostly of mild to moderate severity (i.e., peripheral edema, dyspnea), with need of medical intervention in only 7 cases. The 251 patients who did not travel by air were, on average, in more advanced stages of disease and/or clinically unstable. In conclusion, a majority of patients (159 out of 179) did not experience any complications during or directly after the flight even though no special precautions were taken. Thus we conclude that for patients with PH in a stable clinical condition...

Barotrauma-Induced Pneumocephalus Experienced by a High Risk Patient after Commercial Air Travel

Huh, Jisoon
Fonte: The Korean Neurosurgical Society Publicador: The Korean Neurosurgical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
A 49-year-old female with a history of several neurosurgical and otolaryngologic procedures for occipital meningioma and cerebrospinal fluid leaks was diagnosed with pneumocephalus after a one hour flight on a domestic jet airliner. Despite multiple operations, the air appeared to enter the cranium through a weak portion of the skull base due to the low atmospheric pressure in the cabin. The intracranial air was absorbed with conservative management. The patient was recommended not to fly before a definite diagnostic work up and a sealing procedure for the cerebrospinal fluid leak site had been performed. Recent advances in aviation technology have enabled many people to travel by air, including individuals with medical conditions. Low cabin pressure is not dangerous to healthy individuals; however, practicing consultant neurosurgeons should understand the cabin environment and prepare high risk patients for safe air travel.

Concomitant Deep Venous Thrombosis, Femoral Artery Thrombosis, and Pulmonary Embolism after Air Travel

Abunnaja, Salim; Clyde, Marshall; Cuviello, Andrea; Brenes, Robert A.; Tripodi, Giuseppe
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
The association between air travel and deep venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism “economy-class syndrome” is well described. However, this syndrome does not describe any association between long duration travel and arterial thrombosis or coexistence of venous and arterial thrombosis. We present a case of concomitant deep venous thrombosis, acute femoral artery thrombosis, and bilateral pulmonary embolisms in a patient following commercial air travel. Echocardiogram did not reveal an intracardiac shunt that may have contributed to the acute arterial occlusion from a paradoxical embolus. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature that associates air traveling with both arterial and venous thrombosis.

Do pregnant women have a higher risk for venous thromboembolism following air travel?

Izadi, Morteza; Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Javad; Kazemisaleh, Davood; Moshkani-Farahani, Maryam; Shafiee, Akbar
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
International travel has become increasingly common and accessible, and it is part of everyday life in pregnant women. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious public health disorder that occurs following long-haul travel, especially after air travel. The normal pregnancy is accompanied by a state of hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis. Thus, it seems that pregnant women are at a higher risk of VTE following air travel, and, if they have preexisting risk factors, this risk would increase. There is limited data about travel-related VTE in pregnant women; therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the pathogenesis of thrombosis, association of thrombosis and air travel, risk factors and prevention of VTE in pregnant women based on available evidences. Pregnancy is associated with a five- to 10-fold increased risk of VTE compared with nonpregnant women; however, during the postpartum period, this risk would increase to 20–80-fold. Furthermore, the risk of thrombosis is higher in individuals with preexisting risk factors, and the most common risk factor for VTE during pregnancy is a previous history of VTE. Pregnant women are at a higher risk for thrombosis compared with other women. Thus, the prevention of VTE and additional risk factors should be considered for all pregnant women who travel by plane.

Empirical Evidence for the Effect of Airline Travel on Inter-Regional Influenza Spread in the United States

Wolfe, Cecily J; Galvani, Alison; Brownstein, John Samuel; Mandl, Kenneth David
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
Background: The influence of air travel on influenza spread has been the subject of numerous investigations using simulation, but very little empirical evidence has been provided. Understanding the role of airline travel in large-scale influenza spread is especially important given the mounting threat of an influenza pandemic. Several recent simulation studies have concluded that air travel restrictions may not have a significant impact on the course of a pandemic. Here, we assess, with empirical data, the role of airline volume on the yearly inter-regional spread of influenza in the United States. Methods and Findings: We measured rate of inter-regional spread and timing of influenza in the United States for nine seasons, from 1996 to 2005 using weekly influenza and pneumonia mortality from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Seasonality was characterized by band-pass filtering. We found that domestic airline travel volume in November (mostly surrounding the Thanksgiving holiday) predicts the rate of influenza spread ((r^2) = 0.60; p = 0.014). We also found that international airline travel influences the timing of influenza mortality ((r^2) = 0.59; p = 0.016). The flight ban in the US after the terrorist attack on September 11...

An Analysis of the Dynamics of the US Commercial Air Transportation System

Tam, Ryan; Hansman, R. John
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
Major trends in the airline industry are analyzed to highlight key dynamics that govern the US domestic air transportation system. The hypothesis is that air travel supply and demand equilibriums, a reliance on outside capital, and intra-industry competition are among the most critical forces that are driving the current restructuring of the airline industry. Data on airline operational and financial performance is used to trace these dynamics as the industry evolved through periods of industry deregulation, an economic growth bubble, and the aftermath of the attacks of September 11, 2001. The thesis identifies the post-deregulation development of hub-and-spoke networks and yield management systems as the key forces that would set the stage for a bifurcation of the air travel market during a cycle of economic growth in the late 1990’s. During this bubble economy, the dynamics of supply and demand fundamentally shifted as the major carriers focused on high-revenue, high-cost operations and travelers began to flock to newer low-fare, low-cost carriers. With the end of the economic growth cycle in 2000, the bifurcation of the airline industry began to affect revenues and profits at the major carriers. Massive and unprecedented industry losses would ensue...

Calculating the Carbon Footprint from Different Classes of Air Travel

Bofinger, Heinrich; Strand, Jon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.66%
This paper develops a new methodology for calculating the "carbon footprint" of air travel whereby emissions from travel in premium (business and first) classes depend heavily on the average class-specific occupied floor space. Unlike methods currently used for the purpose, the approach properly accounts for the fact that the relative number of passenger seats in economy and premium classes is endogenous in the longer term, so adding one additional premium trip crowds out more than one economy trip on any particular flight. It also shows how these differences in carbon attributable to different classes of travel in a carbon footprint calculation correspond to how carbon surcharges on different classes of travel would differ if carbon emissions from international aviation were taxed given a competitive aviation sector globally. The paper shows how this approach affects carbon footprint calculations by applying it to World Bank staff travel for calendar year 2009.

Predicting the impact of full body scanners on air travel and passenger safety

Kessler, Mary Elaine; Seeley, Brett R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvi, 47 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
MBA Professional Report; Good decisions can be made only by looking at the full picture and accounting for what is seen and what is not seen. Air travel security measures aim to create more safety for the passenger; this is what is seen. What is not seen is the impact increased security measures create when passengers decide to substitute driving for flying. Traveling on a short-haul flight (under 500 miles) is significantly safer than driving that same distance in a vehicle. However, air travel security measures have led to more passengers choosing to substitute driving for flying due to longer wait times, greater inconvenience, and, in particular, the invasion of privacy. This study forecasts the impact full body scanners will have on air travel and passenger safety. Full body scanners invade one's privacy and, as a result, will negatively affect those passengers who place a high value on securing and maintaining their privacy. Passengers who substitute driving for flying will increase their risk level and increase the number of highway driving fatalities. The findings are that full body scanner usage at airports will increase annual highway driving fatalities from as few as 11 additional deaths to as many as 275.

Air Transport and Energy Efficiency

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.43%
The air transport sector is enjoying an optimistic growth rate while at the same time eliciting growing concern, due to its environmental impact and its vulnerability with respect to energy security. These issues have put the sector at the forefront of the tide in achieving energy efficiency. Efforts have been made on every front to improve efficiency through better technology, optimized operation, as well as energy-saving infrastructure. This report includes five chapters. Chapter 1 will introduce the air transport energy consumption outlook though the analysis of the growth of air services as well as consumption of fossil fuel-based energy. Chapter two will discuss air transport's impact on the environment and the response and actions from the air transport sector. Chapter three will detail potential energy efficiency gains in aircraft design, air service operation, as well as infrastructure design. The role of the government and private sector in fostering and supporting those energy efficiency gains will also be discussed. Chapter four will enumerate policy options for countries with respect to air transport energy efficiency...

Air Transport : Challenges to Growth

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.67%
The air transport market in Sub-Saharan Africa presents a strong dichotomy. In Southern and East Africa the market is growing: three strong hubs and three major African carriers dominate international and domestic markets, which are becoming increasingly concentrated. In contrast, in Central and West Africa the sector is stagnating, with the vacuum created by the collapse of Cote d'Ivoire and the demise of several regional airlines, including Air Afrique, still unfilled. Throughout, there are many unviable small state-owned operations that depend on subsidies and have a monopoly over the domestic market. There are also some promising signs: growth in air traffic has been buoyant, the number of routes and the size of aircraft are being adapted to the market, and a number of large carriers are viable and expanding. But in spite of this, overall connectivity has been declining. As oil prices rise, the role of air transportation will be looked at even more critically. Africa is a poor continent, and some countries face the potential of further isolation as the cost of flying increases. At a time when Africa's infrastructure requirements are being widely debated...

Malawi - Travel and Tourism : Realizing the Potential

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
Malawi sits amid a vibrant Travel and Tourism (T&T) region that is growing rapidly and increasing its world market share. Proximate to countries with thriving T&T sectors, Malawi has a relatively underdeveloped diversity of natural, cultural, and man-made attractions. It is challenged to embrace effective policies that will enable public and private sector alignment to achieve a viable niche as an economically productive, multi experience destination in its own right. It is important to view tourism as a national priority across sectors and ministries in Malawi. Thus, there is the need to better understand the economic potential of Malawi's T&T sector and recommend strategies to promote a level of competitiveness that leads to further economic growth, employment generation, and poverty reduction. The goal is to identify the economic potential of T&T in Malawi. The objective of T&T in Malawi is to delivering economic growth and diversification is to analyze the value of T&T in Malawi.

Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project : Background Analysis Report

Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center
Fonte: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
This document was devloped as it initiated a pilot project - dubbed Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project in support of Guangzhou's efforts to improve air quality in preparation for the 2010 Asian Games. The goal of this project was to develop a proof of concept for a truck program in Guangdong Province, and possibly China, that aims to: Enhance the fuel economy of the truck fleet, Reduce black carbon and other air pollutants from trucks and consequently obtain GHG emission savings.The project was implemented by the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center (CAI-Asia Center), in cooperation with Cascade Sierra Solutions, US EPA and World Bank, and with support from Guangzhou Environmental Protection Bureau (GEPB), Guangzhou Transport Committee (GTC), and Guangzhou Project Management Office (PMO) for the World Bank.The pilot project aims to contribute to addressing three problems related to trucks in Guangzhou and the wider Guangdong province simultaneously: (a) fuel costs and security; (b) air pollution and associated health impacts...

Space and Motion Perception and Discomfort in Air Travel

Ramos, Renato Teodoro; de Mattos, Danielle A.; Reboucas, J. Thales S.; Ranvaud, Ronald Dennis Paul Kenneth Clive
Fonte: AEROSPACE MEDICAL ASSOC; ALEXANDRIA Publicador: AEROSPACE MEDICAL ASSOC; ALEXANDRIA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.58%
RAMOS RT, MATTOS DA, REBOUCAS ITS, RANVAUD RD. Space and motion perception and discomfort in air travel. Aviat Space Environ Med 2012; 83:1162-6. Introduction: The perception of comfort during air trips is determined by several factors. External factors like cabin design and environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, air pressure, noise, and vibration) interact with individual characteristics (anxiety traits, fear of flying, and personality) from arrival at the airport to landing at the destination. In this study, we investigated the influence of space and motion discomfort (SMD), fear of heights, and anxiety on comfort perception during all phases of air travel. Methods: We evaluated 51 frequent air travelers through a modified version of the Flight Anxiety Situations Questionnaire (FAS), in which new items were added and where the subjects were asked to report their level of discomfort or anxiety (not fear) for each phase of air travel (Chronbach's alpha = 0.974). Correlations were investigated among these scales: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAB, Cohen's Acrophobia Questionnaire, and the Situational Characteristics Questionnaire (SitQ, designed to estimate SMD levels). Results: Scores of SitQ correlated with discomfort in situations involving space and movement perception (Pearson's rho = 0.311)...

Deep vein thrombosis and air travel: record linkage study

Kelman, Chris; Kortt, M.A; Becker, Niels; Li, Zheng Feng; Mathews, John; Guest, Charles; Holman, Cashel
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
Objective: To investigate the time relations between long haul air travel and venous thromboembolism. Design Record linkage study using the case crossover approach. Setting: Western Australia. Participants: 5408 patients admitted to hospital with venous t

Deep Vein Thrombosis and Air Travel: Record Linkage study

Kelman, Chris; Kortt, Michael A; Becker, Niels; Li, Zheng Feng; Mathews, John; Guest, Charles; Holman, Cashel
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
Objective: To investigate the time relations between long haul air travel and venous thromboembolism. Design Record linkage study using the case crossover approach. Setting: Western Australia. Participants: 5408 patients admitted to hospital with venous thromboembolism and matched with data for arrivals of international flights during 1981-99. Results: The risk of venous thromboembolism is increased for only two weeks after a long haul flight; 46 Australian citizens and 200 non-Australian citizens had an episode of venous thromboembolism during this so called hazard period. The relative risk during this period for Australian citizens was 4.17 (95% confidence interval, 2.94 to 5.40), with 76% of cases (n = 35) attributable to the preceding flight. A "healthy traveller" effect was observed, particularly for Australian citizens. Conclusions: The annual risk of venous thromboembolism is increased by 12% if one long haul flight is taken yearly. The average risk of death from flight related venous thromboembolism is small compared with that from motor vehicle crashes and injuries at work. The individual risk of death from flight related venous thromboembolism for people with certain pre-existing medical conditions is, however, likely to be greater than the average risk of 1 per 2 million for passengers arriving from a flight. Airlines and health authorities should continue to advise passengers on how to minimise risk.

Air travel and venous thromboembolism

Mendis,Shanthi; Yach,Derek; Alwan,Ala
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.42%
ABSTRACT: There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On the whole it appears that there is probably a link between air travel and venous thrombosis. However, the link is likely to be weak, mainly affecting passengers with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The available evidence is not adequate to allow quantification of the risk. There are insufficient scientific data on which to base specific recommendations for prevention, other than that leg exercise should be taken during travel. Further studies are urgently needed in order to identify prospectively the incidence of the condition and those at risk.