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Longitudinal Follow-Up of Bipolar Disorder in Women With Premenstrual Exacerbation: Findings From STEP-BD

DIAS, Rodrigo S.; LAFER, Beny; RUSSO, Cibele; DEBBIO, Alessandro Del; NIERENBERG, Andrew A.; SACHS, Gary S.; JOFFE, Hadine
Fonte: AMER PSYCHIATRIC PUBLISHING, INC Publicador: AMER PSYCHIATRIC PUBLISHING, INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.43%
Objective: The impact of hormonal fluctuation during the menstrual cycle on the course of bipolar disorder is poorly understood. The authors determined the course of illness and time to relapse of bipolar disorder in prospectively followed women with premenstrual exacerbation. Method: Participants were 293 premenopause-age women with bipolar disorder who were followed prospectively for 1 year as part of the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder. Frequency of mood episodes was compared between 191 women with premenstrual exacerbation (65.2%) and 102 women without. Among 129 women who were in recovered status at baseline, time to relapse was compared between 66 women with premenstrual exacerbation (51.2%) and 63 without. Results: During follow-up, the group with premenstrual exacerbation had more episodes (primarily depressive) than did the group without, but they were not more likely to meet criteria for rapid cycling during this period. In contrast, they were more likely to report rapid cycling retrospectively. Women with premenstrual exacerbation had a shorter time to relapse and were at greater risk for relapse, but this association was not significant after adjustment for retrospectively reported rapid cycling. Women with premenstrual exacerbation had more depressive and mood elevation symptoms overall. Conclusions: Women with bipolar disorder and premenstrual exacerbation have a worse course of illness...

Estudo comparativo do fenótipo clínico de mulheres com transtorno afetivo bipolar em fase reprodutiva da vida com e sem piora pré-menstrual do humor; A comparative study of the clinical phenotype of women with bipolar affective disorder phase reproductive life with and without premenstrual worsening of mood

Dias, Rodrigo da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/04/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
O impacto da flutuação dos hormônios esteróides sobre o curso do Transtorno Afetivo Bipolar durante a vida reprodutiva das mulheres é pouco estudado. Encontramos ainda muitas lacunas no conhecimento quanto a sua apresentação clínica e as suas implicações na evolução do Transtorno Afetivo Bipolar, especialmente sua associação com a ciclagem rápida e o seu valor preditivo para recorrência. Métodos: Mulheres com Transtorno Afetivo Bipolar (tipos I, II ou sem outra especificação) participantes do Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder, com idade entre 16 e 40 anos, foram divididas em dois grupos: com e sem relato de exacerbação pré-menstrual do Transtorno Afetivo Bipolar na avaliação inicial do estudo. Estes grupos foram comparados em relação às características clínicas do Transtorno Afetivo Bipolar, de vida reprodutiva e tratamento na entrada do estudo. Longitudinalmente, foi comparado o tempo de recorrência entre as pacientes que iniciaram o estudo eutímicas utilizando análise de sobrevivência Kaplan Meier e a regressão de Cox. O número de episódios entre as pacientes que foram seguidas por um período de um ano também foi comparado. Resultados: Das 706 mulheres que completaram o questionário...

The effects of aerobic and combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on physical fitness in young women.

Batalha, Nuno; Marmeleira, José; Dias, João
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.34%
Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training alone or combined with strength training on the physical fitness of young women. Methods Sixty-five women (18–28 years old), who were not engaged in any exercise program for at least one year, were randomly assigned to an aerobic training group, a combined training group, or a control group. The aerobic training consisted of indoor cycling sessions and the combined training consisted of indoor cycling and resistance exercise in the first and second half of each session, respectively. Both aerobic and combined exercise programs lasted 8 weeks with a periodicity of 3 sessions of 45 min per week. Assessments were conducted before and after the 8-week intervention period on muscular strength, body composition, bone mineral density and cardiorespiratory fitness. Total fat and bone mineral density (lumbar spine and femoral neck) were determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000). Knee and elbow extensor and flexor concentric strength were measured with an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex System 3) using protocols with angular velocities of 60o/s (3 reps) and 180o/s (20 reps). The YMCA cycle ergometer test was used to estimate VO2max. Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis (level of significance was set at p<0.05). Results Significant positive effects were found between groups at 8-week follow-up on knee strength measures. The post-hoc analysis showed that the combined training group improved significantly in comparison to the aerobic training group in knee flexion peak torque (PT) (p=0.024) and knee flexion PT/body weight (p=0.046) at an angular speed of 60o/s. Significant positive changes of the combined training group in comparison with the control group were also found in knee extension PT (p=0.013)...

Sleep and 24 hour body temperatures: a comparison in young men, naturally cycling women and women taking hormonal contraceptives

Baker, Fiona C; Waner, Jonathan I; Vieira, Elizabeth F; Taylor, Sheila R; Driver, Helen S; Mitchell, Duncan
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/02/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.51%
Body temperature has a circadian rhythm, and in women with ovulatory cycles, also a menstrual rhythm. Body temperature and sleep are believed to be closely coupled, but the influence on their relationship of gender, menstrual cycle phase and female reproductive hormones is unresolved.We investigated sleep and 24 h rectal temperatures in eight women with normal menstrual cycles in their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases, and in eight young women taking a steady dose of oral progestin and ethinyl oestradiol (hormonal contraceptive), and compared their sleep and body temperatures with that of eight young men, sleeping in identical conditions. All subjects maintained their habitual daytime schedules.Rectal temperatures were elevated throughout 24 h in the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase in the naturally cycling women, consistent with a raised thermoregulatory set-point. Rectal temperatures in the women taking hormonal contraceptives were similar to those of the naturally cycling women in the luteal phase.Gender influenced body temperature: the naturally cycling women and the women taking hormonal contraceptives attained their nocturnal minimum body temperatures earlier than the men, and the naturally cycling women had blunted nocturnal body temperature drops compared with the men.Sleep architecture was essentially unaffected by either menstrual cycle phase or gender. The women taking hormonal contraceptives had less slow wave sleep (SWS)...

Interaction between muscle temperature and contraction velocity affects mechanical efficiency during moderate-intensity cycling exercise in young and older women

Bell, Martin P.; Ferguson, Richard A.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
The effect of elevated muscle temperature on mechanical efficiency was investigated during exercise at different pedal frequencies in young and older women. Eight young (24 ± 3 yr) and eight older (70 ± 4 yr) women performed 6-min periods of cycling at 75% ventilatory threshold at pedal frequencies of 45, 60, 75, and 90 rpm under control and passively elevated local muscle temperature conditions. Mechanical efficiency was calculated from the ratio of energy turnover (pulmonary O2 uptake) and mechanical power output. Overall, elevating muscle temperature increased (P < 0.05) mechanical efficiency in young (32.0 ± 3.1 to 34.0 ± 5.5%) and decreased (P < 0.05) efficiency in older women (30.2 ± 5.6 to 27.9 ± 4.1%). The different effect of elevated muscle temperature in young and older women reflects a shift in the efficiency-velocity relationship of skeletal muscle. These effects may be due to differences in recruitment patterns, as well as sarcopenic and fiber-type changes with age.

FREQUENT INTENTIONAL WEIGHT LOSS IS ASSOCIATED WITH HIGHER GHRELIN AND LOWER GLUCOSE AND ANDROGEN LEVELS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

Hooper, Laura E; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Weigle, David S; Sorensen, Bess; McTiernan, Anne; Ulrich, Cornelia M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.3%
Population-based studies suggest that repetitive cycling of weight loss and regain may be associated with future weight gain. Therefore, to better define the relationship between weight cycling, energy homeostasis, and future weight gain, we examined associations between frequent intentional weight loss and hormonal profiles in postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between a history of frequent weight loss and biomarkers, including serum glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin, as well as sex steroid hormones. We hypothesized that frequent intentional weight loss would be associated with changes in normal appetite and body-weight-regulatory hormones, favoring increased appetite and weight gain. 159 healthy, weight stable, sedentary, overweight, postmenopausal women who had been recruited for an exercise intervention participated in this study. History of intentional weight loss (frequency and magnitude) was assessed by questionnaire. Hormonal assays were performed by radioimmunoassay (insulin, leptin, ghrelin, estrogens, androgens, and DHEA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (IGF-1), and immunometric assay (SHBG). ANOVA and regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between weight-loss history and metabolic hormones. A higher degree of weight cycling...

Seasonal variation of salivary testosterone in men, normally cycling women, and women using hormonal contraceptives

Stanton, Steven J.; Mullette-Gillman, O’Dhaniel A.; Huettel, Scott A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.34%
Humans’ endogenous testosterone concentrations vary over a number of temporal scales, with little known about variation longer than monthly cycles. Past studies of seasonal or circannual variation have principally used male participants and have produced inconsistent results. Thus, little is known about how testosterone concentrations fluctuate throughout the year, whether such variation differs between men and women, and whether there are influences of hormonal contraceptive use. The present study collected saliva samples from a large sample (N=718) of men and women, each collected at one time point within a relatively uniform distribution over a full calendar year. Both men and normally-cycling women displayed seasonal variation in salivary testosterone concentrations, such that testosterone concentrations are maximal in the fall and minimal in the summer. Notably, normally-cycling women had testosterone concentrations that were over 100% greater at their maximum in fall compared to their minimum in summer. Women using hormonal contraceptives not only had consistently lower endogenous testosterone concentrations, but also showed a flatter seasonal testosterone profile. The implications for studies of psychology and human behavioral endocrinology are discussed.

Women and Men in Sport Performance: The Gender Gap has not Evolved since 1983

Thibault, Valérie; Guillaume, Marion; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Helou, Nour El; Schaal, Karine; Quinquis, Laurent; Nassif, Hala; Tafflet, Muriel; Escolano, Sylvie; Hermine, Olivier; Toussaint, Jean-François.
Fonte: Asist Group Publicador: Asist Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.19%
Sex is a major factor influencing best performances and world records. Here the evolution of the difference between men and women’s best performances is characterized through the analysis of 82 quantifiable events since the beginning of the Olympic era. For each event in swimming, athletics, track cycling, weightlifting and speed skating the gender gap is fitted to compare male and female records. It is also studied through the best performance of the top 10 performers in each gender for swimming and athletics. A stabilization of the gender gap in world records is observed after 1983, at a mean difference of 10.0% ± 2.94 between men and women for all events. The gender gap ranges from 5.5% (800-m freestyle, swimming) to 18.8% (long jump). The mean gap is 10.7% for running performances, 17.5% for jumps, 8.9% for swimming races, 7.0% for speed skating and 8.7% in cycling. The top ten performers’ analysis reveals a similar gender gap trend with a stabilization in 1982 at 11.7%, despite the large growth in participation of women from eastern and western countries, that coincided with later- published evidence of state-institutionalized or individual doping. These results suggest that women will not run, jump, swim or ride as fast as men.

Effect of Exercise Intensity on Differentiated and Undifferentiated Ratings of Perceived Exertion During Cycle and Treadmill Exercise in Recreationally Active and Trained Women

Bolgar, Melinda R.; Baker, Carol E.; Goss, Fredric. L.; Nagle, Elizabeth; Robertson, Robert J.
Fonte: Asist Group Publicador: Asist Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on components of the differentiated perceived exertion model in young women performing weight bearing and non-weight bearing aerobic exercise. Subjects were 18-25 yr old women who were recreationally active (n = 19; VO2max = 33.40 ml·kg-1·min-1) and trained (N = 22; VO2max = 43.3 ml·kg-1·min-1). Subjects underwent two graded exercise tests (GXT) on a treadmill and bike which were separated by 48 hours. RPE-Overall, -Legs, and -Chest, as well as oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate were recorded each minute. Individual regression analyses were used to identify RPE-Overall,-Legs, and -Chest at 40, 60, 80% VO2max/peak. Separate two factor (site (3) x intensity (3)) ANOVAs with repeated measures on site and intensity were computed for each training status. Furthermore, RPE responses were also examined with a one factor (site (3)) within subject ANOVA with repeated measure on site at the ventilatory breakpoint. For both the recreationally active and trained groups no significant differences were observed for RPE-Overall, -Legs, and -Chest during treadmill exercise. However, for cycling exercise results indicated that RPE-Legs was significantly greater at all exercise intensities than RPE-Overall and RPE-Chest for trained subjects while for recreationally active subjects RPE-Legs was only significantly higher at the highest exercise intensity. Responses at the ventilatory breakpoint during cycle exercise indicated that RPE-Legs was significantly greater than RPE-Chest and RPE-Overall for trained subjects but not for recreationally active subjects. Signal dominance was not observed at an intensity equivalent to the ventilatory breakpoint during treadmill exercise in either of the groups. In recreationally active and trained females signal dominance was demonstrated only during cycling exercise...

Experimenter Effects on Pain Reporting in Women Vary across the Menstrual Cycle

Vigil, Jacob M.; DiDomenico, Jared; Strenth, Chance; Coulombe, Patrick; Kruger, Eric; Mueller, Andrea A.; Guevara Beltran, Diego; Adams, Ian
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.32%
Background. Separate lines of research have shown that menstrual cycling and contextual factors such as the gender of research personnel influence experimental pain reporting. Objectives. This study examines how brief, procedural interactions with female and male experimenters can affect experimentally reported pain (cold pressor task, CPT) across the menstrual cycle. Methods. Based on the menstrual calendars 94 naturally cycling women and 38 women using hormonal contraceptives (Mage = 19.83,  SD = 3.09) were assigned to low and high fertility groups. This assignment was based on estimates of their probability of conception given their current cycle day. Experimenters (12 males, 7 females) engaged in minimal procedural interactions with participants before the CPT was performed in solitude. Results. Naturally cycling women in the high fertility group showed significantly higher pain tolerance (81 sec, d = .79) following interactions with a male but not a female experimenter. Differences were not found for women in the low fertility or contraceptive groups. Discussion. The findings illustrate that menstrual functioning moderates the effect that experimenter gender has on pain reporting in women. Conclusion. These findings have implications for standardizing pain measurement protocols and understanding how basic biopsychosocial mechanisms (e.g....

Women cycling through the life course: an Australian case study

Bonham, J.; Wilson, A.
Fonte: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd; United Kingdom Publicador: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd; United Kingdom
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.56%
PURPOSE: The research reported in this chapter focuses on understanding the experiences of women who had decided to return to cycling in adulthood. It was anticipated these experiences could assist other women contemplating taking up cycling as well as cycling lobbyists, policy makers and planners. METHODOLOGY: The research targeted women returning to cycling in the city of Adelaide, South Australia. It was conducted using qualitative research methods including in-depth interviews, helmet-mounted video cameras and diary entries. Forty-nine women participated in the study ranging in age from early 20s to mid-70s. FINDINGS: Respondents learned to cycle between the ages of 5 and 12 and most stopped in the early years of secondary school. Almost half the respondents had returned to cycling several times through the life course while another significant group had cycled occasionally up to the time of the interview. Women returned to cycling through a combination of circumstances but women in their early 20s emphasised the importance of social relationships while women in their late 30s (and older) stressed concerns about health and fitness. Becoming mothers or grandmothers was given as a reason for both taking up and giving up cycling. Although there was no pattern in the specific trigger that shifted women from ‘thinking about cycling to getting on a bike’...

Physiologic responses during indoor cycling

Battista, Rebecca A.; Foster, Carl; Andrew, Jessica; Wright, Glenn; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Porcari, John P.
Fonte: Universidade Européia Publicador: Universidade Européia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
During the last decade, there has been active interest in indoor cycling (e.g., spinning) as a method of choreographed group exercise. Recent studies have suggested that exercise intensity during indoor cycling may be quite high and may transiently exceed Vo2max. This study sought to confirm these findings, as the apparent high intensity of indoor cycling has implications for both the efficacy and the risk of indoor cycling as an exercise method. Twenty healthy female students performed an incremental exercise test to define Vo2max and performed 2 videotaped indoor exercise classes lasting 45 minutes and 35 minutes. Vo2, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the indoor cycling classes, with Vo2 data integrated in 30-second intervals. The mean %Vo2max during the indoor cycling classes was modest (74 +/- 14% Vo2max and 66 +/- 14%Vo2max, respectively). However, 52% and 35% of the time during the 45- and 35-minute classes was spent at intensities greater than the ventilatory threshold (VT). The HR response indicated that 35% and 38% of the session time was above the HR associated with VT. In 10 of the 40 exercise sessions, there were segments in which the momentary Vo2 exceeded Vo2max observed during incremental testing...

Bicycling and the Life Course: The Start-Stop-Start Experiences of Women Cycling

Bonham, J.; Wilson, A.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Ltd Publicador: Taylor & Francis Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
Interest in cycling as a sustainable form of transport has helped foreground questions of gender and mobility. This paper reports on a qualitative study into Australian women's experiences of cycling through the life course. It focuses on the circumstances in which women start and stop cycling and the spatial contexts in which this occurs. The study found that, after childhood, almost half of the respondents had returned to cycling several times through the life course. Changes in women's cycling patterns related to changes in housing, employment, health and family status. The findings suggest productive new way of researching everyday mobility.; Jennifer Bonham & Anne Wilson

The ladies' 4-week cycle challenge: experiences and insights

O'Connell, Aileen; Higgins, Ross; Cosgrove, Tom
Fonte: Irish Transport Research Network Publicador: Irish Transport Research Network
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
peer-reviewed; Limerick was designated as Ireland’s National Smarter Travel demonstration area in 2012. Limerick Smarter Travel (LST), which aims to promote sustainable travel in the City and suburbs, is a partnership between the Limerick Councils and the University of Limerick (UL). Within UL, final year projects and other research is on-going in the smarter travel subject area. Although cycling participation in Ireland is on the rise both nationally and locally within the Limerick community, travel survey data conducted by the LST team has demonstrated a significant gender gap exists among cyclists with far less women cycling than men. This paper is based on a final year project thesis: The Ladies’ 4-Week Cycle Challenge: An active research study of females investigating the barriers and motivators regarding cycling participation in Ireland. The research involved a group of females taking up cycling over a period of 4 weeks as a means of commuting to work/college. Following pre- and post-challenge interviews with the female participants a number of measures to encourage cycling participation among women are outlined along with recommendations for further research.

Avaliação do exercicio fisico com bicicleta estacionaria em gestantes com risco para o desenvolvimento da pre-eclampsia; Assessment of physical exercise using stationary bicycle for pergnant women with risk for preeclampsia development

Camila Schneider Gannuny Burgos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/01/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.23%
Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito do exercício físico com bicicleta estacionária na incidência de pré-eclâmpsia (PE), na variação da pressão arterial (PA), freqüência cardíaca (FC) e na qualidade de vida (QV) em gestantes com hipertensão arterial crônica, PE em gestações anteriores ou os dois fatores associados. Sujeitos e métodos: realizou-se um ensaio clínico controlado, prospectivo e aleatorizado, de abordagem quantitativa, em 52 gestantes que apresentavam fatores de risco para desenvolver PE (hipertensão arterial crônica, PE em gestações anteriores ou ambos os fatores) no período de janeiro de 2008 a setembro de 2009. As participantes após selecionadas no ambulatório de pré-natal do Centro de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher (CAISM) na Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP) foram aleatorizadas em dois grupos: no grupo estudo as gestantes realizaram exercícios físicos com bicicleta estacionária (horizontal) uma vez por semana sob supervisão do fisioterapeuta, no Ambulatório de Fisioterapia do CAISM/UNICAMP, e no grupo controle seguiram a rotina de assistência pré-natal, com retornos semanais ao ambulatório de Fisioterapia para o controle da PA e FC. Todas preencheram o questionário de qualidade de vida (QV-Short Form Health Survey - SF-36) em três momentos...

Dose–response associations between cycling activity and risk of hypertension in regular cyclists: The UK Cycling for Health Study

Hollingworth, M; Harper, A; Hamer, M
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.33%
Most population studies on physical activity and health have involved largely inactive men and women, thus making it difficult to infer if health benefits occur at exercise levels above the current minimum guidelines. The aim was to examine associations between cycling volume and classical cardiovascular risk markers, including hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, in a population sample of habitual cyclists. A nationwide sample comprising 6949 men and women (aged 47.6 years on average) completed questions about their cycling levels, demographics and health. Nearly the entire sample (96.3%) achieved the current minimum physical activity recommendation through cycling alone. There was a dose–response association between cycling volume and risk of diagnosed hypertension (P-trend =0.001), with odds ratios of 0.98 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80–1.21), 0.86 (0.70, 1.06), 0.67 (95% CI, 0.53–0.83) across categories of 23–40, 40–61 and >61 metabolic equivalent hours/week (MET-h/week) compared with <23 MET-h/week. These associations persisted in models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, body mass index (BMI) and other moderatevigorous physical activities. We also observed inverse associations between cycling volume and other risk factors including BMI and hypercholesterolemia. In summary...

Anaerobic cycling performance characteristics in prepubescent, adolescent and young adult females

Doré, Eric; Bedu, Mário; França, Nanci Maria de; Van Praagh, Emmanuel
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: Texto
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the relationships between short-term power and body dimensions in young females were similar whatever the age of the individuals. A cohort of 189 prepubescent (mean age 9.5 years), adolescent (mean age 14.4 years) and young adult (mean age 18.2 years) females performed three all-out sprints on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer against three braking forces corresponding to applied loads of 25, 50 and 75 g.kg-1 body mass (BM). For each sprint, peak power including flywheel inertia was calculated. Results showed that a braking load of 75 g.kg-1 BM was too high for prepubescent and adolescent girls. Therefore, when measuring short-term cycling performance in heterogeneous female populations, a braking load of 50 g.kg-1 BM (0.495 N.kg-1 BM) is recommended. During growth, cycling peak power (CPP; defined as the highest peak power obtained during the three sprints) increased, as did total BM, fat-free mass (FFM) and lean leg volume (LLV) (P < 0.001). Analysis of covariance revealed that the slopes of the linear relationships between CPP and biometric characteristics were similar in the three groups (P > 0.7 for the CPP/BM and CPP/FFM relationships, and P > 0.2 for the CPP/LLV relationship). However...

Contribution of estradiol levels and hormonal contraceptives to sex differences within the fear network during fear conditioning and extinction

Hwang, Moon Jung; Zsido, Rachel G.; Song, Huijin; Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Miller, Karen Klahr; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer; Marin, Marie-France; Milad, Mohammed R.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.37%
Background: Findings about sex differences in the field of fear conditioning and fear extinction have been mixed. At the psychophysiological level, sex differences emerge only when taking estradiol levels of women into consideration. This suggests that this hormone may also influence sex differences with regards to activations of brain regions involved in fear conditioning and its extinction. Importantly, the neurobiological correlates associated with the use of hormonal oral contraceptives in women have not been fully contrasted against men and against naturally cycling women with different levels of estradiol. In this study, we begin to fill these scientific gaps. Methods: We recruited 37 healthy men and 48 healthy women. Of these women, 16 were using oral contraceptives (OC) and 32 were naturally cycling. For these naturally cycling women, a median split was performed on their serum estradiol levels to create a high estradiol (HE) group (n = 16) and a low estradiol (LE) group (n = 16). All participants underwent a 2-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm in a 3 T MR scanner. Using the 4 groups (men, HE women, LE women, and OC users) and controlling for age and coil type, one-way ANCOVAs were performed to look at significant activations within the nodes of the fear circuit. Using post-hoc analyses...

O transtorno bipolar na mulher; Bipolar disorder in women

Guerra, Alexandro de Borja Gonçalves; Calil, Helena Maria
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Psiquiatria Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Psiquiatria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2005 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
Diferenças sexuais, descritas em vários transtornos psiquiátricos, também parecem estar presentes no transtorno afetivo bipolar (TAB). A prevalência do TAB tipo I se distribui igualmente entre mulheres e homens. Mulheres parecem estar sujeitas a um risco maior de ciclagem rápida e mania mista, condições que fariam do TAB um transtorno com curso mais prejudicial no sexo feminino. Uma diátese depressiva mais marcante, uso excessivo de antidepressivos e diferenças hormonais surgem como hipóteses para explicar essas diferenças fenomenológicas, apesar das quais, mulheres e homens parecem responder igualmente ao tratamento medicamentoso. A indicação de anticonvulsivantes como primeira escolha em mulheres é controversa, a não ser para o tratamento da mania mista e, talvez, da ciclagem rápida. O tratamento do TAB na gravidez deve levar em conta tanto os riscos de exposição aos medicamentos quanto à doença materna. A profilaxia do TAB no puerpério está fortemente indicada em decorrência do grande risco de recorrência da doença nesse período. Embora, de modo geral, as medicações psicotrópicas estejam contra-indicadas durante a amamentação, entre os estabilizadores do humor, a carbamazepina e o valproato são mais seguros do que o lítio. Mais estudos são necessários para a confirmação das diferenças de curso do TAB entre mulheres e homens e a investigação de possíveis diferenças na efetividade dos tratamentos.; Gender differences...

Bicycle, Cycling and Women in the 19th to 20th Centuries’ Transition; A bicicleta, o ciclismo e as mulheres na transição dos séculos XIX e XX

Melo, Victor Andrade de; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Schetino, André; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2009 POR
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This article aims to discuss the relationships between the new configuration of the women social presence (and, in this scenario, the positions of leaders of feminine civil rights’ movements), the new social dynamics marked by the valorization of public leisure activities (of which cycling is a remarkable example) and a new invention (the bicycle) in the 19th to 20th centuries’ transition. Initially, we discuss specific cases of Europe (mainly those of France) and United States, searching to recover the pioneer discussions and occurrences concerning the involvement of women with cycling. Later, we discuss the specific case of Rio de Janeiro, the biggest city and capital of the country at that time, whose leaders had aspirations to constitute in the Brazilian modern metropolis.; http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-026X2009000100007Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir as relações entre a nova configuração da presença social das mulheres (e nesse cenário as posições de líderes dos movimentos por direitos civis femininos), a nova dinâmica social marcada pela valorização das atividades públicas de lazer (da qual o ciclismo é um exemplo privilegiado) e um novo invento (a bicicleta) na transição dos séculos XIX e XX. Inicialmente abordaremos os casos específicos da Europa (com destaque para a França) e dos Estados Unidos...