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O Acordo da Basiléia: um estudo da adequação de capital nas instituições financeiras; Basle Accord: a study of capital adequacy in Brazilian banks

Rodrigues, Raimundo Nonato
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/05/1998 PT
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O objetivo desta dissertação de mestrado é estudar a adequação de capital em bancos, com ênfase na implementação das regras do Acordo da Basiléia no sistema financeiro do Brasil. Mesmo tratando-se de pesquisa de natureza acadêmica, na qual nos preocupamos em ressaltar os pontos de vista de diversos autores sobre os principais conceitos relacionados com o assunto, tais como, Capital, Risco, Insolvência e Desregulamentação, não nos furtamos em fornecer uma visão prática das medidas necessárias à implementação do Acordo da Basiléia nos bancos brasileiros, a partir da entrada em vigor da Resolução nº 2099, do Conselho Monetário Nacional. Realizamos, também, um estudo crítico dos principais pontos constantes do Acordo da Basiléia, tecendo comentários a respeito dos aspectos que julgamos mais relevantes e relacionando-os com a realidade do mercado financeiro brasileiro. Apresentamos evolução trimestral do índice de capitalização obtido de uma amostra de 10 bancos, no período de dezembro/94 a dezembro/96. Para cada um dos bancos foi feito um gráfico, que permite uma visualização adequada do grau de capitalização no período analisado. Nosso estudo constata que as medidas de prudência aplicadas pelos organismos supervisores...

Regulamentação prudencial e estabilidade do sistema financeiro

Dante Ricardo Chianamea
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/11/2004 PT
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De acordo com a teoria econômica que se utiliza, os ciclos econômicos previstos assumem características diferentes: alguns supõem que exista uma regularidade, previsível por modelos estocásticos, em torno do custo de obtenção dos ativos reais; outros admitem desvios temporários, que podem ser previstos dentro de um prazo mais longo, entre o valor atribuído aos ativos e o valor real deles; e há um terceiro tipo que abrange as mudanças permanentes, que nem sempre podem ser previstas, de valor atribuído aos ativos. A eficácia da regulação prudencial, no sentido de manter o sistema financeiro saudável, depende do modelo de ciclo econômico considerado na sua elaboração, na medida em que estes afetam os valores dos ativos que compõem os balanços e os passivos contingentes das instituições financeiras. Este trabalho trata da evolução que o Acordo da Basiléia II e os novos modelos de risco a ele associados representam em relação ao primeiro Acordo, bem como das limitações que continuam pendentes; Accordingly with economic theory employed, foreseeing economic cycles acquires proper characteristics: some suppose a pre-existing regularity, which is foreseeable by stochastic models on real business supply costs; other ones include temporary deviations from market to real values during the cycle time period but real values are detectable if we work in a longer time horizon; a third model has also considered permanent changes in market attributed values although they are not always predictable. The prudential regulation effectiveness - in the sense of reaching a soundness financial system ? depends on economic cycle model used in its development because of their influence in banks? balance asset values and contingent liabilities. This work is about Basel II Accord and new risk models evolution relative to the first Basel Accord and its models as well as their boundaries

Acordo de Basileia 2 e estabilidade financeira em paises em desenvolvimento; Basel II accord and financial stability in developing coutries

Jean Toledo de Freitas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/09/2008 PT
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O objetivo deste trabalho e avaliar os impactos potenciais sobre os paises em desenvolvimento derivados da implementação do Acordo de Basiléia 2 nos membros do G-10. Para tanto, apresenta a seguinte estrutura. O primeiro capitulo discute os elementos que conduzem a emergência de períodos de instabilidade financeira e como os bancos participam neste processo, partindo de um referencial heterodoxo. O segundo capitulo avalia os principais instrumentos que compõem a estrutura de Basiléia 2. O terceiro capitulo analisa os principais condicionantes impostos pelo Acordo aos paises em desenvolvimento, tendo em vista suas especificidades. Apesar de Basiléia 2 possibilitar uma disseminação dos instrumentos de gerenciamento de riscos pelos bancos do ponto de vista individual; pode intensificar o potencial de geração de crises financeiras como resultado da tendência prociclica dos fluxos de credito, exacerbando a alternância entre períodos de euforia e pânico. Dada a maior volatilidade macroeconômica dos paises em desenvolvimento, estes efeitos tendem a ser intensificados nestas regiões. Basiléia 2 penaliza os tomadores de credito por perfis de riscos mais elevados. E esperado que maiores exigências de capital regulatorio se revertam em aumento dos spreads sobre empréstimos ou redução de sua oferta por parte dos bancos. Para os paises em desenvolvimento...

Value-at-risk model based on extreme value theory:comparison with other models under the basel accord

Santos, Paulo Araújo; Jiménez-Martin, Juan-Ángel; McAleer, Michael; Pérez Amaral, Teodosio
Fonte: International Institute of Forecasters Publicador: International Institute of Forecasters
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /06/2011 ENG
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Since the Basel II accord, forecasting Value-at-Risk become a daily task of banks and other Authorized Deposit-taking Institutions (ADIs). These forecasts are used to determine capital requirements and associated capital costs of ADIs. Methods based on Extreme Value Theory (EVT) showed better performance in terms of unconditional coverage and independence in many comparative studies. In this work we compare, in terms of daily capital requirements and violation penalties under the Basel II accord, the performance of a new model based on the EVT, with other models based on EVT, GARCH-type models and the Riskmetrics model. We emphasize that with the indexes under study and taking into account the Basel penalty zones, we achieve much better results with this new model than with the well known Riskmetrics model.

Cis-Regulatory Elements in the Accord Retrotransposon Result in Tissue-Specific Expression of the Drosophila melanogaster Insecticide Resistance Gene Cyp6g1

Chung, Henry; Bogwitz, Michael R.; McCart, Caroline; Andrianopoulos, Alex; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Batterham, Philip; Daborn, Phillip J.
Fonte: Copyright © 2007 by the Genetics Society of America Publicador: Copyright © 2007 by the Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2007 EN
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Transposable elements are a major mutation source and powerful agents of adaptive change. Some transposable element insertions in genomes increase to a high frequency because of the selective advantage the mutant phenotype provides. Cyp6g1-mediated insecticide resistance in Drosophila melanogaster is due to the upregulation of the cytochrome P450 gene Cyp6g1, leading to the resistance to a variety of insecticide classes. The upregulation of Cyp6g1 is correlated with the presence of the long terminal repeat (LTR) of an Accord retrotransposon inserted 291bp upstream of the Cyp6g1 transcription start site. This resistant allele (DDT-R) is currently at a high frequency in D. melanogaster populations around the world. Here, we characterize the spatial expression of Cyp6g1 in insecticide-resistant and -susceptible strains. We show that the Accord LTR insertion is indeed the resistance-associated mutation and demonstrate that the Accord LTR carries regulatory sequences that increase the expression of Cyp6g1 in tissues important for detoxification, the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and the fat body. This study provides a significant example of how changes in tissue-specific gene expression caused by transposable-element insertions can contribute to adaptation.

The ACCORD-Lipid study: implications for treatment of dyslipidemia in Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Elam, Marshall; Lovato, Laura; Ginsberg, Henry
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia, comprised mainly of hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL-C, with either statin or fibrate monotherapy, is moderately effective at reversing the abnormal lipid levels, but does not completely reverse the risk of CVD. Combination therapy with a statin and fibrate more effectively treats diabetic dyslipidemia; however, neither the impact on CVD risk nor the safety profile of statin–fibrate combined treatment had been tested in a large randomized trial. The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD)-Lipid trial tested the hypothesis that combination therapy with a fibrate and statin would more effectively prevent major CVD events in a high-risk population of patients with T2DM compared with statin monotherapy. In ACCORD-Lipid, over 5000 patients were treated with fenofibrate plus simvastatin versus simvastatin alone. Although combination therapy did not significantly reduce CVD event rates in the ACCORD-Lipid cohort as a whole, a predefined subgroup of participants with the combination of significant hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C experienced a 31% lower event rate with combination therapy. Post hoc analyses conducted in similar subsets in previous fibrate monotherapy trials were concordant with these findings in ACCORD-Lipid. Combination therapy was well tolerated and safe...

Trade accord in financial services: pros and cons

Das, Dilip K
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 164119 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
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At the end of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations in 1993, negotiations on trade in financial services remained incomplete. An interim agreement was concluded in July 1995 and negotiations were reopened in April 1997. A new and improved set of commitments regarding financial services under the General Agreement of Trade in Services (GATS) was agreed on 12 December 1997. Being a new international agreement, the GATS has limitations and shortcomings. Although these have been enumerated, this paper aims to provide a wide-ranging analysis that traces the road to the GATS accord, analyses the impact of market liberalisation in financial services and the role of the GATS in it, and undertakes a detailed analysis of the structure and performance of the GATS. I argue that the trade in financial services is a vital area of the global economy and I hope to provide readers with a comprehensive background knowledge of the trade in services and the GATS to enable them to ask relevant questions which in turn would trigger future research. The first section of the paper discusses sthe accord on financial service. The following sections focus on the role of trade in financial services in an economy and its growing significance in the international economy. The fourth and fifth sections explore the process and impact of opening trade in financial services. The sixth section delves into the complexities of the GATS framework...

Is breast cancer care in accord with clinical practice guidelines: a consumer audit

Williams, P.; Redman, S.; Rankin, N.; Davis, C.; Armstrong, B.; Malycha, P.
Fonte: Churchill Livingstone Publicador: Churchill Livingstone
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 EN
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Objectives: To assess whether information, support and other psychosocial care for women with early breast cancer in Australia is in accord with published Australian clinical practice guidelines. Design: An interview survey of a population-based sample of women with early breast cancer. Setting: The whole of Australia.Participants : Women diagnosed with early breast cancer 6–12 months before the survey were identified through the population-based cancer registries. An initial sample of 1184 women was drawn from the cancer registries; the doctors of 104 women did not agree to any participation and a further 212 women were excluded as ineligible. A randomly selected sample of 832 of the 868 women who were eligible to participate were invited to participate in the study and 544 (76%) of the 716 who could be contacted completed a full interview. Main outcome measures: A telephone interview covering 12 aspects of care recommended in the published guidelines. Results: Most women received care in accord with the following recommendations: diagnosis given by a senior doctor (95%), face to face (86%) and in an open manner (90%). Fewer women received recommended care in relation to: involvement in decision making (73%), information about clinical trials (13%); receiving breast reconstruction following mastectomy (8%)...

A Capital Accord for Emerging Economies?

Powell, Andrew
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The Basel 1988 Capital Accord is arguably the most successful of all recent financial "standards." Although it was designed for internationally active banks in G10 countries, more than 100 countries claim to adhere to it, and many apply the Accord to all banks. Significant changes to this Accord are currently under discussion. The author reviews the current proposals (published in January 2001) from the standpoint of an emerging market. He then addresses how implementation in G10 countries will affect the cost of capital to emerging economies. The new proposals make considerable advances in linking risk and regulatory capital for internationally active banks, especially for their corporate loan book. But the corporate-calibrated internal ratings-based (IRB) approach leads to significant changes in capital requirements and spreads for banks that lend to emerging countries. The author proposes that for sovereign lending, banks should develop internal ratings according to an S&P or Moody's scale, and capital charges be levied at the corresponding weights given by the standardized approach. The author argues that the more detailed and specific the proposals are for G10 internationally active banks...

Análise da importância da supervisão e regulação do sistema bancário internacional, no contexto actual : enfoque nos Acordos de Basileia

Pedro, Sofia Esparbes Gouveia
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2011 POR
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Mestrado em Finanças; No âmbito da actividade económica quer a nível global, quer a nível de um pais, o sistema bancário é um dos pilares fundamentais para garantir a estabilidade financeira e económica, tornando premente a solvabilidade dos seus principais actores, ou seja dos bancos. A actividade bancária propícia que os bancos estejam sujeitos a diversos tipos de risco, seja num contexto macro, seja num contexto micro. Foi esta condição que despoletou a necessidade de criar processos de regulação e supervisão prudenciais, abrangendo as duas perspectivas, macro e micro, potenciando a estabilidade bancária, e por conseguinte a estabilidade financeira. O Acordo de Basileia foi umas das formas de implementação da supervisão e da regulação a um nível micro, ou seja, das instituições financeiras individualmente, e será o foco deste trabalho. A principal causa para as revisões e upgrades de versões do Acordo foi (i) a necessidade de alargar o espectro em relação aos riscos bancários, e (ii) aprender com as crises financeiras que foram surgindo, permitindo ajustar o Acordo, protegendo de forma mais efectiva os bancos, e assim prevenir futuras crises financeiras. Por fim, concluímos que os sistemas prudenciais de regulação e supervisão são essenciais para garantir a estabilidade financeira...

Desarrollo de Proceso Industrial y Fabricación de Productos Cerámicos con Contenido de Cobre Metálico en Esmalte Vitrofusionado

Accord Comunicaciones Limitada; Juan Martinez F.
Fonte: Corporação de Fomento da Produção Publicador: Corporação de Fomento da Produção
Tipo: proyecto
Publicado em 02/03/2012
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El Proyecto Tiene como Objetivo la Investigación cuyo Resultado Permita la Incorporación al Mercado de Productos Cerámicos con Esmalte Vitrofusionado de Aplicación Sanitaria y Hospitalaria Tales como Recubrimientos Cerámicos (azulejos) y Artefactos de Baño U Otros que Contengan en Dicho Esmalte una Proporción de Cobre Metálico Superficial el que Otorgará a Estos Elementos las Propiedades Bactericidas y Fungicidas ya Conocidas de este Metal. Los Productos Cerámicos para Uso Sanitario y Decorativo se Fabrican a Partir de Arcillas Producto de la Descomposición de Feldespatos que se Encuentran en Estado de Partículas Extremadamente Pequeñas (ó en Estado Coloidal) lo que Confiere al Material su Grasitud y Ductilidad Característica. Compuestos Fundamentalmente de Silicatos de Aluminio Presentan un Color Blanco en Estado Puro Mineral Conocido como Caolín Materia Prima para la Fabricación de Porcelanas y con Distintos Grados de Coloración Debido a Impurezas Ó Contaminación Siendo Uno de los Más Característicos el Contenido de Óxido de Hierro que le Otorga al Material el Color Rojo de la Greda Materia Prima para la Fabricación de Ladrillos. Este Material una Vez Moldeado y Secado es Sometido a Altas Temperaturas sobre los 1000 ºc donde la Fusión Parcial del Mismo Produce una Fuerte Unión entre las Partículas Dando a la Pieza su Solidez y Resistencia Característica. En Esta Etapa Presentan un Acabado Superficial Tosco y Poroso que Absorbe la Humedad y Cuya Aspereza Dificulta su Limpieza. De Aquí que Sea Necesario Aplicar un Tratamiento Posterior Llamado de Esmaltado Consistente en la Aplicación de una Capa Fina de Sílice (u Óxido de Silicio) la cual mediante una Nueva Aplicación de Alta Temperatura se Funde sobre la Superficie de la Pieza Formando un Esmalte Vidriado que Da al Producto las Características de Acabado Estético Impermeabilidad y Suavidad de la Superficie Ideales para Uso Sanitario. El Objetivo del Proyecto es Lograr Incorporar a Esta Última Capa de Esmalte una Proporción de Cobre en Estado Metálico de Modo que la Presencia de este Metal en el Esmalte Confiera Propiedades Desinfectantes Bactericidas y Fungicidas Propias de este Metal a los Productos Cerámicos a los que se le Aplique Principalmente Baldosas y Azulejos para Recubrimientos de Pisos y Muros. El Proyecto Deberá Dar como Resultado la Especificación de un Proceso Industrial para la Obtención de un Prototipo de Baldosa Cerámica con Propiedades Antifúngicas y Antibacterianas para Ser Comercializado por Accord a Través de la Explotación de una Licencia a los Industriales del Rubro. Otras Alternativas de Comercialización Serán Estudiadas de Acuerdo a los Resultados de las Prospecciones de Mercado de Cada País y Mejoramiento del Modelo de Negocios Siendo Siempre el Propietario de la Patente la Empresa Accord sus Socios. Una Solución como la Planteada No Existe Actualmente en el Mercado a Nivel Mundial y Constituye un Complemento Muy Atractivo para Toda la Industria de Fabricación de Productos Cerámicos por Cuanto Satisfacer las Necesidades de Aquellos Clientes que Requieren Altos Estándares de Higiene y Control Sanitario con Alternativas que Potencien el Cumplimiento de Estos Requerimientos es para los Industriales un Elemento Diferenciador en un Medio Altamente Competitivo. Las Investigaciones Técnicas y de Mercado Realizadas por Accord Revelan una Interesante Oportunidad de Negocios Tanto por la Utilidad de la Solución Planteada como por el Tamaño del Mercado en Cuanto a Valor y Volúmenes de Producción Globales. El Mercado Potencial a Nivel Global es Enorme Solo Considerando su Utilización en Hospitales e Industria de Alimentos lo que Implica un Nuevo Uso Industrial Masivo para el Cobre con un Efecto Potencialmente Interesante en la Demanda por este Metal lo que se Inserta Dentro de la Política Nacional Permanente Orientada a Nuevos Usos y Aplicaciones para el Principal Producto del País. Organizaciones Públicas y Privadas Internacionales como la Oms y Nfs International Destinan Considerables Esfuerzos en Investigaciones Orientadas a Establecer Estándares de Certificación de los Procedimientos Sanitarios Conocidos como Procedimientos Operacionales Estandarizados de Saneamiento en la Forma de Pautas de Certificación que Luego Son Adoptadas y Exigidas por los Organismos Sanitarios Gubernamentales. Estas Normas Están en Permanente Revisión y Mejoramiento y Establecen como Mandatorio el Uso de Superficies Cerámicas donde Sea que se Presenten Riesgos de Contaminación Orgánica. la Tecnología Propuesta Contribuye a Mejorar Estos Estándares y Podría Ser Objeto de Incorporación en las Pautas de Certificación Sanitaria en el Futuro.; Definición de los Esmaltes mas Adecuados para su Utilización en el Proceso; Definición del Proceso de Esmaltado para Incorporar Cobre Metalico en la Superficie; El Objetivo del Proyecto es la Especificación de un Proceso Industrial para la Fabricación de una Baldosa Cerámica con Propiedades Antifúngicas y Antibacteriana el cual Será Comercializado a Través de Licencias a los Fabricantes del Rubro de Recubrimientos Cerámicos Quedando Siempre en Poder de Accord la Propiedad de la Patente de Proceso y Producto. Durante los Últimos Años los Estudios de Eficacia Antimicrobiana Antifúngica y Antibacteriana en Distintas Superficies de Contacto Han Demostrado Claramente que el Cobre y Ciertas Aleaciones de Cobre Inactivan Varios de los Tipos Más Potentes y Resistentes de Microbios Bacterias Hongos y Mohos que Juegan un Importante Papel en la Descomposición de Alimentos y en la Contaminación de Ambientes Cerrados Construidos para Fines de Procesamiento o Conservación de Alimentos de Tratamientos de Salud Humana o Animal y Muchas Otras Aplicaciones que Requieren una Capacidad de Asepsia Importante. Por Otra Parte es de Norma General a Nivel Mundial la Utilización de Artefactos y Recubrimientos para Pisos y Muros Fabricados de Materiales Cerámicos Esmaltados por Cuanto No Existe una Mejor Alternativa Debido a su Belleza Estética Durabilidad Características Mecánicas Limpieza e Higiene Siendo Además un Sector en el que Día a Día se Está Innovando Nuevas Formas de Producción y Aplicación. La Determinación de un Proceso Industrial Patentable que Permita la Producción de Artefactos y Recubrimientos Cerámicos Aprovechando las Propiedades Antimicrobianas Antifúngicas y Antibacterianas del Cobre Metálico Aportará a Estos Productos una Característica Adicional en Línea con sus Atributos Tradicionales Mejorando su Efectividad en Aplicaciones de Alta Exigencia en Estándares Sanitarios Contribuyendo a la Solución de Problemas para los Cuales Actualmente No Existen Alternativas Ó que No Son Viables Debido a su Alto Costo.; Pruebas de Propiedades Bactericidas a Nivel de Laboratorio y en Operación Real; Corporación de Fomento de la Producción

Asset Allocation under the Basel Accord Risk Measures

Wen, Zaiwen; Peng, Xianhua; Liu, Xin; Sun, Xiaoling; Bai, Xiaodi
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/08/2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Financial institutions are currently required to meet more stringent capital requirements than they were before the recent financial crisis; in particular, the capital requirement for a large bank's trading book under the Basel 2.5 Accord more than doubles that under the Basel II Accord. The significant increase in capital requirements renders it necessary for banks to take into account the constraint of capital requirement when they make asset allocation decisions. In this paper, we propose a new asset allocation model that incorporates the regulatory capital requirements under both the Basel 2.5 Accord, which is currently in effect, and the Basel III Accord, which was recently proposed and is currently under discussion. We propose an unified algorithm based on the alternating direction augmented Lagrangian method to solve the model; we also establish the first-order optimality of the limit points of the sequence generated by the algorithm under some mild conditions. The algorithm is simple and easy to implement; each step of the algorithm consists of solving convex quadratic programming or one-dimensional subproblems. Numerical experiments on simulated and real market data show that the algorithm compares favorably with other existing methods...

The new Basel accord and developing countries: problems and alternatives

Ward, Jonathan
Fonte: CFAP, Cambridge Judge Business School, University of Cambridge Publicador: CFAP, Cambridge Judge Business School, University of Cambridge
Tipo: Working Paper; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The new Basel Accord framework relies on markets and supervisors to discipline banks. Yet both markets and supervisors fail, and more so in developing countries than in high-income countries. Therefore, the new Accord is not, as its designers claim, suitable for wide application. Nevertheless, developing country policymakers have little choice but to implement it in part or in whole. Hence there are problems of governance in international regulation. I offer seven general principles for the design of a prudential regime more robust to government and market failure. Four alternative capital regimes are evaluated in the light of these principles. Simpler and harsher regimes are likely to achieve greater safety with a given level of resources.

Alguns apontamentos sobre o Acordo Ortográfico: três olhares lusófonos - Brasil, Moçambique e Portugal¹(texto redigido segundo o Acordo Ortográfico); Some notes about the Orthographic Accord: three Lusophone opinions - Brazil, Mozambique and Portugal

Silva, Nilce da; Buque, Domingos Carlos; Cardoso, Luís Miguel; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Educação Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Educação
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/2009 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
Este artigo apresenta um breve histórico dos diferentes acordos ortográficos da Língua Portuguesa que foram feitos ao longo da história. Em seguida, por meio de três olhares - português, moçambicano e brasileiro - discutem-se algumas questões decorrentes do mais recente acordo da comunidade lusófona. Finalmente, os autores apresentam um elenco de questões importantes no âmbito dos países que têm a Língua Portuguesa como oficial e que não estão representadas nas questões possíveis de serem tratadas no contexto específico de um acordo ortográfico.; This article presents a historical briefing of the different orthographic agreements that have been undertaken throughout History, pertaining to the Portuguese Language. Then, bearing on three points of view - Portuguese, Mozambiquean and Brazilian some questions will be discussed, which arise from the most recent agreement made within the lusophone community. Finally, the authors present a set of questions holding importance for the countries that have Portuguese as its official language which are not represented in the questions liable to be dealt within the context of an orthographic agreement.; Cet article presente, dans un premier temps, un bref historique des différents accords orthographiques qui ont été réalisés tout au long de l'histoire de la Langue Portugaise. Ensuite...

Alguns apontamentos sobre o Acordo Ortográfico: três olhares lusófonos - Brasil, Moçambique e Portugal; Some notes about the Orthographic Accord: three Lusophone opinions - Brazil, Mozambique and Portugal

Silva, Nilce da; Buque, Domingos Carlos; Cardoso, Luís Miguel; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Educação Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Educação
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/2009 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
Este artigo apresenta um breve histórico dos diferentes acordos ortográficos da Língua Portuguesa que foram feitos ao longo da história. Em seguida, por meio de três olhares - português, moçambicano e brasileiro - discutem-se algumas questões decorrentes do mais recente acordo da comunidade lusófona. Finalmente, os autores apresentam um elenco de questões importantes no âmbito dos países que têm a Língua Portuguesa como oficial e que não estão representadas nas questões possíveis de serem tratadas no contexto específico de um acordo ortográfico.; This article presents a historical briefing of the different orthographic agreements that have been undertaken throughout History, pertaining to the Portuguese Language. Then, bearing on three points of view - Portuguese, Mozambiquean and Brazilian some questions will be discussed, which arise from the most recent agreement made within the lusophone community. Finally, the authors present a set of questions holding importance for the countries that have Portuguese as its official language which are not represented in the questions liable to be dealt within the context of an orthographic agreement.; Cet article presente, dans un premier temps, un bref historique des différents accords orthographiques qui ont été réalisés tout au long de l'histoire de la Langue Portugaise. Ensuite...

The Accord, the labour market and the economy

Hancock, K.
Fonte: Sage Publications Publicador: Sage Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.07%
This article discusses the economic circumstances and effects of the Accord, noting always the difficulty of reaching firm conclusions because of counterfactual uncertainties. The article traces the interaction between the Accord and economic conditions, especially in the years 1983–1991. After the inflation of the early 1980s had abated somewhat, other economic changes, especially the devaluation of the Australian dollar, complicated the task of economic management. Stagnation of real wages made the task of the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) in holding unions to the Accord more difficult. There was an inherent tension in the Accord during the years 1983–1991 in that it required the federal arbitration tribunal to ‘sign on’ to wage policies negotiated between the ACTU and the government. For several years the tribunal delivered outcomes that were sufficiently acceptable to the Accord partners; but by the late 1980s the tension increased and in 1991 the centralised wage-fixing system collapsed. The article discusses the forces on the union and the employer side which led to this result. The article tentatively concludes that the Accord did assist macro-economic management in the 1980s, first by helping to bring price and wage inflation under a measure of control and second by averting wage pressures which might otherwise have developed in the later years of the decade. It finds no evidence to support claims that the productivity effects of the Accord were beneficial.; Keith Hancock

The accord: an economic and social success story

Cook, P.
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/1991 EN; EN
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26.92%
From 1983, Australia operated an Incomes Policy - the Accord. Senator Peter Cook, Australian Industrial Relations Minister, gave a Centre for Economic Performance-sponsored public lecture on the Accord in June 1991. In view of the considerable worldwide interest in the Accord, Senator Cook''s lecture is reprinted as a Centre for Economic Performance Occasional Paper to reach a wider audience. Peter Cook looks at the ways in which the Accord process facilitated a major assault on the impediments to economic growth and social equity in Australia in the 1980s, and argues that economic management should be achieved by consensus policies supported by social wage and industrial policy measures rather than economic and social confrontation.

The effects of international soft law on state behaviour: Understanding degrees of compliance with the Basel Accord, 1988-2000.

Quillin, Bryce Ramsey
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 EN
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27.1%
The thesis provides a comprehensive examination of the impact of the 1988 Basel Accord on the capital adequacy regulations of developed economies. The study seeks to understand if the Accord affected broad or isolated convergence of 18 developed states' bank credit risk regulations from 1988 to 2000, and understand what political economic variables influenced levels of regulatory isomorphism. The thesis argues that previous research has failed to effectively address whether the Accord accomplished its "level regulatory playing field" objective by employing small sample sizes. In order to address this lacuna, the thesis creates a quantitative database of developed states' interpretations of the Basel rules. The results indicate that the Accord may have successfully provided a regulatory floor as most states implemented the agreement in some form by 1991. Yet, some persistent distinction remained in the way states implemented the Accord. Second, the thesis aims to understand why convergence emerged among a subset of states, yet not others, by testing a battery of political economic explanations. Statistical tests reveal that initial interpretations of the Accord's provisions were conditioned by the severity of a state's capital adequacy regime prior to 1988. States with weak (severe) pre-Basel capital adequacy regimes tended to implement weak (severe) interpretations of the Accord. Departures from "path dependent" positions resulted mostly from the presence of acute banking crises and the impact of private financial market influences. The qualitative studies of implementation in the United States...

Biomass,litterfall and decomposition rates for the fringed Rhizophora mangle forest lining the Bon Accord Lagoon,Tobago

Juman,Rahanna A
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2005 EN
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36.92%
The mangrove forest that fringes the Bon Accord Lagoon measures 0.8 km² and is dominated by red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle ).This forest forms the landward boundary of the Buccoo Reef Marine Park in Southwest Tobago,and is part of a mangrove-seagrass-coral reef continuum.Biomass and productivity,as indicated by litterfall rates,were measured in seven 0.01 ha monospecific plots from February 1998 to February 1999,and decomposition rates were determined. Red mangrove above-ground biomass ranged between 2.0 and 25.9 kg (dry wt.)m-2 .Mean biomass was 14.1 ±8.1 kg (dry wt.)m-2 yielding a standing crop of 11 318 ±6 488 t. Litterfall rate varied spatially and seasonally.It peaked from May to August (4.2-4.3 g dry wt.m-2 d-1 )and was lowest from October to December (2.3-2.8 g dry wt.m-2 d-1 ).Mean annual litterfall rate was 3.4 ±0.9 g dry wt.m-2 d-1 .Leaf degradation rates ranged from 0.3%loss d-1 in the upper intertidal zone to 1%loss d-1 at a lower intertidal site flooded by sewage effluent.Mean degradation rate was 0.4 ±1%loss d-1 .The swamp produces 2.8 t dry wt.of litterfall and 12 kg dry wt.of decomposed leaf material daily.Biomass and litterfall rates in Bon Accord Lagoon were compared to five similar sites that also participate in the Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity Programme (CARICOMP).The Bon Accord Lagoon mangrove swamp is a highly productive fringed-forest that contributes to the overall productivity of the mangrove-seagrass-reef complex.

The structure and productivity of the Thalassia testudinum community in Bon Accord Lagoon,Tobago

Juman,Rahanna A
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
The Thalassia testudinum dominated seagrass community in the Buccoo Reef/Bon Accord Lagoon Marine Park,measures 0.5 km² and is part of a contiguous coral reef,seagrass bed and mangrove swamp system in southwest Tobago.T.testudinum coverage,productivity and percent turnover rates were measured from February 1998 to February 1999 at four sample locations,while total T.testudinum biomass was measured at two locations in the lagoon from 1992-2002.Productivity and turnover rates varied spatially and seasonally. They were higher in the back-reef area than in the mangrove-fringed lagoon,and were lowest at locations near to a sewage outfall.T.testudinum coverage ranged from 6.6%in the lagoon to 68.5%in the back-reef area while productivity ranged from 3.9 to 4.9 g dry wt m-2 d-1 .Productivity and percentage turnover rates were higher in the dry season (January -June)than in the wet season (July -December).Productivity ranged from 3.0 in the wet season to 5.0 g dry wt m-2 d-1 in the dry season while percentage turnover rates ranged from 4.2%to 5.6%.Total Thalassia biomass and productivity in Bon Accord Lagoon were compared to six similar sites in the Caribbean that also participate in the Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity Program (CARICOMP).This seagrass community is being negatively impacted by nutrient-enriched conditions.