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O ensino de língua inglesa para alunos da educação infantil em Porto Alegre : uma leitura crítica acerca do uso da linguagem, do letramento e de crenças

Forte, Janaína da Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
Ao longo das últimas décadas, foi crescente e notório o aumento de escolas de educação infantil em nosso país. Expandiu-se, em igual proporção, o número de turmas da educação infantil em escolas regulares, já que a própria LDB considera esse âmbito de ensino como parte integrante da educação básica. A fim de agregar um diferencial em sua grade curricular, aulas de língua inglesa como língua adicional são inseridas no currículo de um sem número de instituições nas mais variadas modalidades: aulas de 30 minutos ou 1 hora uma vez por semana, às vezes duas vezes por semana e, até mesmo, em propostas bilíngues, com aulas todos os dias da semana, em cargas horárias das mais diversas. Assim, este estudo propõe-se a uma análise crítica do ensino de língua inglesa como língua adicional para crianças de educação infantil. Foram selecionados como foco de pesquisa o uso da linguagem, a promoção do letramento na língua alvo e as crenças de professores, pais de alunos e coordenadores das instituições de ensino. Para a geração dos dados, duas escolas exclusivamente de educação infantil, duas escolas de educação básica e três escolas de idiomas foram visitadas. Procederam-se observações de aulas...

An investigation on teaching pronunciation to elderly learners

Paz, Vanessa
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
O presente estudo investiga como tem sido desenvolvido o ensino de pronúncia da língua inglesa para aprendizes maiores de quarenta anos, de modo a investigar se há diferenças no ensino para aprendizes mais ou menos jovens. Participaram deste trabalho quatro professores e onze alunos de idades variadas de duas escolas de idiomas de Cachoeirinha, no Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados necessários para a investigação foram obtidos através de questionários escritos respondidos por todos os professores e alunos participantes. As perguntas dos questionários versam sobre a visão que os professores e alunos têm do ensino de pronúncia, as técnicas utilizadas para tal e as maiores dificuldades encontradas. Dois dos professores tiveram suas aulas gravadas em vídeo para que suas práticas pudessem ser contrastadas com suas respostas. A metodologia utilizada visa a atingir os objetivos específicos desta pesquisa, os quais consistem em verificar: (a) se os professores veem diferença entre ensinar pronúncia para jovens e para mais velhos; (b) se os professores fazem uso de alguma técnica específica para ensinar pronúncia a essa faixa etária; (c) a importância do ensino de pronúncia para os estudantes; (d) as dificuldades mais comuns nos alunos mais velhos; (e) se as respostas dos professores são consonantes com sua prática em sala de aula. Através deste estudo...

Developing Young Learners’ Logical/Deductive Thinking Skills and Second Language Skills through a CLIL approach

Alvarenga, Denise Maria de Figueiredo
Fonte: Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /09/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
Trabalho de Projecto apresentado para cumprimento dos requisitos necessários à obtenção do grau de Mestre em Teaching English as a Second / Foreign Language.; Este trabalho de projeto procura explorar os enúmeros benefícios do uso de uma abordagem CLIL no ensino da língua inglesa como língua estrangeira e simultaneamente avaliar a possibilidade de melhorar competências matemáticas e competências associadas a uma língua estrageira através de uma abordagem CLIL, com crianças do 1º ciclo do Ensino Básico. Este action research tem como objetivo responder à pergunta É possivel melhorar competências matemáticas e competências associadas a uma língua estrangeiraatravés de uma abordagem CLIL? Este action research foi estruturado usando uma abordagem CLIL e desenvolveu-se numa escola privada, envolvendo um grupo de 18 crianças que frequentavam o 4º ano de escolaridade. Estas crianças inscreveram-se no English Club que tinha lugar uma vez por semana durante meia hora. As crianças participantes neste projecto trabalhavam em grupos tendo participado em cinco ciclos de trabalho com diferentes níveis de dificuldade, onde tiveram de completar atividades matemáticas que envolviam problemas matemáticos de lógica e dedução. Estes cinco ciclos de trabalho foram desenvolvidos usando uma abordagem Task-Based Learning. Tendo em conta toda a informação recolhida neste projeto...

Assess the impact of an introduction to HTML coding on adult learners for a wider choice of options for further academic study or direct employment: a case study

McDonald, Sheila
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis; all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
non-peer-reviewed; An industry shortage of high skilled computer users create further options for adult learners by equipping them with an employable skill set and this research assesses the potential widening of progression routes for adult learners. An action case study was exercised to obtain data for this study and was obtained by using a representative sample of adult learners that formed into two groups of ten participants each. The participants attended class sessions during the research and completed one hundred per cent assessment projects by creating two web pages and writing a report on the background and a critical evaluation of their web sites. One of the outcomes of the research was the creation of an adult learner profile in Limerick city that incorporated their educational backgrounds, perceptions of coding, attitudes and opinions of what they saw as important academic subjects. The disparity of computer skills demonostrated during the research was also documented that is linked to the choice and availability of courses for adult learners which in turn impacts on progression choices. One of the implications of this research is the matching of provision of courses and requirements posed by the portait of the modern adult learner. Academic progression may not be the primary motivator for adult learners as they have greater responsibilities than young learners and are seeking a way of returning to the labour force. Application of andragogical practices are implemented during the reseach and are tied to several learning theories and how these can be applied to the learning of HTML coding.

A Longitudinal Exploration of the Relationship Between Oral Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension Achievement Among a Sample of Diverse Young Learners

Acquavita, Teri L.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
Exploring the relationship between early oral reading fluency ability and reading comprehension achievement among an ethnically and racially diverse sample of young learners from low-income families, attending elementary school within a large public school district in southeast Florida is the purpose of this longitudinal study. Although many studies have been conducted to address the relationship between oral reading fluency ability and reading comprehension achievement, most of the existing research failed either to disaggregate the data by demographic subgroups or secure a large enough sample of students to adequately represent the diverse subgroups. The research questions that guided this study were: (a) To what extent does early oral reading fluency ability measured in first, second, or third grade correlate with reading comprehension achievement in third grade? (b) To what extent does the relationship of early oral reading fluency ability and reading comprehension achievement vary by demographic subgroup membership (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status) among a diverse sample of students? A predictive research design using archived secondary data was employed in this nonexperimental quantitative methods study of 1...

A longitudinal exploration of the relationship between oral reading fluency and reading comprehension achievement among a sample of diverse young learners

Acquavita, Teri L
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Exploring the relationship between early oral reading fluency ability and reading comprehension achievement among an ethnically and racially diverse sample of young learners from low-income families, attending elementary school within a large public school district in southeast Florida is the purpose of this longitudinal study. Although many studies have been conducted to address the relationship between oral reading fluency ability and reading comprehension achievement, most of the existing research failed either to disaggregate the data by demographic subgroups or secure a large enough sample of students to adequately represent the diverse subgroups. ^ The research questions that guided this study were: (a) To what extent does early oral reading fluency ability measured in first, second, or third grade correlate with reading comprehension achievement in third grade? (b) To what extent does the relationship of early oral reading fluency ability and reading comprehension achievement vary by demographic subgroup membership (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status) among a diverse sample of students? ^ A predictive research design using archived secondary data was employed in this nonexperimental quantitative methods study of 1...

??veil aux langues dans l???enseignement primaire en Serbie.

Vujovic, Ana
Fonte: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2012 FRA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
Le plurilinguisme et l???apprentissage pr??coce de langues ??trang??res ne sont plus mis en doute en Serbie, au contraire, ils sont en g??n??ral appr??ci??s par le grand public. Bien que tout le monde en discute, il reste encore de nombreuses questions. Acceptant les approches de l?????veil aux langues et de l???enseignement des langues ??trang??res int??gr?? ?? l???enseignement d???autres disciplines scolaires, on propose quelques activit??s qu???on pourrait utiliser dans le travail avec les groupes de jeunes enfants. Le succ??s de cet apprentissage tient en grande partie aux structures scolaires et ?? la formation des enseignants qui demeure un aspect primordial de l???initiation aux langues.; Plurilinguism and early learning of foreign languages are not the subjects of the debates in Serbia any more; they have become acceptable by everyone. Although everyone is discussing them, there are still many questions remaining unanswered. Accepting the principles of the language awareness and CLIL, we are suggesting some activities which can be used in work with groups of young learners. Success of this learning depends in a great extent on the structure of educational institutions and education of teachers is still the main aspect of introducing languages.

Concept mapping for learners of all ages

Gallenstein, Nancy L.
Fonte: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Concept mapping is an inquiry technique that provides students at all ages with opportunities to demonstrate learning through performance. A concept map refers to a graphic/visual representation of concepts with linking connections that show various relationships between concepts (Novak & Gowin, 1984). Assessment is an ongoing process integrated with instruction across subject areas. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) emphasizes that assessment should focus on both the enhancement of student learning as well as serve as a valuable tool for making instructional decisions (NCTM, 2000). Assessment activities can take on a variety of forms, one being performance tasks. In this manuscript, an explanation of concept mapping is provided for learners ages 3 ??? 12 along with several examples of concept maps for young learners, including examples from an assessment project in the subject area of mathematics. Also presented are the numerous benefits of the concept mapping technique for both students and teachers.; Los mapas conceptuales son una t??cnica de investigaci??n que provee a los estudiantes de todas las edades la oportunidad de demostrar el aprendizaje a trav??s de su representaci??n. Un mapa conceptual nos lleva a una representaci??n gr??fico-visual de los conceptos...

Can P_Lex Accurately Measure Lexical Richness in the Written Production of Young Learners of EFL?

Moreno Espinosa, Soraya
Fonte: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.35%
In this paper, we aim to shed light on the measurement of L2 lexical richness in the written production of primary school learners of EFL by means of a computational tool such as P_Lex (Meara & Bell, 2001). We consider it necessary to find out whether this instrument will be appropriate to analyse their embedded vocabulary, since as far as we know, this experimental tool has not been used to analyse the written production of learners with such a low proficiency level.; En este trabajo pretendemos arrojar luz sobre la evaluaci??n de la riqueza l??xica de la producci??n escrita de aprendices de ingl??s como lengua extranjera en primaria a trav??s de una herramienta inform??tica como P_Lex (Meara & Bell, 2001). Consideramos necesario investigar si este instrumento de evaluaci??n en fase experimental es apropiado para analizar dicho vocabulario, puesto que no parece haber sido utilizado con anterioridad para analizar la producci??n escrita de aprendices de ingl??s con un nivel de competencia en lengua extranjera tan bajo.

Aprender ingl??s en la escuela desde los tres a??os

Piquer Vives, Inma
Fonte: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
Avanzar la introducci??n del ingl??s al parvulario es un objetivo que responde a una fuerte demanda social que no queda libre de dificultades ni de riesgos de fracaso. A pesar de todo, este art??culo nos demuestra que, desde las escuelas, es posible conseguir buenos resultados sin caer en propuestas did??cticas complicadas ni gastos extraordinarios.; English Language Teaching to very young learners is the answer to a very strong social pressure that isn???t free from difficulties or risk of failure. However, this article demonstrates that it is possible to achieve successful results from schools without having to follow complicated and expensive proposals.

Teaching English as a foreign language to very young learners

Meade Barnes, Eva Luc??a
Fonte: Universidade de Granada Publicador: Universidade de Granada
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
My project revolves around my experience as a student teacher. It is based on a case study in a Spanish classroom with three-four year olds, where the main aim is to discover which strategies are best when it comes to learning a foreign language. I have also wanted to investigate, by using a questionnaire, which are the main aspects of the language they retain better and if they use it in a family context. In my Bachelor of Arts dissertation I want highlight the advantages and importance of learning English at a very early age.

The role of interaction in the young learners' classroom

Fleta Guillén, María Teresa
Fonte: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Alcalá Publicador: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Alcalá
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
Due to the early start of EFL nowadays in many schools, there is a necessity of knowing more about the language learning process and about age-appropriate methodologies. This paper reports on the teaching techniques and the learning strategies observed in the young learners’ classrooms and focuses on evidence-based practices. Findings show that children internalize English through conversational interactions with the teachers while carrying out activities designed to improve the four skills.; Dado que hoy en día los niños acometen el aprendizaje del inglés a una edad temprana en las escuelas, es necesario saber más acerca de cómo se lleva a cabo el aprendizaje temprano de lenguas segundas en el aula, y cuáles son las metodologías que se adaptan mejor a la edad y a las necesidades de los niños. Este artículo aborda las técnicas de enseñanza y las estrategias de aprendizaje que se llevan a cabo en el aula de inglés durante los primeros años de escolarización. Los resultados apuntan a que los niños interiorizan el inglés conversando con los maestros mientras se realizan actividades encaminadas a desarrollar las cuatro destrezas.

A teacher's discourse in EFL classes for very young learners

Carvalho, Raquel Cristina Mendes de
Fonte: Florianópolis, SC Publicador: Florianópolis, SC
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 1 v.| tabs.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Letras/Inglês e Literatura Correspondente.; This study reports on an ethnographic investigation about the interaction between a teacher and her very young learners in the foreign language (FL) classroom. I focus specifically on this FL teacher#s discourse as a facilitator of interactions through the analysis of her discursive practice. In order to carry out this study, data were collected in a private kindergarten school, by means of video recordings of classes in which both teacher and learners are engaged in interaction, and field notes from the teacher and from an observer. Data were analyzed through the lights of Halliday#s Systemic Functional Linguistics Mood choices and Bernstein#s pedagogic discourse regulative and instructional registers. Besides analyzing the way the children addressed the FL teacher and her use of the mother tongue, I also tried to evince the Mood structures and modality choices involved in this study, more specifically the choices made by the teacher in order to promote interactions. Moreover, the realization of the frequent use of the regulative register in terms of the teacher#s directions...

Como é que no movimento da escola moderna é promovida a autonomia das crianças?

Soeiro, Dora Filipa Camacho
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /07/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
Relatório Final da Prática Profissional Supervisionada Mestrado em educação pré-escolar; Com o título “Como é que no Movimento da Escola Moderna é promovida a autonomia das crianças?”, este relatório surge no âmbito da unidade curricular Prática Profissional Supervisionada, do Mestrado em Educação Pré-Escolar. Resulta de um processo que se iniciou com uma experiência de prática profissional supervisionada (PPS) de um mês em Creche (janeiro de 2014), e que terminou com uma experiência de PPS de cerca de quatro meses, de fevereiro a maio de 2014, em Jardim-de-Infância (J.I.), ambas na instituição onde desempenho igualmente as funções de A.A.E., instituição privada, situada na região de Lisboa. É seu objetivo, de uma forma reflexiva e interpretativa, descrever, analisar, fundamentar e avaliar o trabalho de intervenção realizado, não esquecendo antes a caraterização do contexto onde realizei a minha prática pedagógica, das equipas, das crianças e das famílias, com quem pude aprender, de um modo pragmático, o que significa ser educadora.; Abstract Entitled "How children's autonomy is promoted in the Modern School Movement?”, the following report is the result of a supervised professional practise course...

'But in movies they speak different' - Meeting Young Learner's Expectations

Graça, Isabel Santos
Fonte: Centro de Estudos Anglísticos da Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Centro de Estudos Anglísticos da Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.51%
This chapter argues on balancing young learners’ expectations with teaching and apprenticeship environments and teacher’s choices for models in the context of extracurricular activities. It reflects upon implications in pedagogy, which may lead to adjustments of the teaching of English to the current global reality. At a time where English is increasingly spoken by Europeans and following approaches of English as a lingua franca (ELF) by authors as Barbara Seidlhofer (2001), Jennifer Jenkins (2006) and others, reflections on new roles played by English and ELF concept are considered. Portuguese learners connect with English inside and outside school. Young learners notice certain «differences» of accent and grammar rules, considering English language used in and outside classrooms. Aiming at overcoming that gap and developing the communicative skill in learners, it seems understandable to adjust the teaching of English introducing aspects related to ELF studies. Nevertheless, developing activities according to linguistic policies is required. Thus, teachers face a serious challenge in not letting down expectations of young learners in mastering a language they look forward to use in the future, in their personal and professional paths.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia

Using children’s literature in ELT: A story-based approach

Pinto, Cristina Ferreira
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico do Porto Publicador: Instituto Politécnico do Porto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
There has been a growing interest in the role of children’s literature in language teaching since the 80s, when the communicative approach made it possible to bring stories into the classroom (Garvie, 1990). It is undeniable that storytelling has many benefits. Not only are children naturally drawn to stories, but they are also an effective and enjoyable way to teach and learn. This article presents the findings of a MA project on using stories with children. It shows the importance of stories on language acquisition and concludes with some practical suggestions based on my teaching experience with young learners.

From theory to textbook: Constructing language materials for young learners

Beatty, Ken; Anaheim University
Fonte: Universidade La Sabana Publicador: Universidade La Sabana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Second language materials for young learners are often deceptive in their simplicity. They appear to be easy to create because their content spans a limited range of grammatical forms and vocabulary. However, beyond the challenging process of selecting such content are the underlying theoretical concepts, methodologies and approaches that inform well-constructed learning materials. This paper outlines considerations that go into creating a textbook series for young learners in terms of views of language learning, the communicative approach, a notional-functional syllabus, comprehensible input and output, task chains, learner-centeredness, the negotiated curriculum, and autonomy.

Assesing young learner's english materials

Varela M??ndez, Raquel; Rodr??guez L??pez, Beatriz
Fonte: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.37%
Nowadays all educational authorities in Europe are making an effort to teach foreign languages starting at very early ages. Teachers of English at nursery and pre-school levels used to produce their own materials, although in the last few years we have seen a flourishing amount of teaching methods and materials for young learners issued by every well-known publishing house. With this panorama in mind, the difficulty of the teacher???s task has changed from one side to the other, as some times it is not easy to decide which books children should or shouldn???t buy. Taking this need into consideration, in this paper we intend to study all the elements involved in the assessment of course books and supplementary materials for young learners and provide examples of evaluation templates. The analysis includes the physical format of coursebooks, the components of the methods the authors, their adequacy in terms of Ministry of Education requirements, and then, the contents taught with the underlying pedagogy. There are other elements such as audiovisual aids and educational software, also taken into consideration.; En la actualidad todas las autoridades educativas europeas est??n realizando un gran esfuerzo para fomentar el aprendizaje y la ense??anza de lenguas extranjeras en edades tempranas. Los profesores de ingl??s en educaci??n infantil sol??an usar en sus clases materiales de elaboraci??n propia...

L2 Competence of Young Language Learners in Science and Arts CLIL and EFL Instruction Contexts. A Longitudinal Study

Vallbona González, Anna
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.54%
La implementació de programes AICLE ha generat un gran entusiasme entre les escoles de primària de Catalunya. Malgrat aquest entusiasme, molt poca recerca s'ha portat a terme en el nostre context per demostrar l'eficiència de l'AICLE en la millora de la competència lingüística dels aprenents. L'objectiu d'aquest estudi longitudinal de dos anys és omplir parcialment aquest buit i determinar els efectes de l'enfocament AICLE en les habilitats d'escoltar, llegir i escriure dels alumnes de primària que han cursat una part de les ciències naturals i de la plàstica en anglès. Els resultats en llengua anglesa dels alumnes de cinquè de primària (grup control) s'han comparat amb els resultats dels estudiants de 5è curs exposats al mateix nombre d'hores d'anglès, però, en aquest cas, combinant les hores d'anglès amb l'AICLE per determinar l'assoliment en diferents moments ( T0,T1 , T2 , T3 ) i el progrés en diferents períodes de temps (T0-T1 , T1-T2 , T2-T3 i T0-T3). L'anàlisi dels resultats s'ha portat a terme utilitzant models de regressió logística longitudinals. L'efecte del nombre d'hores d'exposició a l'anglès de l'alumnat prèvies a l'inici del projecte, s'ha tingut en compte per a l'anàlisi així com la proficiència inicial en anglès de l'alumnat participant. S'han portat a terme dos tipus de comparacions a fi i a efecte de proporcionar una visió general dels resultats : la primera comparació fa referència als resultats assolits pel grups control i pels grups d'AICLE. La segona comparació fa referència al progrés de cadascun dels grups. La tercera comparació...

Staging the introduction of figurative extensions of familiar vocabulary items in efl: Some preliminary considerations; Staging the introduction of figurative extensions of familiar vocabulary items in efl: Some preliminary considerations

MacArthur, Fiona; University of Extremadura, Spain; Píriz, Ana M. Piquer; Universidad de Extremadura
Fonte: UFSC Publicador: UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2007 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
In natural contexts, children are exposed to the many senses of highly polysemous words from early ages. Lacking this rich, natural exposure to target language forms, EFL learners’ grasp of this aspect of language use will largely depend on the range of senses which they meet in the graded input of the classroom. Thus, which different semantic extensions should be introduced and at what stage of the learning process are important issues for syllabus design. This paper discusses these issues in relation to body part terms, many of which display considerable referential flexibility, extending their meanings through different figurative mappings. Research carried out with young EFL learners to explore their understanding of and reasoning about four senses of head, for example,  eveals that children use different reasoning strategies between the ages of 5 and 11 as their conceptual knowledge develops and becomes more complex. These different strategies gave rise to correct and incorrect comprehension of figurative meanings by both younger and older learners, depending on the various motivations for the meaning extensions. We discuss these findings in relation to the staging of these different senses in ELT.; In natural contexts...