The chemical composition and biological properties of Portuguese wild mushrooms (Cantharellus cibarius, Hypholoma fasciculare, Lepista nuda, Lycoperdon molle, Lycoperdon perlatum, Ramaria
botrytis, Tricholoma acerbum) were evaluated in order to assess these products as sources of nutrients
and nutraceuticals. The analyzed mushrooms contain very useful phytochemicals such as phenolics,
tocopherols, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids. All of the species proved to have antioxidant activity
(measured by four different methods), being more significant for R. botrytis (EC50 values < 1 mg/
mL). Lycoperdon species were resistant to all of the tested microorganisms, and the other samples
revealed antimicrobial activity selectively against Gram-positive bacteria, with very low minimal
inhibitory concentration, in some cases, even lower than the standard. The combination of bioactive
compounds and rich nutritional composition (high contents in protein and carbohydrates, low content
in fat with the precious contribution of unsaturated fatty acids and the absence of trans fatty acids)
in the mushroom makes it a very special food
An ETAAS method was validated to quantify total Cr and CrVI in mushrooms and the underlying soils. The method includes a sample pretreatment for total Cr dissolution using a wet acid digestion
procedure and a selective alkaline extraction for CrVI. The limits of detection were, expressed in
íg/L, 0.15 and 0.17 for total Cr and CrVI, respectively. The linearity ranges under the optimized
conditions were 0.15-25.0 and 0.17-20.0 íg/L for total Cr and CrVI, respectively. The limits of
quantification were, expressed in íg/g of dry weight, 0.0163 and 0.0085 for total and hexavalent
chromium, respectively. The precision of the instrumental method for total Cr and CrVI was lower
than 1.6%, and for the analytical method, it was lower than 10%. The accuracy of the method for
CrVI quantification was evaluated by the standard additions method, with the recoveries being higher
than 90% for all of the added concentrations. For total Cr, certified reference materials (lichen CRM
482 and soil sample NCS ZC73001) were used. An interference study was also carried out in a
mushroom simulated matrix, and it was verified that the deviations of the expected values were lower
than 4.0% for both total Cr and CrVI. The validated method was applied to the evaluation of total Cr
and CrVI in 34 wild mushrooms and 34 respective underlying soil samples collected in two different
regions of Portugal (Beira Interior and Trás-os-Montes)...
Wild mushrooms have been described as sources of natural antioxidants,
particularly phenolic compounds. However, many other compounds present in
wild mushrooms can also act as antioxidants (reducers), so whole extracts from
a wide range of species need to be examined. To gain further knowledge in this
area, the relationship between the antioxidant potential (scavenging effect
and reducing power) and chemical composition of twenty three samples from
seventeen Portuguese wild mushroom species was investigated. A wide range
of analytical parameters reported by our research group (including ash,
carbohydrates, proteins, fat, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated
fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and
-carotene) were studied and the data were analysed by partial least squares
(PLS) regression analysis to allow correlation of all the parameters. Antioxidant
activity correlated well with phenolic and flavonoid contents. A QCAR
(Quantitative Composition-Activity Relationships) model was constructed,
using the PLS method, and its robustness and predictability were verified by
internal and external cross-validation methods. Finally, this model proved to be
a useful tool in the prediction of mushrooms’ reducing power.
Analysis of phenolic compounds in sixteen Portuguese wild mushrooms species has been carried out by
high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector and mass spectrometer
(HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS). No flavonoids were detected in the analysed samples, but diverse phenolic acids
namely protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids, and two vanillic acid isomers were
found and quantified. A related non-phenolic compound, cinnamic acid, was also detected in some samples,
being the only compound found in Cantharellus cibarius (14.97 mg/kg, dry matter), Lycoperdon perlatum
(14.36 mg/kg) and Macrolepiota procera (21.53 mg/kg). p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was found in the
majority of the samples, being the most abundant compound in Agaricus silvicola (238.7 mg/kg). Ramaria
botrytis showed the highest phenolic acids concentration (356.7 mg/kg) due to the significant contribution
of protocatechuic acid (342.7 mg/kg).
The present work aims at contributing to the documentation of the nutritional composition of wild mushrooms.
Fatty acid and sugar profiles of 10 different Portuguese wild mushrooms were obtained by gas chromatography
coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and high performance liquid chromatography coupled
to a refraction index detector (HPLC/RID), respectively, the latter methodology being then completely validated.
The macronutrient profile in general revealed that the wild mushrooms were rich sources of protein
(24.32–76.63 g/100 g) and carbohydrates (10.35–55.48 g/100 g), and had low amounts of fat (0.36–2.63 g/
100 g). The highest energetic contribution was guaranteed by Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca. The analysis of fatty
acid composition allowed the quantification of 25 fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids and, in particular, oleic
and linoleic acids, were predominant (17–61% and 20–54%, respectively). In the analysis of free sugars, all the
compounds were separated in a period of time of 10 min; the method used proved to be sensitive, reproducible
and accurate. Arabinose (1.53–7.66 g/100 g), mannitol (0.38–18.41 g/100 g) and trehalose (0.21–18.66 g/
100 g) were the most abundant sugars.
The antioxidant composition and properties of 18 Portuguese wild mushrooms (Clitocybe alexandri,
Cortinarius glaucopus, Fistulina hepatica, Hydnum repandum, Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca, Hypholoma
capnoides, Laccaria amethystina, Laccaria laccata, Lactarius aurantiacus, Lactarius salmonicolor, Lepista inversa,
Lepista sordida, Mycena rosea, Russula delica, Russula vesca, Suillus collinitus, Suillus mediterraneensis,
Tricholoma sulphureum) were evaluated, in order to contribute to the overall characterisation of these
products. Their radical-scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured
in liposome solutions was fully studied. Furthermore, the tocopherols composition was determined
by HPLC-fluorescence. The analysed mushrooms contain powerful antioxidants such as phenols (0.51–
7.90 mg/g) and tocopherols (0.02–8.04 lg/g). b-Tocopherol was the vitamer detected in higher amounts,
while d-tocopherol was not detected in the majority of the samples. All the species proved to have antioxidant
activity being more significant for H. aurantiaca (EC50 values lower than 1.35 mg/ml) due to the
contribution of antioxidants such as phenols (7.90 mg/g) and tocopherols (0.02–1.94 lg/g). The ongoing
research states the nutraceutical potential of all these unique species...
The in vitro antioxidant and growth inhibitory activity of extracts obtained from two Portuguese wild mushrooms (Clitocybe alexandri and Lepista inversa) was studied in human tumour cell lines. The extracts were phenolic (methanolic and ethanolic) and polysaccharidic (boiling water). The antioxidant activity assays included evaluation of radical-scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured in liposome solutions. Extract-induced cell growth inhibition was measured in four different tumour cell lines (lung, breast, colon and gastric cancer) using the SRB assay. The polysaccharidic extract oft. inversa was the most potent as antioxidant (EC50 < 1.8 +/- 0.1 mg/ml), while the phenolic ethanolic extract of C alexandri was the most potent as inhibitor of growth of the studied cancer cell lines (Gl(50) <26.0 +/- 1.3 mu g/ml). Together, these activities indicate that these mushrooms are promising sources of bioactive compounds. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Analysis of phenolic compounds in seventeen Portuguese wild mushroom species was
26 carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array
27 detection (HPLC-DAD). Protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric and cinnamic acid
28 were found and quantified. Fistulina hepatica showed the highest phenolic acids
29 concentration (111.72 mg/Kg, dw) due to the significant contribution of protocatechuic
30 (67.62 mg/Kg) and p-hydroxybenzoic (41.92 mg/kg) acids. The edible mushrooms
31 analyzed could be directly used in the human diet to combat oxidative stress, while
32 inedible species could represent a source of extractable phenolic compounds to be used as
33 additives in the food industry or as components in pharmaceutical and cosmetic
34 formulations, due to their well-known antioxidant properties.
Trás-os-Montes region is considered one of the richest regions of Portugal concerning the existence of wild mushrooms. In the present work, was studied the volatile profile of three species of wild mushrooms, Hebeloma crustuliniforme, Clitocybe odora and Tricholoma fracticum. These species have different flavours, namely radish-, anise-like odor, and not distinctive or slightly mealy odor, respectively. The volatile fractions were determined in fresh mushrooms by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas-chromatography/ion trap-mass spectrometry (GC/IT-MS).
Several volatile compounds were identified, belonging to different chemical classes. The three studied mushroom species reported different volatile profiles as presented in Figure 1. Meanwhile these species are mainly composed by alcohols and aldehydes, and in minor content by sesquiterpenes, terpenic compounds, esters, ketones and other chemical classes. 3-Octanol and 1-octanol were identified in the species contributing to their flavour. ρ-Anisaldehyde was only identified in Clitocybe odora and was the main volatile compound identified in this specie. It contributes with the characteristic anise smell of this mushroom, and could be also used as a chemical authenticity marker. Linalool was present in the three species in considerable amounts contributing with floral scents.
Overall the volatile profile of the three species contributes with characteristic fragrances...
The use of natural products isolated from mushrooms, included inedible species, against infection, cancer diseases and other oxidative-stress related diseases is one of the cornerstones of modern medicine. In the present work, the antioxidant molecule profiles of inedible mushroom species were evaluated and compared with those of edible species. The order of antioxidant abundance found in inedible wild mushrooms was: phenolics > flavonoids > ascorbic acid > tocopherols > carotenoids, similar to that of edible species. Furthermore the same energetic biomolecules were found including the disaccharide trehalose, the monosaccharide alcohol derivative mannitol and the fatty acids palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. Fomitopsis pinicola revealed a very high phenolics concentration (388 mg GAE/g extract) and powerful antioxidant properties, mainly reducing power (EC50 value 60 g/mL similar to the standard Trolox®). It could find applications in the prevention of free radical-related diseases as a source of bioactive compounds.
Wild mushrooms have become attractive as a source of physiologically beneficial compounds including antioxidants such as phenolic compounds and tocopherols. The concentrations of antioxidant compounds (phenolics and α-tocopherol) and EC50 values of antioxidant activity (concentration required to achieve 50% of radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition, or 0.5 of absorbance in reducing power) were analyzed by partial least square (PLS) regression analysis. Three QCAR (Quantitative Composition-Activity Relationship) models were constructed and their robustness and predictability were verified by internal and external cross-validation methods. Antioxidant activity correlated well with phenolics and -tocopherol contents, the major antioxidants in wild mushrooms. The models proved to be useful tools in the prediction of mushrooms radical scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition.
Mushrooms do not constitute a significant portion of the human diet, but their consumption continues to increase
due to their functional benefits and presence of bioactive compounds. Some of those compounds can be found in the phenolic,
polysaccharidic, and lipidic fractions of edible and inedible species. Herein, those fractions of five wild mushrooms (Coprinopsis
atramentaria, Lactarius bertillonii, Lactarius vellereus, Rhodotus palmatus, and Xerocomus chrysenteron) from northeastern Portugal
were studied for their chemical composition and antioxidant properties. Protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, and
cinnamic acids were found in the phenolic fraction; rhamnose, xylose, fucose, arabinose, fructose, glucose, manose, mannitol,
sucrose, maltose, and trehalose were quantified in polysaccharidic fraction; and linoleic and stearic (only in Lactarius sp.) acids,
and β- and γ-tocopherols were the main compounds in the lipidic fraction. C. atramentaria and X. chrysenteron phenolic fractions
gave the highest free radical scavenging activity, reducing properties, and lipid peroxidation inhibition in brain homogenates,
which is in agreement with its highest content in total phenolics. Furthermore, among the polysaccharidic fractions C.
atramentaria also gave the highest antioxidant activity...
This study describes the nutritional and nutraceutical potential of two species of wild edible
mushrooms (Lactarius deliciosus and Macrolepiota procera) commonly consumed in the
region of Trás-os-Montes, Northeast Portugal.
The nutritional parameters analyzed were moisture, ash, fat, proteins, carbohydrates and
energetic contribution. Free sugars and fatty acids were also determined by high performance
liquid chromatography coupled with a refractive index detector (HPLC/RI) and gas
chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID), respectively.
Macronutrient profile revealed that the studied species are rich sources of carbohydrates,
proteins and energy, revealing low fat content. Mannitol and trehalose were the most
abundant sugars in both species. The main fatty acid found in M. procera was linoleic acid,
while stearic acid was the most abundant in L. deliciosus.
The nutraceutical potential was also evaluated through antioxidant properties measured by
DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition
of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of LPO using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances
(TBARS). The mentioned assays showed and high antioxidant activity for both samples
species. Phenolic acids and related compounds were analysed by HPLC coupled to diode
array detection (HPLC/DAD) and p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was found in L. deliciosus and
cinnamic acid in M. procera.
Mushrooms are especially sensitive to senescence, browning, water loss and microbial attack. Furthermore, wild species are characterized for their seasonality, demanding the development of suitable preservation technology. Gamma-irradiation was previously tested in wild Lactarius deliciosus, being verified that its application up to 1 kGy did not imply significant changes in chemical parameters. Herein, the effects of higher gamma-irradiation doses, typically used in natural food matrices like fruits or vegetables, were assessed in Boletus edulis Bull.: Fr. and Hydnum repandum L.: Fr. by checking for changes in nutritional parameters, free sugars, tocopherols, fatty acids, organic acids and antioxidant activity indicators. To have representative samples, the used carpophores were collected in different maturity stages, using the same number of specimens for each stage and also for each mushroom species. The specific effects of each tested irradiation were evaluated in an integrated manner through principal component analysis. The correspondent biplots indicate that differences caused by gamma-irradiation are enough to separate irradiated and non-irradiated samples of both mushrooms. Nevertheless, nutritional profiles were not affected in high extension...
Mushrooms are widely appreciated all over the world for their nutritional properties, and also for their pharmacological value. They have been considered valuable health foods, being a source of many different bioactive compounds such as unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, organic acids and phenolic compounds.
The present work reports and compares the nutritional value, bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of two wild edible mushroom species from Portugal and Serbia: Boletus aereus and Calocybe gambosa. Regarding the nutritional value of the studied species, carbohydrates were the macronutrients found in higher amounts and no major differences were observed between the energetic values of the samples. Mannitol and trehalose were quantified in all the studied samples and it was also possible to quantify rhamnose and fructose in Boletus aereus from Serbia. Analyzing the fatty acids profile, unsaturated fatty acids predominated over saturated fatty acids. About tocopherols, β-tocopherol was only found in Boletus aereus from Serbia; α-,γ- and δ-isoforms were part of the profile of the Portuguese samples. Protocatechuic acid was only quantified in Calocybe gambosa from Portugal. Two acids, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric...
The chemical composition and the antioxidant potential
of three species of wild mushrooms from Northeastern
Portugal, namely Agaricus albertii, Agaricus urinascens var.
excellens, and Pleurotus eryngii, were compared. Standard
procedures were followed in the nutritional value evaluation,
while chromatographic procedures were used to analyze free
sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, and organic
acids. To assess the antioxidant potential, reducing power,
radical-scavenging activity, and lipid peroxidation inhibition
were evaluated. P. eryngii revealed the highest levels of macronutrients,
except proteins, as also the highest sugars, tocopherols,
and monounsaturated fatty acids contents. A. albertii and
A. urinascens var. excellens showed similar macronutrients
composition. However, A. albertii revealed the highest content
in PUFA and phenolic compounds. P. eryngii revealed the
highest reducing power and radical-scavenging activity and
A. albertii the highest lipid peroxidation inhibition. This study
provides a detailed chemical characterization and antioxidant
potential evaluation of three species of wild mushrooms from
Portugal not yet previously reported. Thus, this work intended
to contribute to the increase of information concerning species
of edible mushrooms (directed to the scientific community and
general population) as well as contribute to the conservation of
these resources as sources of compounds of interest.
Secondary metabolites present in the volatile fraction of six wild mushroom species (Clitocybe odora,
Clitocybe fragrans, Hebeloma crustuliniforme, Lepista nuda, Tricholoma fracticum and Tricholoma terreum)
were studied, as an attempt to identify compounds capable to distinguish mushroom species for taxonomic
and authentication purposes. Volatiles were assessed by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS–SPME)
and by gas chromatography/ion-trap mass-spectrometry (GC/IT–MS). By using target analysis, 46 volatiles
were grouped in 5 chemical classes: alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, sesquiterpene-like compounds and terpenes.
Each species revealed a unique volatile profile, with changes in the dominant chemical class. Aliphatic
compounds with eight carbon atoms, such as 3-octanol, 1-octanol and 3-octanone were the most abundant.
The non-target approach application, using all HS–SPME–GC–MS data (raw chromatograms) aims to detect a
large number of compounds to get a fingerprint of each sample. This procedure, involving previous data
treatments as chromatogram data alignments, sample data fingerprints, and multivariate analysis, represents
a powerful tool to execute an initial screening of the analytical results, enabling a faster interpretability of the
results without time-consuming through identifications and quantifications.
Unsupervised signal decomposition techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) applied both to
targeted and non-targeted approaches revealed 11 volatile compounds (3-octanol...
Oleic acid is an essential fatty acid, omega 9, which participates in the metabolism and plays a key role in the synthesis of hormones. Studies have demonstrated that monounsaturated fatty acids help in lowering the leveis of LDL (low-density lipoprotein), increasing the leveis of HDL (high-density lipoprotein), suppressed appetite and short-term food intake in overweight subjects . Wild mushrooms are excellent to be induded in low caloric diets, presenting higher levels of unsaturated fatty adds than saturated ones . Nevertheless, the high perishability is a common characteristic in mushrooms that leads to lose quality immediately after harvest. In this sense, there are continuous investigations to find an effective consenservation technology. Gamma irradiation has been applied with success in extend the post-harvest of fresh mushrooms . In the present work, the effects of gamma irradiation (1 and 2 kGy) in fresh samples of wild Hydnum repandum L.: Fr. were assessed, regarding the content and profile of fatty acids. The fruiting bodies were collected in Trás-os-Montes (Northeast of Portugal) in November 2012. The irradiation was performed in experimental equipment with four Co-60 sources and fatty acids were analyzed by gas-chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The
most abundant fatty acids in H. repandum were palmitic acid (C16:0)...
Mushrooms do not constitute a significant portion of the human diet, but their consumption continues to increase due to their functional benefits and presence of bioactive compounds. Some of those compounds can be found in the phenolic, polysaccharidic and lipidic fractions of edible and inedible species. Herein, those fractions of five wild mushrooms (Coprinopsis atramentaria, Lactarius bertillonii, Lactarius vellereus, Rhodotus palmatus and Xerocomus chrysenteron) from Northeast Portugal were studied for their chemical composition and antioxidant properties. Protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric and cinnamic acids were found in the phenolic fraction, ramnose, xylose, fucose, arabinose, fructose, glucose, manose, mannitol, sucrose, maltose and trehalose were quantified in polysaccharidic fraction, linoleic and stearic (only in Lactarius sp.) acids, and β- and γ-tocopherols were the main compounds in the lipidic fraction. C. atramentaria and X. chrysenteron phenolic fractions gave the highest free radical scavenging activity, reducing properties and lipid peroxidation inhibition in brain homogenates, which is in agreement with its highest content in total phenolics. Furthermore, among the polysaccharidic fractions C. atramentaria also gave the highest antioxidant activity...
Antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of extracts obtained from four wild mushrooms, Termitomyces clypeatus (TCE), Termitomyces robustus (TRE), Lentinus subnudus (LSE) and Lenzites species (LZE) collected in Nigeria were investigated. LSE and LZE displayed good scavenging activity against 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferrous ion radicals at concentration of 2 mg/mL. However, TRE and TCE exhibited better superoxide anion scavenging effect at 2 mg/mL. All extracts (TCE, TRE, LSE and LZE) had comparable scavenging effect on hydroxyl radicals as butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) used as control. Moreover, extracts from the wild mushrooms were able to inhibit the growth of all indicator organisms at concentrations between 12.5 mg/mL to 100 mg/mL. LSE and LZE, however, showed better antimicrobial effect on the indicator organisms. The results suggest that extracts obtained from the four wild mushrooms may serve as sources of new bioactive compounds with effective antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.