Página 1 dos resultados de 40076 itens digitais encontrados em 0.030 segundos

Le langage humain est-il une adaptation biologique? : un regard critique sur une explication adaptationniste

Demars, Louis-Philippe
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
Pinker et Bloom (1990), deux représentants de la psychologie évolutionniste, soutiennent que le langage est une adaptation biologique ayant pour fonction la communication. Ils prétendent ainsi jeter un éclairage sur l’origine et l’évolution du langage. Le présent mémoire propose une analyse critique de leur argumentation, et ce, du point de vue de la philosophie de la biologie. D’une part, il tente de dissiper la confusion entourant la conception du langage adoptée par Pinker et Bloom, afin de mieux définir le trait censé constituer une adaptation biologique. Ce faisant, ce mémoire fait ressortir certains présupposés de leur conception du langage et en souligne l’aspect problématique. En ce sens, les concepts d’innéité, de modularité, de grammaire universelle et de systématicité sont abordés de façon critique. D’autre part, ce travail entend expliciter un concept clé de l’argumentation de Pinker et Bloom : celui d’adaptation. L’analyse montre que l’opposition entre adaptationnisme et anti-adaptationnisme tient, dans le cas présent, à une divergence quant à la façon de définir l’adaptation biologique. Une distinction importante doit être faite entre une adaptation résultant exclusivement de la sélection naturelle dans un contexte fonctionnel particulier et une adaptation qui n’exclut pas a priori d’autres facteurs évolutifs...

Designing Climate Change Adaptation Policies : An Economic Framework

Hallegatte, Stephane; Lecocq, Franck; de Perthuis, Christian
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.61%
Adaptation has long been neglected in the debate and policies surrounding climate change. However, increasing awareness of climate change has led many stakeholders to look for the best way to limit its consequences and has resulted in a large number of initiatives related to adaptation, particularly at the local level. This report proposes a general economic framework to help stakeholders in the public sector to develop effective adaptation strategies. To do so, it lays out the general issues involved in adaptation, including the role of uncertainty and inertia, and the need to consider structural changes in addition to marginal adjustments. Then, it identifies the reasons for legitimate public action in terms of adaptation, and four main domains of action: the production and dissemination of information on climate change and its impacts; the adaptation of standards, regulations and fiscal policies; the required changes in institutions; and direct adaptation actions of governments and local communities in terms of public infrastructure...

Pro-Poor Urban Adaptation to Climate Change : Based on Case Studies in Kenya and Nicaragua

Moser, Caroline; Norton, Andrew; Stein, Alfredo; Georgieva, Sophia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
Poor urban populations in Southern cities are already experiencing the negative impacts of changing weather patterns associated with climate change and climate variability and future projections suggest that these impacts will get worse. Severe weather patterns, experienced as prolonged droughts, intense rainfall or wind speed cause substantial damage to the assets and well-being of city-dwellers, causing localized flooding, housing damage, economic loss, and posing dangers to health and educational achievement. Yet, severe weather events that do not register as disasters on the national or international screen are rarely addressed in the context of climate change adaptation. Urban governments face a number of constraints to effectively address and build resilience to severe weather: a knowledge constraint (given the scarce evidence of the impact of ongoing severe weather trends), in addition to institutional and fiscal limitations. Since most climate vulnerability research in urban centers has focused on projections and capacity building for disaster events...

Climate Policy Processes, Local Institutions, and Adaptation Actions : Mechanisms of Translation and Influence

Agrawal, Arun; Perrin, Nicolas; Chhatre, Ashwini; Benson, Catherine; Kononen, Minna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.61%
This paper focuses on the experience of the national-level adaptation planning efforts and the lessons that can be derived for more effective adaptation from an examination of local governance of development and natural resources. After examining national level adaptation plans, particularly the NAPAs (National Adaptation Programmes of Action), the paper analyzes the range of institutional instruments and relationships visible in contemporary decentralization reforms. The analysis derives four important lessons for adaptation planning, with special attention to the articulation between local and national level adaptation processes. The paper underlines: a) the diversity of local institutions; b) adaptation strategies, and identifies factors that promote; c) greater accountability; and d) greater equity in national/local relationships.

Economic of Adaptation to Climate Change : Bangladesh, Volume 2. Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to climate risks. Two-thirds of the nation is less than 5 meters above sea level and is susceptible to river and rainwater flooding, particularly during the monsoon. The Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP), adopted by the government of Bangladesh in 2009, seek to guide activities and programs related to climate change in Bangladesh. Until the past few years, climatic risks have been poorly reflected in national policies and programs Bangladesh. The objective of this study is to help decision makers in Bangladesh to better understand and assess the risks posed by climate change and to better design strategies to adapt to climate change. The study takes as its starting point the BCCSAP. It builds upon and strengthens the analytical models and quantitative assessment tools already in use in Bangladesh in support of the research and knowledge management theme of BCCSAP. The scope of this study is more limited than the BCCSAP, so the reported costs represent a lower bound on the total adaptation costs in Bangladesh. The study was developed in four discrete and somewhat independent components with varying degrees of analytical depth and quantification.

Economic of Adaptation to Climate Change : Bangladesh, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to climate risks. Two-thirds of the nation is less than 5 meters above sea level and is susceptible to river and rainwater flooding, particularly during the monsoon. The Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP), adopted by the government of Bangladesh in 2009, seek to guide activities and programs related to climate change in Bangladesh. Until the past few years, climatic risks have been poorly reflected in national policies and programs Bangladesh. The objective of this study is to help decision makers in Bangladesh to better understand and assess the risks posed by climate change and to better design strategies to adapt to climate change. The study takes as its starting point the BCCSAP. It builds upon and strengthens the analytical models and quantitative assessment tools already in use in Bangladesh in support of the research and knowledge management theme of BCCSAP. The scope of this study is more limited than the BCCSAP, so the reported costs represent a lower bound on the total adaptation costs in Bangladesh. The study was developed in four discrete and somewhat independent components with varying degrees of analytical depth and quantification.

Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change : Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.61%
To address these objectives, the study was conducted on two parallel tracks: (1) a global tracka top-down approach, in which national databases were used to generate aggregate estimates at a global scale, drawing on a wide variety of sector studies; and (2) a country level track: a bottom-up approach, in whichsub-national data were aggregated to generate estimates at economywide, sectoral, and local levels. This Synthesis Report integrates and summarizes the key findings of a global study report and seven country case study reports covering Bangladesh, Bolivia, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mozambique, Samoa, and Vietnam(Figure ES-1). By providing information on lessons learned and insights gained on adaptation to climate change from global, country, and sector-level analyses,the hope is to help policymakers worldwide prioritize actions, along with developing a robust, integrated approach for greater resilience to climate risks. The Report begins with the concepts and methodology used for analyses in both the global and the country case studies...

Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change : Samoa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
Over the last two decades Samoa has suffered major damage from two cyclones in 1990-91, minor damage from a third cyclone in 2004, and an earthquake tsunami in 2009. Changes in the scale and impact of these types of natural disasters are likely to be important consequences of climate change for the country because the increases in sea level and in average sea surface temperatures will increase theintensity and damage from major storms. Other potential impacts are linked to changes in the weather patterns associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The primary concern focuses on the impact on agriculture, especially in periods of lower precipitation following strong El Niño episodes.This study examines the consequences of an increase in average temperatures of up to 1°C by 2050 and up to 2.75°C by 2100 for the frequency and intensity of major cyclones that hit the islands. Estimates of the economic damage caused by storms in the past have been used to calibrate a damage function that yields an estimated increase in the expected value of economic damage as the peak wind speeds for storms with return periods of 10...

Adaptation to Climate Change -- Vulnerability Assessment and Economic Aspects : Plurinational State of Bolivia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.61%
The Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC) study estimates that it will cost $75 - $100 billion each year for developing countries to adapt to climate change from 2010 to 2050 (World Bank 2009a). The study funded by the governments of the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and Switzerland has two specific objectives. The first is to develop a global estimate of adaptation coststo inform the international community s efforts on how to tailor adequate and sustainable support regarding new and additional resources to help vulnerable developing countries meet adaptation costs. The second objective is to support decision makers in developing countries to better evaluate and assess the risks posed by climate change and to better design strategies to adapt to climate change. The EACC study includes a global track to meet the first study objective and a case study track to meet the second objective. The country track comprises seven countries: Ethiopia, Mozambique, Ghana, Bangladesh, Vietnam, The Plurinational State of Bolivia...

The Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change : Methodology Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.6%
The proposed methodology begins with a consistent downscaling of projected climatic changes from a multiplicity of General Circulation to local levels. Subsets of the suite of downscaled climatic factors are then to be used to estimate the vector of impacts on key economic sectors of each country, using sector-specific impact assessment models. Based on this information, alternative government adaptation projects will be specified and optimally chosen subject to a government budget constraint. Thereafter, direct impacts of climate change will serve as inputs into a macroeconomic framework to examine the indirect inter-sectoral impacts of climate change as well as adaption strategies. Finally, at each step the analysis will be complemented with perspectives and insights of people whose livelihoods are being or will be affected by changes in climate. Impacts of the climate change and the benefits of specific adaptation measures will be examined in the context of sub-populations defined by livelihood profiles. Local-level analysis of past and present autonomous adaptation measures for a range of groups stratified by sets of livelihood profiles will be conducted using participatory rural appraisal based primary fieldwork in addition to holding participatory workshops and consultations.

Community-based autonomous adaptation and vulnerability to extreme floods in Bangladesh: processes, assessment and failure effects.

Younus, Md Aboul Fazal
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (2007), especially Chapter 17: Assessment of Adaptation Practices, Options, Constraints and Capacity demonstrates the importance of adaptation to climate change. The IPCC (2007) warned that the megadelta basins in South Asia, such as the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM) will be at greatest risk due to increased flooding, and that the region’s poverty would reduce its adaptation capacity. A key issue in assessing vulnerability and adaptation (V & A) in response to extreme flood events (EFEs) in the GBM river basin is the concept of autonomous adaptation. This thesis investigates autonomous adaptation using a multi-method technique which includes two participatory rapid appraisals (PRA), a questionnaire survey of 140 participant analyses over 14 mauzas in the case study area, group and in-depth discussions and a literature review. The study has four key approaches. First, it reviews the flood literature for Bangladesh from 1980 to 2009 and identifies a general description of flood hazard characteristics, history and research trends, causes of floods, and types of floods. Second, it examines farmers’ crop adaptation processes in a case study area at Islampur...

Clarifying climate change adaptation responses for scattered trees in modified landscapes

Breed, M.; Ottewell, K.; Gardner, M.; Lowe, A.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
1. Many studies have investigated adaptation to climate change. However, the term ‘adaptation’ has been used ambiguously and sometimes included parts of both classic evolutionary processes and conservation planning measures (i.e. human-mediated adaptation). 2. To reduce ambiguity, we define three classes of evolutionary processes involved in adaptation – migrational, novel-variant and plasticity. Migrational adaptation describes the process of redistribution of standing genetic variation among populations. Novel-variant adaptation describes the increase in frequency of beneficial, new genetic variants. Plasticity adaptation refers to adaptive plastic responses of organisms to environmental stressors. Quite separately, human-mediated adaptation aims to maintain these evolutionary processes. 3. Whilst the role of scattered trees in migrational adaptation of fauna may have been neglected in the past, their capacity to assist migrational adaptation of trees has been previously documented. However, their role in novel-variant and plasticity adaptation is generally unrecognised, and warrants further attention. 4. Synthesis and applications. By defining different aspects of adaptation carefully, we show that scattered trees should not be cleared since they may facilitate gene flow across fragmented landscapes. However...

Adaptation to climate change: the attitude and behaviour of rice farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

Dang, Hoa Le
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
Adaptation to climate change is a critical issue to many developing economies. The issue is particularly important to agriculture, a sector relying substantially on climate-sensitive resources. However, understanding of adaptation is limited in Southeast Asian contexts, including Vietnam. This thesis, therefore, investigates the attitude and behaviour of rice farmers in the Mekong Delta, a major agricultural region of Vietnam, in response to climate change. The thesis is guided by an integrated conceptual framework that was predominantly developed from protection motivation theory. The framework incorporates socio-economic and psychological factors to explain farmers’ adaptation intentions and behaviours to climate change. Focus group discussions and agricultural officer interviews generated insights into the research context and supplemented the questionnaire design. A structured questionnaire was used to interview 600 randomly chosen rice farmers in the three selected provinces in the Mekong Delta. Those provinces were identified as highly, moderately, and mildly vulnerable to climate change. The focus group discussions and agricultural officer interviews indicated that farmers were aware of climate change. However, they had limited knowledge of the importance of adaptation to their livelihoods. Barriers to farmers’ adaptation were not exclusively limited to economic factors and resource constraints. Some psychological factors also hindered adaptation (e.g. maladaptation...

Taxonomy-driven adaptation of multi-layer applications using templates

Popescu, Razvan; Staikopoulos, Athanasios; Liu, Peng; Brogi, Antonio; Clarke, Siobhán
Fonte: IEEE Computer Society Publicador: IEEE Computer Society
Tipo: Conference item; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; none
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
peer-reviewed; Current adaptation approaches mainly work in isolation and cannot be easily integrated to tackle complex adaptation scenarios. The few existing cross-layer adaptation techniques are somewhat inflexible because the adaptation process is predefined and static. In this paper we propose a methodology for the dynamic and flexible adaptation of multi-layer applications. We use events to trigger the process of matching adaptation templates, which expose adaptation logic as BPEL processes. The matching process employs taxonomies of adaptation mismatches to select adaptation templates based on the degree of match between events and adaptation mismatches. We provide support for cross-layer adaptation by allowing templates to be composed either directly, through invocations of WSDL operations or indirectly, through events.

ICTs for Climate Change Adaptation in Africa

Creech, Heather; Akoh, Ben; Parry, Jo-Ellen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
Like other regions of the world, Africa is beginning to experience the impacts of human-induced climate change. These observed changes in climate parameters have not occurred uniformly across Africa. Mitigation is concerned with reducing the level of greenhouse gas emissions in the Earth's atmosphere that are the principal causes of climate change. Adaptation is concerned not with prevention but, in the words of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, with adjustments in human and or natural systems to reduce adverse impacts or take advantage of opportunities that may arise from it. Information and communication technology (ICT) have had an increasing impact on economic and social development over the past two decades, resulting from their capacity to generate and disseminate information, to facilitate the coordination of different actors in and beyond government, and to make government, business, and development processes more efficient. ICTs also have a complex relationship with sustainability and with the underlying cause of climate change. This relationship can be described in terms of the effects of ICTs: first order (direct) effects concern the impacts which ICTs have on climate change...

Pro-Poor Adaptation to Climate Change in Urban Centers : Case Studies of Vulnerability and Resilience in Kenya and Nicaragua

Moser, Caroline; Norton, Andrew; Stein, Alfredo; Georgieva, Sophia
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.61%
The objective of this economic sector work (ESW) is to address these gaps by piloting a methodology capable of quickly and cost-effectively introducing into adaptation planning processes an appreciation of the significance of climate change impacts for poor people in informal urban settlements. Specifically in the two case study sites (Mombasa in Kenya and Esteli in Nicaragua) sought to: a) make visible climate change impacts of various kinds on poor people; b) illustrate what poor households, small businesses and groups in communities are doing to cope with such climate change impacts (experienced as increasingly variable and capricious weather patterns); and c) identify how policy and institutional systems can best build on local realities to develop pro-poor urban climate change adaptation actions, particularly relating to resilience. The report introduces an asset-based framework to analyze the vulnerability of urban poor people to severe weather events whose frequency or intensity climate change may be increasing...

Hands-on Energy Adaptation Toolkit

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
Hands-on Energy Adaptation Toolkit (HEAT) is an online resource that is designed to lead you through an assessment of climate vulnerabilities and adaptation options in your country's energy sector and raise awareness among key stakeholders. HEAT provides an interactive, step-by-step guide, as well as an analytical framework and support tools, to help policymakers consult with stakeholder groups to scope out climate risks and vulnerabilities. It then provides guidance on developing and selecting among options to manage, monitor, and evaluate these risks. HEAT provides guidance on how to complete the assessment process and explains the skills and expertise required in the team leading the assessment-the assignment management team. To ensure credibility when engaging stakeholders at various stages, the assignment management team should include experts with knowledge of the country's energy sector, energy asset performance, the effects of climatic and hydrological conditions on energy services, expertise in cost-benefit analysis...

A Risk Management Approach to Climate Adaptation in China

Sall, Chris
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
This discussion paper provides the analytical backdrop for a series of papers on managing climate- and weather-related risks in China. It reviews and synthesizes the growing literature on risk-based management approaches to climate change adaptation and offers guidance on a process for decision making. Managing risks from severe weather, present-day climate variability, and future climate change is integral to China's development. While the effects of future climate change are deeply uncertain, this uncertainty should not preclude action. Risk management is in essence a process for designing, implementing, and evaluating policies in the face of such uncertainty. The paper begins by defining key concepts and establishes the context for climate risk management and adaptation in China. It then outlines a step-by-step process for a risk centered approach to adaptation. The focus of the process is on planning for adaptation, not policy implementation. The papers that follow in the series take the general framework set out by this paper and apply it to different sectors...

Adaptation of agriculture to climate change in Quebec : the co-construction of agricultural policies in the RCM of Haut-Richelieu

Akkari, Cherine
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
Les facteurs climatiques ainsi bien que les facteurs non-climatiques doivent être pris en considération dans le processus d'adaptation de l'agriculture aux changements et à la variabilité climatiques (CVC). Ce changement de paradigme met l'agent humain au centre du processus d'adaptation, ce qui peut conduire à une maladaptation. Suite aux débats sur les changements climatiques qui ont attiré l'attention scientifique et publique dans les années 1980 et 1990, l'agriculture canadienne est devenue un des points focaux de plusieurs études pionnières sur les CVC, un phénomène principalement dû à l’effet anthropique. Pour faire face aux CVC, ce n’est pas seulement la mitigation qui est importante mais aussi l’adaptation. Quand il s'agit de l'adaptation, c'est plutôt la variabilité climatique qui nous intéresse que simplement les augmentations moyennes des températures. L'objectif général de ce mémoire de maîtrise est d'améliorer la compréhension des processus d'adaptation et de construction de la capacité d'adaptation ai niveau de la ferme et de la communauté agricole à travers un processus ascendant, c’est-à-dire en utilisant l'approche de co-construction (qui peut également être considéré comme une stratégie d'adaptation en soi)...

Translation or adaptation? An analysis of a version of the poem “The Raven” into comics form; Tradução ou Adaptação? Uma análise da versão do poema “O Corvo” para os quadrinhos

Oliveira, Juliana Mendes de; Universidade de São Paulo
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/12/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
The study on the adaptation concept and process has been frequently a concern on Translation Studies as well as on its correlate and young discipline, Adaptation Studies. In order to contribute to this discussion, this essay mainly attempts to elaborate a brief description and analysis on the Brazilian version for a comic book of the poem The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe, based on Machado de Assis’ translation. Based on some passages of the comic book, we discuss translation and adaptation concepts, as well as the boundary between them, and we also discuss the concept of intersemiotic translation. With that in mind, we use as theoretical support some reflections from Jakobson (1971), Plaza (2001) Amorim (2005), Venuti (2007) and Milton (2010). Besides providing an analysis about a not very often kind of adaptation (literature text into a comic book), the expected results are theoretical generalizations which may amplify reflections towards the concepts of translation and adaptation applied to a concrete example of these language operations.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-4237.2013n14p221O estudo do conceito e do processo de adaptação tem sido uma preocupação frequente tanto nos Estudos de Tradução quanto em sua disciplina correlata e ainda recente: os Estudos de Adaptação. A fim de contribuir com essa discussão...