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Evidence that L-glutamine is better than L-alanine as gluconeogenic substrate in perfused liver of weaned fasted rats submitted to short-term insulin-induced hypoglycaemia

OLIVEIRA-YAMASHITA, Fabiana; GARCIA, Rosangela Fernandes; FELISBERTO-JUNIOR, Antonio Machado; Curi, Rui; BAZOTTE, Roberto Barbosa
Fonte: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD Publicador: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.09%
Gluconeogenesis in livers from overnight fasted weaned rats submitted to short-term insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) was investigated. For this purpose, a condition of hyperinsulinemia/hypoglycaemia was obtained with an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of regular insulin (1.0 U kg(-1)). Control group (COG group) received ip saline. The studies were performed 30 min after insulin (IIH group) or saline (COG group) injection. The livers from IIH and COG rats were perfused with L-alanine (5 mM), L-lactate (2 mM)), L-glutamine (10 mM) or glycerol (2 mM). Hepatic glucose, L-lactate and pyruvate production from L-alanine was not affected by IIH. In agreement with this result, the hepatic ability in producing glucose from L-lactate or glycerol remained unchanged (IIH group vs. COG group). However, livers from IIH rats showed higher glucose production from L-glutamine than livers front COG rats and, in the IIH rats, the production of glucose from L-glutamine was higher than that front L-alanine. The higher glucose production in livers from the IIH group. when compared with the COG group was due to its entrance further on gluconeogenic pathway. Taken together. the results suggest that L-glutamine is better than L-alanine, as gluconeogenic substrate in livers of hypoglyceaemic weaned rats. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons. Ltd.; Brazilian Council of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq)[472848/2006-2]; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

Suplementação de acidificantes em rações de leitões desmamados: desempenho e digestibilidade; Supplementation of acidifiers in diets of weaned pigs: performance and digestibility

Miguel, Willian Corrêa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/08/2008 PT
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37.09%
Dois ensaios experimentais foram conduzidos com o objetivo de determinar o efeito dietético da suplementação de acidificantes sobre o desempenho, incidência de diarréia (ensaio 1) e na digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes (ensaio 2). No ensaio 1, com duração de 42 dias, 120 leitões desmamados aos 21 dias foram distribuídos em 8 blocos experimentais com três leitões por baia,foram aplicados cinco tratamentos. Os tratamentos foram: ração sem acidificante, com 1,0% de diformiato de potássio, com 1,0% de ácido fumárico, com 1,0% de ácido cítrico ou com 1,0% de ácido benzóico. No ensaio 2, 10 leitões com peso médio inicial de 16,4 kg foram distribuídos em dois blocos experimentais, cada um com cinco repetições, sob dois tratamentos (ração sem acidificante ou com 1,0% de ácido fumárico). No estudo de desempenho, a adição de ácido fumárico nas rações determinou aumentos (P<0,05) no consumo de ração nos períodos de 0 aos 15 dias, 0 aos 32 dias e ganho de peso de 0 aos 42 dias, quando comparado ao tratamento controle. Não foi observada a ocorrência de diarréia nos leitões nos primeiros 14 dias pós-desmame. No ensaio 2, a adição de 1,0% de ácido fumárico na ração não alterou (P>0,05) os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca...

Fiber sources in diets for newly weaned piglets

Pascoal, Leonardo Augusto Fonseca; Thomaz, Maria Cristina; Watanabe, Pedro Henrique; Ruiz, Urbano dos Santos; Ezequiel, Jane Maria Bertocco; Amorim, Alessandro Borges; Daniel, Everton; Masson, Guido Carlos Iselda
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 636-642
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp in the diet of weaned piglets. A total of 72 piglets (36 castrated males and 36 females) weaned at 21 days of age (BW 6.45±0.66 kg) was distributed according to a randomized block design, for evaluation of performance, transit time, diarrhea incidence and blood parameters of piglets which received diets containing different sources of fiber. The experimental diets were: control diet - diet composed of corn, soybean meal and a source of lactose; control + 1.5% purified cellulose; control + 3% soybean hull and control + 9% citrus pulp. The inclusion of purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp in diets of weaned piglets did not affect the performance or transit time of diets in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the use of purified cellulose reduced incidence of diarrhea. The use of purified cellulose, soybean hull and citrus pulp in the diet of weaned piglets does not affect performance or gastrointestinal transit time. The addition of purified cellulose promotes a beneficial effect to control the diarrhea in weaned piglets.

Perinatal lead exposure affects nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase pathways in aorta of weaned rats

Grizzo, Larissa Tercilia; Cordellini, Sandra
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 207-214
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.94%
Perinatal Pb exposure may modulate arterial tone through nitric oxide (NO) and cyclooxygenase products. To investigate this, Wistar dams received 1000 ppm of Pb or sodium acetate (control) in drinking water during pregnancy and lactation. Curves were constructed in phenylephrine-precontracted intact and/or denuded rings of thoracic aortas of weaned (23-day-old) male pups from their responses to N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, NO synthase inhibitor) and ACh in the absence or presence of indomethacin (10(-5)M, cyclooxygenase inhibitor) or L-NAME (3 x 10(-7)M and 3 x 10(-4)M). Blood lead concentration and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were higher in intoxicated than control pups (blood lead mu g/dl: control < 3.0, Pb 58.7 +/- 6.5*; SBP mmHg: control 111.4 +/- 2.3, Pb 135.5 +/- 2.4*). In L-NAME-treated rings maximal responses increased in Pb-exposed rats, and were higher in intact than in denuded aortas (contraction [% of phenylephrine] intact: control 184.3 +/- 23.7, Pb 289.1 +/- 18.3*; denuded: control 125.1 +/- 4.5, Pb 154.8 +/- 13.3*). ACh-induced relaxation in intact aortas from Pb-exposed rats presented rightward shift in L-NAME presence (EC50 x 10(-7)M: control 1.32 [0.33-5.18], Pb 4.88 [3.56-6.69]*) but moved left under indomethacin (EC50 x 10(-7)M: control 8.95 [3.47-23.07]...

Correlações genéticas de características de tamanho corporal e condição corporal com características de eficiência produtiva de fêmeas da raça Canchim

Baldi, Fernando; De Alencar, Mauricio Mello; De Freitas, Alfredo Ribeiro
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 420-426
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); The objectives of this study were to obtain heritability estimates for number (NBZ10 and NBZT) and kilograms (QBD10 and QBDT) of calves weaned up to ten years of age and during herd life, kilograms of calves weaned per year in herd (QTPR) and their genetic correlations with culling age, ages at first, at second and at third calving, adjusted and unadjusted weights for condition score, body size indexes and condition score at first mating, at first calving and at mature age. Variance and covariance components were estimated by REML using univariate and bivariate models including the fixed effect of contemporary group and additive direct genetic and residual as random effects. Heritability estimates obtained from univariate analyses were 0.10 ± 0.05 (NBZT), 0.10 ± 0.03 (QBDT), 0.12 ± 0.05 (NBZ10), 0.13 ± 0.05 (QBD10) and 0.15 ± 0.05 (QTPR) and indicate low response by selection on these traits. Genetic correlation estimate suggest that selection for reducing age at first calving will not improve cow productivity. Selection for increasing mature weight will reduce kilograms of calves weaned per year in herd and the number of calves weaned up to ten years of age and during herd life. Selection on body size indexes and on cow weights adjusted for condition score may result in similar correlated responses in productive traits of cows...

Fiber sources in diets for newly weaned piglets

Pascoal,Leonardo Augusto Fonseca; Thomaz,Maria Cristina; Watanabe,Pedro Henrique; Ruiz,Urbano dos Santos; Ezequiel,Jane Maria Bertocco; Amorim,Alessandro Borges; Daniel,Everton; Masson,Guido Carlos Iselda
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp in the diet of weaned piglets. A total of 72 piglets (36 castrated males and 36 females) weaned at 21 days of age (BW 6.45±0.66 kg) was distributed according to a randomized block design, for evaluation of performance, transit time, diarrhea incidence and blood parameters of piglets which received diets containing different sources of fiber. The experimental diets were: control diet - diet composed of corn, soybean meal and a source of lactose; control + 1.5% purified cellulose; control + 3% soybean hull and control + 9% citrus pulp. The inclusion of purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp in diets of weaned piglets did not affect the performance or transit time of diets in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the use of purified cellulose reduced incidence of diarrhea. The use of purified cellulose, soybean hull and citrus pulp in the diet of weaned piglets does not affect performance or gastrointestinal transit time. The addition of purified cellulose promotes a beneficial effect to control the diarrhea in weaned piglets.

Changes in the Microflora and Physiology of the Anterior Intestinal Tract of Pigs Weaned at 2 Days, with Special Reference to the Pathogenesis of Diarrhea

Barrow, P. A.; Fuller, R.; Newport, M. J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1977 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.42%
The gastrointestinal microflora and gastric physiology of piglets weaned at 2 days was compared with that of piglets allowed to continue sucking the sow. Although there was a significantly higher count of Escherichia coli in the stomach, duodenum, and jejunum of the early-weaned compared with sow-reared pigs, these differences were not detectable in samples from the ileum. There were no quantitative differences in lactobacilli and in streptococci between the two treatments. Lactobacillus fermentum, L. acidophilus, Streptococcus salivarius, S. bovis, and related biotypes were isolated from both groups of pigs. L. fermentum and S. salivarius were isolated more frequently from sow-reared piglets. The weight of digesta in the stomach was greater in weaned than in sucking pigs and was even greater in scouring weaned pigs, suggesting that in scouring pigs there may be gastric stasis. The gastric pH was higher in the weaned pigs at 4 days of age, but gradually decreased up to 10 days, during which time the lactic acid concentration rose. In weaned pigs there was a highly significant negative correlation between pH and lactic acid concentration in the stomach digesta, and also a positive correlation between pH and number of E. coli. These correlations suggest that lactic acid...

Regulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism. The activities of mitochondrial and microsomal acyl-CoAsn-glycerol 3-phosphate O-acyltransferase and the concentrations of malonyl-CoA, non-esterified and esterified carnitine, glycerol 3-phosphate, ketone bodies and long-chain acyl-CoA esters in livers of fed or starved pregnant, lactating and weaned rats

Zammit, Victor A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/07/1981 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.19%
1. The concentrations of malonyl-CoA, glycerol 3-phosphate, non-esterified carnitine, acid-soluble and acid-insoluble acylcarnitines, acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and acid-insoluble acyl-CoA were measured in rapidly-frozen liver samples from fed or starved (24h) virgin, pregnant (19–20 days), lactating (2, 10–12 and 18–20 days) and weaned (for 24h, on 10th day of lactation) rats. The activities of total and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive and -insensitive glycerophosphate acyltransferase (acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol 3-phosphate O-acyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.15) were also measured. 2. The concentration of malonyl-CoA was significantly higher in liver of fed pregnant, mid- and late-lactating rats than in liver of fed virgin rats. After starvation for 24h hepatic malonyl-CoA concentrations were higher in mid-lactating rats and lower in pregnant and weaned rats than in virgin animals. 3. After starvation for 24h the hepatic concentrations of glycerol 3-phosphate, ketone bodies, acid-soluble acylcarnitines and the value for the [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio were all highest in pregnant rats, intermediate in virgin, 2-day lactating and weaned animals and lowest in mid- and late-lactating rats. The concentrations of acid-insoluble acylcarnitines also increased most in pregnant rats...

Host Immune Status Influences the Development of Attaching and Effacing Lesions in Weaned Pigs

Girard, Francis; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Taranu, Ionélia; Hélie, Pierre; Appleyard, Greg D.; Harel, Josée; Fairbrother, John M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.19%
Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) has been associated with naturally occurring attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions in weaned pigs, and although A/E lesions have been experimentally reproduced in newborn piglets, such lesions have been much more difficult to induce in older conventional pigs. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of oral administration of dexamethasone on the development of A/E lesions in weaned pigs challenged with a porcine enteropathogenic E. coli (PEPEC) strain and to investigate the involvement of local intestinal cytokine response. Dexamethasone, given orally at a dosage of 3 mg kg of body weight−1, significantly enhanced both the colonization of the challenge strain and the prevalence of foci of intimately adherent bacteria, resulting in extensive A/E lesions in the ileum, cecum, and colon of challenged pigs. We also confirmed the expression of both intimin and Tir by PEPEC strain ECL1001 in A/E lesions in vivo, which is, to our knowledge, the first report of the involvement of the latter proteins in any AEEC infections in vivo. Moreover, semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, and, to a lesser extent, IL-12p40 are significantly upregulated in the ileum following challenge with strain ECL1001...

Managemental influences on the selective proliferation of two strains of haemolytic Escherichia coli in weaned pigs.

Hampson, D. J.; Fu, Z. F.; Bettleheim, K. A.; Wilson, M. W.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1988 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
In an experimental study on a piggery it was found that haemolytic Escherichia coli of O-serotypes 138 or 139 proliferated in the intestinal tracts of pigs following weaning, with E. coli of the O-138 type also being occasionally recovered from unweaned pigs, and once from a sow. Organisms of the O-138 type produced heat labile enterotoxin and their presence in weaned pigs was associated with the development of severe post-weaning diarrhoea. E. coli of O-139 type produced a vero cell cytotoxin and were associated with a milder diarrhoea in weaned pigs. Under various managemental circumstances the O-138 type E. coli almost invariably proliferated after weaning. The O-139 strain of E. coli did however proliferate rather than the O-138 strain following the movement of weaned pigs to new accommodation, after weaned pigs were returned to their sow and then weaning again 5 days later, and very occasionally in pigs weaned at 5 weeks of age. In all these cases earlier proliferation of the O-138 E. coli had been detected, suggesting that this may be a prerequisite for proliferation of the O-139 strain.

Effects of Dietary Glutamine Supplementation on the Body Composition and Protein Status of Early-Weaned Mice Inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Borges, Maria Carolina; de Castro, Inar Alves; Pires, Ivanir S. O.; Borelli, Primavera; Tirapegui, Julio
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/08/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.19%
Glutamine, one of the most abundant amino acids found in maternal milk, favors protein anabolism. Early-weaned babies are deprived of this source of glutamine, in a period during which endogenous biosynthesis may be insufficient for tissue needs in states of metabolic stress, mainly during infections. The objective of this study was to verify the effects of dietary glutamine supplementation on the body composition and visceral protein status of early-weaned mice inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Mice were weaned early on their 14th day of life and seperated into two groups, one of which was fed a glutamine-free diet (n = 16) and the other a glutamine-supplemented diet (40 g/kg diet) (n = 16). At 21 days of age, some mice were intraperitoneally injected with BCG. Euthanasia was performed at the 28th day of age. BCG inoculation significantly reduced body weight (P < 0.001), lean mass (P = 0.002), water (P = 0.006), protein (P = 0.007) and lipid content (P = 0.001) in the carcass. Dietary glutamine supplementation resulted in a significant increase in serum IGF-1 (P = 0.019) and albumin (P = 0.025) concentration, muscle protein concentration (P = 0.035) and lipid content (P = 0.002) in the carcass. In conclusion...

Discrimination between Weaned and Unweaned Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) in Capture-Based Aquaculture (CBA) by X-Ray Imaging and Radio-Frequency Metal Detector

Misimi, Ekrem; Martinsen, Svein; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Erikson, Ulf
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.19%
The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of two detection methods for use in discrimination and sorting of adult Atlantic cod (about 2 kg) in the small scale capture-based aquaculture (CBA). Presently, there is no established method for discrimination of weaned and unweaned cod in CBA. Generally, 60–70% of the wild-caught cod in the CBA are weaned into commercial dry feed. To increase profitability for the fish farmers, unweaned cod must be separated from the stock, meaning the fish must be sorted into two groups – unweaned and weaned from moist feed. The challenges with handling of large numbers of fish in cages, defined the limits of the applied technology. As a result, a working model was established, focusing on implementing different marking materials added to the fish feed, and different technology for detecting the feed presence in the fish gut. X-ray imaging in two modes (planar and dual energy band) and sensitive radio-frequency metal detection were the detection methods that were chosen for the investigations. Both methods were tested in laboratory conditions using dead fish with marked feed inserted into the gut cavity. In particular, the sensitive radio-frequency metal detection method with carbonyl powder showed very promising results in detection of marked feed. Results show also that Dual energy band X-ray imaging may have potential for prediction of fat content in the feed. Based on the investigations it can be concluded that both X-ray imaging and sensitive radio-frequency metal detector technology have the potential for detecting cod having consumed marked feed. These are all technologies that may be adapted to large scale handling of fish from fish cages. Thus...

Chlorogenic Acid Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Increases Expression of Intestinal Tight Junction Proteins in Weaned Rats Challenged with LPS

Ruan, Zheng; Liu, Shiqiang; Zhou, Yan; Mi, Shumei; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Yao, Kang; Assaad, Houssein; Deng, Zeyuan; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.31%
Chlorogenic acid, a natural phenolic acid present in fruits and plants, provides beneficial effects for human health. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether chlorogenic acid (CHA) could improve the intestinal barrier integrity for weaned rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Thirty-two weaned male Sprague Dawley rats (21±1 d of age; 62.26±2.73 g) were selected and randomly allotted to four treatments, including weaned rat control, LPS-challenged and chlorogenic acid (CHA) supplemented group (orally 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg body). Dietary supplementation with CHA decreased (P<0.05) the concentrations of urea and albumin in the serum, compared to the LPS-challenged group. The levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α were lower (P<0.05) in the jejunal and colon of weaned rats receiving CHA supplementation, in comparison with the control group. CHA supplementation increased (P<0.05) villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosae under condictions of LPS challenge. CHA supplementation decreased (P<0.05) intestinal permeability, which was indicated by the ratio of lactulose to mannitol and serum DAO activity, when compared to weaned rats with LPS challenge. Immunohistochemical analysis of tight junction proteins revealed that ZO-1 and occludin protein abundances in the jejunum and colon were increased (P<0.05) by CHA supplementation. Additionally...

Effects of Chitosan on Body Weight Gain, Growth Hormone and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs

Xu, Yuanqing; Shi, Binlin; Yan, Sumei; Li, Tiyu; Guo, Yiwei; Li, Junliang
Fonte: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST) Publicador: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.19%
The study was conducted to determine the effects of chitosan on the concentrations of GH and IGF-I in serum and small intestinal morphological structure of piglets, in order to evaluate the regulating action of chitosan on weaned pig growth through endocrine and intestinal morphological approaches. A total of 180 weaned pigs (35 d of age; 11.56±1.61 kg of body weight) were selected and assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatments, including 1 basal diet (control) and 4 diets with chitosan supplementation (100, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg, respectively). Each treatment contained six replicate pens with six pigs per pen. The experiment lasted for 28 d. The results showed that the average body weight gain (BWG) of pigs was improved quadratically by dietary chitosan during the former 14 d and the later 14 d after weaned (p<0.05). Furthermore, dietary supplementation of chitosan tended to quadratically increase the concentration of serum GH on d 14 (p = 0.082) and 28 (p = 0.087). Diets supplemented with increasing levels of chitosan increased quadratically the villus height of jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p = 0.089, p<0.01) and 28 (p = 0.074, p<0.01), meanwhile, chitosan increased quadratically the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in duodenum...

Effects of Supplemental Glutamine on Growth Performance, Plasma Parameters and LPS-induced Immune Response of Weaned Barrows after Castration

Hsu, C. B.; Lee, J. W.; Huang, H. J.; Wang, C. H.; Lee, T. T.; Yen, H. T.; Yu, B.
Fonte: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST) Publicador: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.19%
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental glutamine on growth performance, plasma parameters and LPS-induced immune response of weaned barrows after castration. In experiment 1, forty-eight weaned male piglets were used and fed maize and soybean meal diets supplemented with 0 (Control) or 2% L-Gln (Gln+) for 25 days. The results indicated that the Gln+ group tended to increase average daily gain compared to control in stages of days 7 to 14 and 0 to 25. The Gln+ had significantly better feed efficiency than the control group did during days 14 to 25 and 0 to 25. The plasma blood urea nitrogen and alkaline phosphatase contents of Gln+ group were higher than those of the control group on day 14 post-weaning. In experiment 2, sixteen weaned male piglets were injected with E. coli K88+ lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on day 14 post-weaning. The results showed that the Gln+ group had lower concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol than the control group on day 14 pre-LPS challenge. In addition, Gln+ group had higher plasma IgG concentration than the control group for pre- or post-LPS challenged on day 14 post-weaning. In summary, dietary supplementation of Gln was able to alleviate the stressful condition and inflammation associated with castration in weaned barrows...

Dietary Enterococcus faecalis LAB31 Improves Growth Performance, Reduces Diarrhea, and Increases Fecal Lactobacillus Number of Weaned Piglets

Hu, Yuanliang; Dun, Yaohao; Li, Shenao; Zhang, Dongxiao; Peng, Nan; Zhao, Shumiao; Liang, Yunxiang
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been shown to enhance performance of weaned piglets. However, few studies have reported the addition of LAB Enterococcus faecalis as alternatives to growth promoting antibiotics for weaned piglets. This study evaluated the effects of dietary E. faecalis LAB31 on the growth performance, diarrhea incidence, blood parameters, fecal bacterial and Lactobacillus communities in weaned piglets. A total of 360 piglets weaned at 26 ± 2 days of age were randomly allotted to 5 groups (20 pens, with 4 pens for each group) for a trial of 28 days: group N (negative control, without antibiotics or probiotics); group P (Neomycin sulfate, 100 mg/kg feed); groups L, M and H (supplemented with E. faecalis LAB31 0.5×109, 1.0×109, and 2.5×109 CFU/kg feed, respectively). Average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency were found to be higher in group H than in group N, and showed significant differences between group H and group P (P0 < 0.05). Furthermore, groups H and P had a lower diarrhea index than the other three groups (P0 < 0.05). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the application of probiotics to the diet changed the bacterial community, with a higher bacterial diversity in group M than in the other four groups. Real-time PCR revealed that the relative number of Lactobacillus increased by addition of probiotics...

Dietary Leucine Supplementation Improves the Mucin Production in the Jejunal Mucosa of the Weaned Pigs Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus

Mao, Xiangbing; Liu, Minghui; Tang, Jun; Chen, Hao; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/09/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.26%
The present study was mainly conducted to determine whether dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the decrease of the mucin production in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs infected by porcine rotavirus (PRV). A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets supplemented with 1.00% L-leucine or 0.68% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) for 17 d. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused PRV or the sterile essential medium. During the first 10 d of trial, dietary leucine supplementation could improve the feed efficiency (P = 0.09). The ADG and feed efficiency were impaired by PRV infusion (P<0.05). PRV infusion also increased mean cumulative score of diarrhea, serum rotavirus antibody concentration and crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and decreased villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.07), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 and 2 concentrations (P<0.05) and phosphorylated mTOR level (P<0.05) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. Dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the effects of PRV infusion on feed efficiency (P = 0.09) and mean cumulative score of diarrhea (P = 0.09), and improve the effects of PRV infusion on villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.06), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05)...

Influence of equine chorionic gonadotropin on weaning-to-estrus interval and estrus duration In Early-Weaned Primiparous Female Swine

Lucia Junior, Thomaz; Corr??a, Marcio Nunes; Deschamps, Jo??o Carlos; Peruzzo, Ivan A.; Matheus, Jairo E. M.; Aleixo, Jos?? A. G.
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.31%
The weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) influences the total nonproductive days (NPD) accumulated by the breeding herd and affects herd productivity. Short lactation lengths (LL) are commonly followed by prolonged WEI, which are also associated with short estrus duration (ED). Equine chorionic gonadotropin treatment is a tool that has been used to reduce WEI, especially for low-parity females. The objectives for this study were to evaluate the effect of LL on the association between WEI and ED and to estimate the effects of postweaning eCG administration on WEI and ED for early-weaned females. Two treatments (TREAT) consisting of 750 IU of eCG (n = 96) or control (n = 77) were applied 1 d after weaning to first-parity, weaned females. The study was conducted on a commercial farm having a target LL of 18 d. Estrus detection was conducted three times daily, and estrus duration was determined as the interval between the first and the last positive response to back pressure. Analyses of variance were conducted to estimate the effects of LL andTREAT on WEI and the effects of TREAT and WEI on estrus duration. Mean LL was 17.9 ?? 1.7 d, mean WEI was 106.6 ?? 29.2 h, and mean estrus duration was 55.9 ?? 15.5 h. Even though the frequency of short WEI tended to increase with longer LL...

Methanogen prevalence throughout the gastrointestinal tract of pre-weaned dairy calves

Zhou, Mi; Chen, Yanhong; Griebel, Philip J; Guan, Le Luo
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/10/2014 EN
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27.19%
The methanogenic community throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of pre-weaned calves has not been well studied. The current study firstly investigated the distribution and composition of the methanogenic community in the rumen, ileum, and colon of 3–4 week-old milk-fed dairy calves (n = 4) using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The occurrence of methanogens in the GIT of pre-weaned calves was further validated by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was applied to quantify the methanogenic community in the rumen, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum of 8 3–4 week old animals. Both cloning libraries and PCR-DGGE revealed that phylotypes close to Methanobrevibacter were the main taxon along the GIT in pre-weaned sucking calves. The composition and abundance of methanogens varied significantly among individual animals, suggesting that host conditions may influence the composition of the symbiotic microbiota. Segregation of methanogenic communities throughout the GIT was also observed within individual animals, suggesting possible functional differences among methanogens residing in different GIT regions. This is the first study to analyze methanogenic communities throughout the GIT of milk-fed newborn dairy calves and reveal both their diversity and abundance. The identification of methanogens in the lower GIT of pre-weaned dairy calves warrants further investigation to better define methanogen roles in GIT function and their impact on host metabolism and health.

Suplementação de acidificantes em rações de leitões desmamados: desempenho e digestibilidade; Supplementation of acidifiers in diets of weaned pigs: performance and digestibility

Miguel, Willian Correa; Trindade Neto, Messias Alves da; Berto, Dirlei Antônio; Kobashigawa, Estela; Gandra, Erika Rosendo de Sena
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2011 POR
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37.09%
Em dois ensaios experimentais avaliou-se efeito dietético da suplementação de acidificantes sobre o desempenho (ensaio 1) e coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes (ensaio 2) em suínos. No ensaio 1, com duração de 42 dias, 120 leitões desmamados aos 21 dias foram distribuídos em oito blocos experimentais com três leitões por baia, foram aplicados cinco tratamentos, sendo um controle e quatro com a inclusão de acidificantes. No ensaio 2, dez leitões com peso médio inicial de 16,4 kg foram distribuídos em dois blocos experimentais, cada um com cinco repetições, sob dois tratamentos (ração sem acidificante ou com 1,0% de ácido fumárico). No estudo de desempenho, a adição de ácido fumárico nas rações determinou aumentos no consumo de ração nos períodos de 0 aos 15 dias, 0 aos 32 dias e ganho de peso de 0 aos 42 dias, quando comparado ao tratamento controle. No ensaio 2, a adição de 1,0% de ácido fumárico na ração não alterou os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e demais componentes químicos das dietas. A ausência de diferenças nos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes dietéticos com a inclusão do acidificante, provavelmente deveu-se ao curto período de avaliação. A inclusão de ácido fumárico nas rações de leitões desmamados favoreceu o desempenho dos leitões.; In two experimental assays it was evaluated the diet acidifier supplementation effect on performance (assay 1) and on nutrient apparent digestibility coefficients (assay 2). During 42 days in assay 1...