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Cell proliferation, cell shape, and microtubule and cellulose microfibril organization of tobacco BY-2 cells are not altered by exposure to near weightlessness in space

Sieberer, Björn J.; Kieft, Henk; Franssen-Verheijen, Tiny; Emons, Anne Mie C.; Vos, Jan W.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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27.75%
The microtubule cytoskeleton and the cell wall both play key roles in plant cell growth and division, determining the plant’s final stature. At near weightlessness, tubulin polymerizes into microtubules in vitro, but these microtubules do not self-organize in the ordered patterns observed at 1g. Likewise, at near weightlessness cortical microtubules in protoplasts have difficulty organizing into parallel arrays, which are required for proper plant cell elongation. However, intact plants do grow in space and therefore should have a normally functioning microtubule cytoskeleton. Since the main difference between protoplasts and plant cells in a tissue is the presence of a cell wall, we studied single, but walled, tobacco BY-2 suspension-cultured cells during an 8-day space-flight experiment on board of the Soyuz capsule and the International Space Station during the 12S mission (March–April 2006). We show that the cortical microtubule density, ordering and orientation in isolated walled plant cells are unaffected by near weightlessness, as are the orientation of the cellulose microfibrils, cell proliferation, and cell shape. Likely, tissue organization is not essential for the organization of these structures in space. When combined with the fact that many recovering protoplasts have an aberrant cortical microtubule cytoskeleton...

Diamagnetic levitation enhances growth of liquid bacterial cultures by increasing oxygen availability

Dijkstra, Camelia E.; Larkin, Oliver J.; Anthony, Paul; Davey, Michael R.; Eaves, Laurence; Rees, Catherine E. D.; Hill, Richard J. A.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Diamagnetic levitation is a technique that uses a strong, spatially varying magnetic field to reproduce aspects of weightlessness, on the Earth. We used a superconducting magnet to levitate growing bacterial cultures for up to 18 h, to determine the effect of diamagnetic levitation on all phases of the bacterial growth cycle. We find that diamagnetic levitation increases the rate of population growth in a liquid culture and reduces the sedimentation rate of the cells. Further experiments and microarray gene analysis show that the increase in growth rate is owing to enhanced oxygen availability. We also demonstrate that the magnetic field that levitates the cells also induces convective stirring in the liquid. We present a simple theoretical model, showing how the paramagnetic force on dissolved oxygen can cause convection during the aerobic phases of bacterial growth. We propose that this convection enhances oxygen availability by transporting oxygen around the liquid culture. Since this process results from the strong magnetic field, it is not present in other weightless environments, e.g. in Earth orbit. Hence, these results are of significance and timely to researchers considering the use of diamagnetic levitation to explore effects of weightlessness on living organisms and on physical phenomena.

Study of Histopathological and Molecular Changes of Rat Kidney under Simulated Weightlessness and Resistance Training Protective Effect

Ding, Ye; Zou, Jun; Li, Zhili; Tian, Jijing; Abdelalim, Saed; Du, Fang; She, Ruiping; Wang, Desheng; Tan, Cheng; Wang, Huijuan; Chen, Wenjuan; Lv, Dongqiang; Chang, Lingling
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/05/2011 EN
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27.56%
To explore the effects of long-term weightlessness on the renal tissue, we used the two months tail suspension model to simulate microgravity and investigated the simulated microgravity on the renal morphological damages and related molecular mechanisms. The microscopic examination of tissue structure and ultrastructure was carried out for histopathological changes of renal tissue morphology. The immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blot were performed to explore the molecular mechanisms associated the observations. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining showed severe pathological kidney lesions including glomerular atrophy, degeneration and necrosis of renal tubular epithelial cells in two months tail-suspended rats. Ultrastructural studies of the renal tubular epithelial cells demonstrated that basal laminas of renal tubules were rough and incrassate with mitochondria swelling and vacuolation. Cell apoptosis in kidney monitored by the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-3 accompanied these pathological damages caused by long-term microgravity. Analysis of the HSP70 protein expression illustrated that overexpression of HSP70 might play a crucial role in inducing those pathological damages. Glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78)...

Coherence between Brain Cortical Function and Neurocognitive Performance during Changed Gravity Conditions

Brümmer, Vera; Schneider, Stefan; Vogt, Tobias; Strüder, Heiko; Carnahan, Heather; Askew, Christopher D.; Csuhaj, Roland
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/05/2011 EN
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17.24%
Previous studies of cognitive, mental and/or motor processes during short-, medium- and long-term weightlessness have only been descriptive in nature, and focused on psychological aspects. Until now, objective observation of neurophysiological parameters has not been carried out - undoubtedly because the technical and methodological means have not been available -, investigations into the neurophysiological effects of weightlessness are in their infancy (Schneider et al. 2008).

Gravity Influences Top-Down Signals in Visual Processing

Cheron, Guy; Leroy, Axelle; Palmero-Soler, Ernesto; De Saedeleer, Caty; Bengoetxea, Ana; Cebolla, Ana-Maria; Vidal, Manuel; Dan, Bernard; Berthoz, Alain; McIntyre, Joseph
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/01/2014 EN
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17.75%
Visual perception is not only based on incoming visual signals but also on information about a multimodal reference frame that incorporates vestibulo-proprioceptive input and motor signals. In addition, top-down modulation of visual processing has previously been demonstrated during cognitive operations including selective attention and working memory tasks. In the absence of a stable gravitational reference, the updating of salient stimuli becomes crucial for successful visuo-spatial behavior by humans in weightlessness. Here we found that visually-evoked potentials triggered by the image of a tunnel just prior to an impending 3D movement in a virtual navigation task were altered in weightlessness aboard the International Space Station, while those evoked by a classical 2D-checkerboard were not. Specifically, the analysis of event-related spectral perturbations and inter-trial phase coherency of these EEG signals recorded in the frontal and occipital areas showed that phase-locking of theta-alpha oscillations was suppressed in weightlessness, but only for the 3D tunnel image. Moreover, analysis of the phase of the coherency demonstrated the existence on Earth of a directional flux in the EEG signals from the frontal to the occipital areas mediating a top-down modulation during the presentation of the image of the 3D tunnel. In weightlessness...

Impact of a High Magnetic Field on the Orientation of Gravitactic Unicellular Organisms—A Critical Consideration about the Application of Magnetic Fields to Mimic Functional Weightlessness

Hemmersbach, Ruth; Simon, Anja; Waßer, Kai; Hauslage, Jens; Christianen, Peter C.M.; Albers, Peter W.; Lebert, Michael; Richter, Peter; Alt, Wolfgang; Anken, Ralf
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.24%
The gravity-dependent behavior of Paramecium biaurelia and Euglena gracilis have previously been studied on ground and in real microgravity. To validate whether high magnetic field exposure indeed provides a ground-based facility to mimic functional weightlessness, as has been suggested earlier, both cell types were observed during exposure in a strong homogeneous magnetic field (up to 30 T) and a strong magnetic field gradient. While swimming, Paramecium cells were aligned along the magnetic field lines; orientation of Euglena was perpendicular, demonstrating that the magnetic field determines the orientation and thus prevents the organisms from the random swimming known to occur in real microgravity. Exposing Astasia longa, a flagellate that is closely related to Euglena but lacks chloroplasts and the photoreceptor, as well as the chloroplast-free mutant E. gracilis 1F, to a high magnetic field revealed no reorientation to the perpendicular direction as in the case of wild-type E. gracilis, indicating the existence of an anisotropic structure (chloroplasts) that determines the direction of passive orientation. Immobilized Euglena and Paramecium cells could not be levitated even in the highest available magnetic field gradient as sedimentation persisted with little impact of the field on the sedimentation velocities. We conclude that magnetic fields are not suited as a microgravity simulation for gravitactic unicellular organisms due to the strong effect of the magnetic field itself...

Searching for the Origin through Central Nervous System: A Review and Thought which Related to Microgravity, Evolution, Big Bang Theory and Universes, Soul and Brainwaves, Greater Limbic System and Seat of the Soul

IDRIS, Zamzuri
Fonte: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia Publicador: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2014 EN
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17.24%
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves buoyancy. The buoyancy thought to play crucial role in many aspects of the central nervous system (CNS). Weightlessness is produced mainly by the CSF. This manuscript is purposely made to discuss its significance which thought contributing towards an ideal environment for the CNS to develop and function normally. The idea of microgravity environment for the CNS is supported not only by the weightlessness concept of the brain, but also the noted anatomical position of the CNS. The CNS is positioned in bowing position (at main cephalic flexure) which is nearly similar to an astronaut in a microgravity chamber, fetus in the amniotic fluid at early gestation, and animals and plants in the ocean or on the land. Therefore, this microgravity position can bring us closer to the concept of origin. The hypothesis on ‘the origin’ based on the microgravity were explored and their similarities were identified including the brainwaves and soul. Subsequently a review on soul was made. Interestingly, an idea from Leonardo da Vinci seems in agreement with the notion of seat of the soul at the greater limbic system which has a distinctive feature of “from God back to God”.

Motor imagery: lessons learned in movement science might be applicable for spaceflight

Bock, Otmar; Schott, Nadja; Papaxanthis, Charalambos
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/05/2015 EN
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Before participating in a space mission, astronauts undergo parabolic-flight and underwater training to facilitate their subsequent adaptation to weightlessness. Unfortunately, similar training methods can’t be used to prepare re-adaptation to planetary gravity. Here, we propose a quick, simple and inexpensive approach that could be used to prepare astronauts both for the absence and for the renewed presence of gravity. This approach is based on motor imagery (MI), a process in which actions are produced in working memory without any overt output. Training protocols based on MI have repeatedly been shown to modify brain circuitry and to improve motor performance in healthy young adults, healthy seniors and stroke victims, and are routinely used to optimize performance of elite athletes. We propose to use similar protocols preflight, to prepare for weightlessness, and late inflight, to prepare for landing.

Morphology and Molecular Mechanisms of Hepatic Injury in Rats under Simulated Weightlessness and the Protective Effects of Resistance Training

Du, Fang; Ding, Ye; Zou, Jun; Li, Zhili; Tian, Jijing; She, Ruiping; Wang, Desheng; Wang, Huijuan; Lv, Dongqiang; Chang, Lingling
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/05/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.56%
This study investigated the effects of long-term simulated weightlessness on liver morphology, enzymes, glycogen, and apoptosis related proteins by using two-month rat-tail suspension model (TS), and liver injury improvement by rat-tail suspension with resistance training model (TS&RT). Microscopically the livers of TS rats showed massive granular degeneration, chronic inflammation, and portal fibrosis. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling and loss of membrane integrity were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The similar, but milder, morphological changes were observed in the livers of TS&RT rats. Serum biochemistry analysis revealed that the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in TS rats than in controls. The levels of ALT and AST in TS&RT rats were slightly lower than in RT rats, but they were insignificantly higher than in controls. However, both TS and TS&RT rats had significantly lower levels (p<0.05) of serum glucose and hepatic glycogen than in controls. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, and active caspase-3 were higher in TS rats than in TS&RT and control rats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) showed that TS rats had higher mRNA levels (P < 0.05) of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and caspase-12 transcription than in control rats; whereas mRNA expressions of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were slightly higher in TS rats. TS&RT rats showed no significant differences of above 4 mRNAs compared with the control group. Our results demonstrated that long-term weightlessness caused hepatic injury...

Effects of 60-day bed rest with and without exercise on cellular and humoral immunological parameters

Hoff, Paula; Belavý, Daniel L; Huscher, Dörte; Lang, Annemarie; Hahne, Martin; Kuhlmey, Anne-Kathrin; Maschmeyer, Patrick; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Fitzner, Rudolf; Perschel, Frank H; Gaber, Timo; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Straub, Rainer H; Felsenberg, Diet
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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17.24%
Exercise at regular intervals is assumed to have a positive effect on immune functions. Conversely, after spaceflight and under simulated weightlessness (e.g., bed rest), immune functions can be suppressed. We aimed to assess the effects of simulated weightlessness (Second Berlin BedRest Study; BBR2-2) on immunological parameters and to investigate the effect of exercise (resistive exercise with and without vibration) on these changes. Twenty-four physically and mentally healthy male volunteers (20–45 years) performed resistive vibration exercise (n=7), resistance exercise without vibration (n=8) or no exercise (n=9) within 60 days of bed rest. Blood samples were taken 2 days before bed rest, on days 19 and 60 of bed rest. Composition of immune cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokines and neuroendocrine parameters were analyzed by Luminex technology and ELISA/RIA in plasma. General changes over time were identified by paired t-test, and exercise-dependent effects by pairwise repeated measurements (analysis of variance (ANOVA)). With all subjects pooled, the number of granulocytes, natural killer T cells, hematopoietic stem cells and CD45RA and CD25 co-expressing T cells increased and the number of monocytes decreased significantly during the study; the concentration of eotaxin decreased significantly. Different impacts of exercise were seen for lymphocytes...

Aperfeiçoamento e validação do clinostato 3D e seu uso no estudo de células do sistema imune humano

Martinelli, Leonardo Krás Borges
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
PORTUGUêS
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17.56%
A exposição à microgravidade acarreta alterações na atividade do sistema imunológico a nível celular, bem como na maioria dos sistemas fisiológicos do organismo. O ambiente desprovido de força gravitacional inibe funções linfocitárias envolvidas no processo de defesa imune do corpo humano, como locomoção celular e expressão de antígenos. O clinostato é uma das ferramentas utilizadas para simular microgravidade na Terra e estudar os seus efeitos em diversas funções fisiológicas do corpo humano. O presente estudo visou aperfeiçoar o terceiro protótipo do Clinostato 3D do Centro de Microgravidade/PUCRS, através da adição de componentes eletrônicos, como, por exemplo, microcontrolador, sensor de velocidade rotacional, sensor de temperatura e umidade e transceiver Rádio Freqüência, a fim de aumentar o seu desempenho e simplificar a sua operação. Este estudo também objetivou validar a nova versão do Clinostato 3D.Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo referente a processos imunológicos, o qual incluiu uma avaliação dos efeitos da microgravidade simulada sobre a proliferação e viabilidade de linfócitos T humanos em estimulação ao mitógeno fitohemaglutinina. O terceiro objetivo deste trabalho foi o de estudar o crescimento de células cancerígenas...

M??stica y est??tica: expansi??n, gravedad, peso, vac??o, elevaci??n e ingravidez en la obra de arte

Molina Rodr??guez, Alberto J.
Fonte: Universidade de Granada Publicador: Universidade de Granada
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
SPA
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27.24%
En el trabajo propuesto busco desarrollar un estudio, an??lisis y relaci??n o identificaci??n que los conceptos GRAVEDAD, PESO, VAC??O, NADA, EXPANSI??N, INGRAVIDEZ, tienen en las obra de arte y concretamente en el desarrollo pl??stico. Es mi deseo comprobar c??mo son directa y/o indirectamente estos conceptos el hilo conductor que unen, porque est??n presentes en distintas disciplinas del conocimiento y tambi??n en distintas culturas, la formas de concebir la creaci??n a lo largo de la historia.; The proposed work aimed to develop a study, analysis and identification relationship or concept that gravity, weight, empty, nothing, EXPANSION, weightlessness, have in the artwork and development specifically in plastic. It is my desire to see how they are directly and / or indirectly these concepts linking the thread, because they are present not only different disciplines of knowledge but also to different cultures and ways of understanding the structure of the world throughout history.

Human disorientation as a factor in spacecraft centrifuge design

Howse, Christopher E.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 128 p. : col. ill. ;
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; Weightlessness is the major contributing factor behind the degradation of bone mass, muscle tone, and aerobic capacity during long-term space missions. With the loss of bone mass progressing at up to two percent per month, long duration and interplanetary missions shall remain the sole duty of robotic explorers until sufficient countermeasures are developed. Several countermeasures are either in use, or under development to alleviate this problem. Exercise is currently used to reduce the severity of bone loss and muscle atrophy. Exercise has proven ineffective despite the fact two hours of daily exercise together with elaborate apparatus have been devoted to simulating the load of Earth's gravity. Drug therapy and other, more exotic, countermeasures are also under consideration, but the side-effects of these other treatments and the fact that they do not directly address the root cause of the negative effects of weightlessness means that they may only reduce, not cure, those problems. Only artificial gravity addresses the root cause, weightlessness itself. This thesis addresses the need to balance the effects of Coriolis on human disorientation with the engineering costs of constructing a centrifuge for human occupation in space.; Lieutenant...

Circumnutations of Sunflower Hypocotyls in Satellite Orbit 1

Brown, Allan H.; Chapman, David K.; Lewis, Robert F.; Venditti, Allen L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1990 EN
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17.24%
The principal objective of the research reported here was to determine whether a plant's periodic growth oscillations, called circumnutations, would persist in the absence of a significant gravitational or inertial force. The definitive experiment was made possible by access to the condition of protracted near weightlessness in an earth satellite. The experiment, performed during the first flight of Spacelab on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shuttle, Columbia, in November and December, 1983, tested a biophysical model, proposed in 1967, that might account for circumnutation as a gravity-dependent growth response. However, circumnutations were observed in microgravity. They continued for many hours without stimulation by a significant g-force. Therefore, neither a gravitational nor an inertial g-force was an absolute requirement for initation or continuation of circumnutation. On average, circumnutation was significantly more vigorous in satellite orbit than on earth-based clinostats. Therefore, at least for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) circumnutation, clinostatting is not the functional equivalent of weightlessness.

Effects of simulated weightlessness on liver Hsp70 and Hsp70mRNA expression in rats

Cui, Yan; Zhou, Jinlian; Li, Chenglin; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Zipei; Yi, Yong; Zhang, Jianzhong
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/01/2010 EN
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27.75%
Space flight is known to induce a number of hepatic physiological alterations. In this study, we investigated Hsp70 expressing features of rat liver under simulated weightlessness. Tail-suspension was used to simulate the weightlessness animal model. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 6 experimental groups and Hsp70 protein and mRNA expressions in the liver were detected by Western blot and RT-PCR respectively. The tail-suspension significantly increased Hsp70mRNA expression levels in rat liver (P<0.05). The semi-quantitative PCR showed that Hsp70mRNA was upregulated as early as 6 hours of suspension. Western blot analysis indicated that Hsp70 protein was significantly upregulated in the early stage of suspension as compared with controls (P<0.05). The results suggest that simulated weightlessness acts as a kind of stress to elevate liver Hsp70 expression both at protein and mRNA levels. This may be meaningful in astronaut's trainings by preadaptation to non-damaging stress exposures or other environmental factors to foster the astronaut's ability of weightless tolerance.

Effect of magnetically simulated zero-gravity and enhanced gravity on the walk of the common fruitfly†

Hill, Richard J. A.; Larkin, Oliver J.; Dijkstra, Camelia E.; Manzano, Ana I.; de Juan, Emilio; Davey, Michael R.; Anthony, Paul; Eaves, Laurence; Medina, F. Javier; Marco, Roberto; Herranz, Raul
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.24%
Understanding the effects of gravity on biological organisms is vital to the success of future space missions. Previous studies in Earth orbit have shown that the common fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster) walks more quickly and more frequently in microgravity, compared with its motion on Earth. However, flight preparation procedures and forces endured on launch made it difficult to implement on the Earth's surface a control that exposed flies to the same sequence of major physical and environmental changes. To address the uncertainties concerning these behavioural anomalies, we have studied the walking paths of D. melanogaster in a pseudo-weightless environment (0g*) in our Earth-based laboratory. We used a strong magnetic field, produced by a superconducting solenoid, to induce a diamagnetic force on the flies that balanced the force of gravity. Simultaneously, two other groups of flies were exposed to a pseudo-hypergravity environment (2g*) and a normal gravity environment (1g*) within the spatially varying field. The flies had a larger mean speed in 0g* than in 1g*, and smaller in 2g*. The mean square distance travelled by the flies grew more rapidly with time in 0g* than in 1g*, and slower in 2g*. We observed no other clear effects of the magnetic field...

Free Fall Frame to Demonstrate Weightlessness

Baddi, Raju
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.24%
A simple apparatus to demonstrate free fall weightlessness is given. This can be easily constructed from readily available materials and can be used for the demonstration purpose to an audidence with all the details of the apparatus visible.; Comment: 5 pages, 1 schematic, 3 illustrations

Weightlessness of photons: A quantum effect

Brynjolfsson, Ari
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.24%
Contrary to general belief, the Fraunhofer lines have been found to be plasma redshifted and not gravitationally redshifted, when observed on Earth. Quantum mechanical effects cause the photons' gravitational redshift to be reversed as the photons move from the Sun to the Earth. The designs of the experiments, which were thought to have proven the gravitational redshift of photons, are all in the domain of classical physics, and make it impossible to detect the reversal of the gravitational redshifts. The solar redshift experiments, however, are in the domain of quantum mechanics; and the reversal of the redshift is easily detected, when the plasma redshift is taken into account. The photons are found to be weightless relative to a local observer, but repelled relative to a distant observer. The weightlessness of the photons in the gravitational field relative to a local observer is inconsistent with Einstein's equivalence principle. This together with the plasma redshift has profound consequences for the cosmological perspectives. This article gives a theoretical explanation of the observed phenomena, proper interpretation of the many gravitational redshift experiments, and an understanding of how we missed observing the reversal of photons' gravitational redshift. The present analysis indicates that although the photons are weightless in a local system of reference...

Paradoxical Control: How Romantic and Enlightenment aesthetics are created in ballet today

Lipkin, Anna
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em 26/11/2014 EN_US
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Classical ballet is indisputably a cultural product: its forms, themes, and images all derive from the cultures and time periods in which the dance form was created and developed. Two especially important times in the shaping of ballet as it is recognized today were the Enlightenment and the Romantic era. The most important aesthetic results of these contexts are the idea of perfection through symmetry and geometric form, the imagery of yearning tension, and the illusion of weightlessness and ethereality, the defiance of gravity. While superficially opposed, one glorifying the rational and the other idealizing the unexplainable, the two movements in fact merged harmoniously in dance, and this combination itself gives ballet its particular aesthetic. It is in the use of control to create the illusion of freedom that the ideals of the Enlightenment and the Romantic era meet and merge to create and execute the specific aesthetic ideals of ballet. In this paper, after introducing the cultural and historical bases of the particular aesthetics of ballet, I will attempt to explain, using the laws of physics, how the image of weightlessness and suspension is created in the movement vocabulary of ballet. I will also outline how a dancer, understanding the laws and predictions of physics...

Architectures of Aliveness: Building Beyond Gravity

Boucher, Marie-Pier
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.24%

In the context of today's global mobility, information, bodies and goods are circulating across the globe, and even further into outer space. However, we face a paradox: the more we move, the more we become sedentary. The modes of transportation that enable our global mobility are working against us, insidiously dwindling our psycho-physical mobility. Globalization is thus not the world becoming bigger (or too big), but the world becoming immobile. Taking the body as the central non-place of political space, Architectures of Aliveness: Building Beyond Gravity interrogates the possibility of inhabiting circulation as a pragmatic form of resistance to the contemporary immobilization of life. In an era in which bodies and goods are ever more constantly in global circulation, architectures of aliveness ask, what would an experience of weightlessness do for us?

Biotechnology serves as the current dominant model for enlivening architecture and the mobility of its inhabitants. Architectures of aliveness invert the inquiry to look instead at outer space's modules of inhabitation. In questioning the possibility of making circulation inhabitable --as opposed to only inhabiting what is stationary--architectures of aliveness problematize architecture as a form of biomedia production in order to examine its capacity to impact psychic and bodily modalities toward an intensification of health. Problematized synchretically within life's mental and physical polarization...