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Time stability of soil water storage measured by neutron probe and the effects of calibration procedures in a small watershed

HU, Wei; SHAO, Mingan; WANG, Quanjiu; REICHARDT, Klaus
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
The knowledge of soil water storage (SWS) of soil profiles is crucial for the adoption of vegetation restoration practices. With the aim of identifying representative sites to obtain the mean SWS of a watershed, a time stability analysis of neutron probe evaluations of SWS was performed by the means of relative differences and Spearman rank correlation coefficients. At the same time, the effects of different neutron probe calibration procedures were explored on time stability analysis. mean SWS estimation. and preservation of the spatial variability of SWS. The selected watershed, with deep gullies and undulating slopes which cover an area of 20 ha, is characterized by an Ust-Sandiic Entisol and an Aeolian sandy soil. The dominant vegetation species are bunge needlegrass (Stipa bungeana Trim) and korshinsk peashrub (Carugano Korshinskii kom.). From June 11, 2007 to July 23,2008, SWS of the top1 m soil layer was evaluated for 20 dates, based on neutron probe data of 12 sampling sites. Three calibration procedures were employed: type 1, most complete, with each site having its own linear calibration equation (TrE); type II. with TrE equations extended over the whole field: and type III, with one single linear calibration curve for the whole field (UnE) and also correcting its intercept based on site specific relative difference analysis (RdE) and on linear fitting of data (RcE)...

Mechanical stability of adhesives under water storage

MANSO, Adriana P.; BEDRAN-RUSSO, Ana K.; SUH, Byoung; PASHLEY, David H.; CARVALHO, Ricardo M.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.28%
Objectives. To evaluate the effects of storage condition (wet or dry) and storage time (24 h and 3 months) on the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of Single Bond (SB), 3M-ESPE; Opti Bond Solo Plus (OB), Kerr; One Step (OS), Bisco, and Prime & Bond NT (PB), Dentsply adhesive resins. Methods. Hourglass-shaped specimens were obtained from a metallic matrix. Each adhesive was dispensed to fill the molds completely and left undisturbed in a dark chamber for 4 min at 37 degrees C for solvent evaporation. They were individually light-cured for 80 s at 500 mW/cm(2) and randomly divided into three groups: 24 h of water storage; 3 months of water storage; 3 months of dry storage. The specimens were tested in tension at 0.5 mm/min using the microtensile method and data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and SNK tests for each material. Results. Water storage for 3 months did not cause significant changes in the UTS of any of the adhesives (p-value). Values for water storage ranged from 25.9 MPa for Single Bond at 24 h to 32.7 MPa for Prime & Bond NT after 3 months. Dry storage for 3 months yielded significantly higher UTS for most adhesives, which ranged from approximately 20% for Opti Bond to 160% higher values for Single Bond compared to their 3 months wet storage values. Conclusion. The effects of storage condition and time on the UTS of adhesives were material-dependent. (C) 2009 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Estabilidade temporal da distribuição espacial da armazenagem, do gradiente de potencial total e do potencial mátrico da água, em um solo cultivado com citros.; Temporal stability of the spatial distribution of water storage, total potential gradiente and matric potential, in a soil cropped to citrus.

Rocha, Genelicio Crusoé
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/04/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
O presente trabalho teve como objetivo quantificar e caracterizar a variabilidade espaço-temporal da armazenagem, do gradiente de potencial total e do potencial mátrico da água em um Latossolo Amarelo argissólico cultivado com citros. A parcela experimental foi montada em um solo sob uma cultura de citros com 10 anos de idade, consistindo de 40 pontos de observação ao longo de duas transeções, com espaçamento de 4 m x 7 m. Em cada ponto de observação foram instalados a) um tubo de acesso à sonda de nêutrons até a profundidade de 1,20 m, para a quantificação da armazenagem da água no solo, e b) três tensiômetros nas profundidades de 1,00 m, 1,10 m e 1,20 m, para a quantificação do potencial mátrico e do gradiente de potencial total da água no solo. As medições foram feitas ao longo de dois anos, em períodos compreendidos entre novembro e julho do ano seguinte. As medições de potencial mátrico foram feitas diariamente e as de armazenagem semanalmente. Em cada ponto de observação foram retiradas amostras de solo com estrutura deformada para a quantificação das frações granulométricas ao longo do perfil. Em área adjacente instalou-se um pluviômetro acoplado a um “data logger” para a quantificação da entrada de água na área por precipitação pluvial. Os valores das frações granulométricas apresentaram distribuição normal e foram uniformes em todos os pontos...

Distribuição espacial dos parâmetros da equação da condutividade hidráulica em função da umidade do solo; Spatial distribution of the parameters of the equation relating hydraulic conductivity to soil water content

Carvalho, Laercio Alves de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/08/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.29%
O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a variabilidade espacial dos parâmetros da equação da condutividade hidráulica determinada no campo em função do conteúdo de água no solo, pelo método do perfil instantâneo, e avaliar a estabilidade temporal da armazenagem da água no solo, com vistas a identificação de um local de amostragem ótimo para a determinação da densidade de fluxo da água pela equação de Darcy-Buckingham. O estudo foi desenvolvido num Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, textura areno-argiloso, em área experimental do Campus "Luiz de Queiroz", Universidade de São Paulo, município de Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Suas coordenadas geográficas são: 22° 42’ 43,3’’ de latitude sul, 47° 37’ 10,4’’ de longitude oeste e 456 m de altitude. A parcela experimental apresentava um comprimento de 45 m e uma largura de 15 m, na qual foram instalados 40 tubos de alumínio para acesso de uma sonda de nêutrons para medida do conteúdo da água no solo nas profundidades 0,20 m; 0,40 m; 0,60 m; 0,80 m e 1,00 m e cálculo da armazenagem da água no perfil 0- 1,0 m. A distribuição desses tubos foi feita na forma de uma grade de quatro colunas por dez linhas, com cada tubo distando de seu vizinho de 5 m. As funções K(θ) nos 40 pontos foram determinadas a partir das análises de regressão de θ em função de lnt e hz em função de lnt...

Influência da técnica de microinfiltração, pressão pulpar simulada, armazenamento e fadiga cíclica na microinfiltração e integridade marginal das coroas In-Ceram Alumina; Influence of microleakage technique, simulated pulpal pressure, water storage, and cyclic fatigue on marginal integrity and microleakage of In-Ceram alumina crowns

Rossetti, Paulo Henrique Orlato
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/06/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
Objetivos: verificar a influência da técnica de microinfiltração, pressão pulpar simulada, armazenamento e fadiga cíclica na microinfiltração e integridade marginal das coroas In-Ceram alumina. Material e métodos: Dentes pré-molares superiores humanos de dimensões semelhantes receberam preparos para coroa total com 4mm de altura, 6 graus de convergência e 2mm de desgaste axial e oclusal. Coroas de In-Ceram alumina com 0,5mm de espessura foram obtidas e cimentadas com Panavia F/Clearfil SE Bond (PAN-SE) e/ou Rely XARC/Adper Single Bond 2 (REL-SB). Quatro hipóteses foram testadas: 1) Ausência de diferença na microinfiltração entre uma nova técnica sugerida para verificar a microinfiltração, quando comparada à técnica convencional, 1.1) Verificar se a nova técnica é adequada para estudos laboratoriais de microinfiltração, 2) A pressão pulpar simulada (15cmH2O) não altera a microinfiltração; 3) O armazenamento (90 dias) / fadiga cíclica (500.000 ciclos, 2Hz, 5kg) não têm influência na microinfiltração marginal e 4) O armazenamento/fadiga cíclica não influenciam a integridade marginal das coroas. Grupos controle foram constituídos em todos os experimentos. Resultados: 1) Nenhuma diferença estatisticamente significante foi detectada entre as duas técnicas testadas para analisar a microinfiltração dentro de cada conjunto cimento/adesivo (p>0...

Armazenamento de água no solo de uma cultura de soja medido por tensiômetros de polímero e estimado por diferentes métodos agrometeorológicos; Soil water storage of a soybean crop measured by polymer tensiometers and estimated by different agrometeorological methods

Schwantes, Ana Paula
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/01/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
O conhecimento do armazenamento de água pelo solo (ARM) é importante por tratarse de uma cultura de grande interesse agronômico. Os tensiômetros de polímero são novos dispositivos capazes de verificar a tensão de água no solo em situações de solo bem seco e realizam medidas do potencial matricial do solo que podem ser utlizadas para o cálculo de ARM. O presente trabalho tem por objetivos: (i) estimar o armazenamento de água no solo através dos métodos de estimativa de balanço hídrico de Thornthwaite e Mather (M), Rijtema e Aboukhaled (R) e Cossenoidal (C), combinados com a evapotranspiração de cultura estimada pelos métodos de Thornthwaite, Penamn e Penman-Monteith, a fim de compara-los com valores de ARM medidos com tensiômetros de polímeros; (ii) estimar a produtividade deplecionada por água e comparar com os dados observados em um experimento de campo com uma cultura da soja. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Piracicaba, SP, com tensiômetros instalados a 0,05, 0,15 e 0,30 m de profundidade, representando as camadas de 0-0,1, 0,1-0,2 e 0,2-0,4 m, respectivamente. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que: (i) o método M subestima a evapotranspiração atual ( ). Consequentemente, superestima o déficit hídrico e subestima S pois assume que (a) só é igual à evapotranspiração potencial quando ARM é igual à capacidade de armazenamento do solo (CAD); (b) M assume aumento linear entre nulo até a ; (ii) os métodos R e C apresentam estimativas de equivalentes; consequentemente...

Using a glass-fibre reinforced polymer composite in the production of sustainable water storage vessels

Simões, Carla L.; Nunes, J. P.; Bernardo, C. A.; Vasconcelos, M.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /09/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
The quest for sustainability by rethinking materials, products and production strategies is an enormous challenge currently laid upon the economic sector. Materials selection plays a critical role in this challenge. The present work describes a technological, environmental and economic study of the production of a water storage glass-fibre reinforced composite vessel. The vessel was evaluated via a Life Cycle Assessment/Life Cycle Costing (LCA/LCC) integrated model. The most significant life cycle phase was found to be the raw materials production, in which the Fossil fuels, Respiratory inorganics and Climate change were the relevant impact categories. The vessel environmental and economic performances could be improved if an end of life (EoL) option different from landfill had been chosen. The present work describes a new integrated way of analysing the environmental and economic performances of a structural product full life cycle. It also highlights the role and importance of fibre reinforced polymer composites in the quest for sustainable products.; FCT projeto SFRH/BD/60852/2009 e IPC projeto UID/CTM/50025/2013

Soil water storage in an upland forest after selective logging in Central Amazonia

Ferreira,S. J. F.; Luizão,F. J.; Ross,S. M.; Biot,Y.; Mello-Ivo,W. M. P.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
Soil water storage of Central Amazonian soil profiles in upland forest plots subjected to selective logging (in average, 8 trees or 34, 3 m³ of timber per hectare were removed) was measured in four layers, down to a depth of 70 cm. The study lasted 27-months and was divided in two phases: measurements were carried out nearly every week during the first 15 months; in the following year, five intensive periods of measurements were performed. Five damage levels were compared: (a) control (undisturbed forest plot); (b) centre of the clearing/gap; (c) edge of the gap; (d) edge of the remaining forest; and (e) remaining forest. The lowest values for water storage were found in the control (296 ± 19.1 mm), while the highest were observed (333 ± 25.8 mm) in the centre of the gap, during the dry period. In the older gaps (7.5-8.5 year old), soil water storage was similar to the remaining and the control forest, indicating a recovery of hydric soil properties to nearly the levels prior to selective logging.

Water storage in wetted strips under irrigated coffee trees with different criteria of irrigation management

Colombo,Alberto; Alvarenga,Lívia A.; Scalco,Myriane S.; Ribeiro,Randal C.; Abreu,Giselle F.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
The increasing demand for water resources accentuates the need to reduce water waste through a more appropriate irrigation management. In the particular case of irrigated coffee planting, which in recent years presented growth with the predominance of drip irrigation, the improvement of drip irrigation management techniques is a necessity. The proper management of drip irrigation depends on the knowledge of the spatial pattern of soil moisture distribution inside the wetted strip formed under the irrigation lines. In this study, grids of 24 tensiometers were used to determine the water storage within the wetted strip formed under drippers, with a 3.78 L h-1 discharge, evenly spaced by 0.4 m, subjected to two different management criteria (fixed irrigation interval and 60 kPa tension). Estimates of storage based on a one-dimensional analysis, that only considers depth variations, were compared with two-dimensional estimates. The results indicate that for high-frequency irrigation the one-dimensional analysis is not appropriate. However, under less frequent irrigation, the two-dimensional analysis is dispensable, being the one-dimensional sufficient for calculating the water volume stored in the wetted strip.

Effect of water storage on tooth displacement in maxillary complete dentures

Consani,Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Mesquita,Marcelo Ferraz; Consani,Simonides; Correr Sobrinho,Lourenço; Sousa-Neto,Manoel Damião
Fonte: Fundação Odontológica de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Fundação Odontológica de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of water storage at 37ºC (1 week, 1 month and 3 months) on tooth displacement in maxillary complete dentures. Ten maxillary dentures were constructed with Clássico acrylic resin using the conventional method of packing in metallic flasks. Metallic reference pins were placed in the incisal border of the central incisors (I), labial cusp of the first premolars (PM), and mesiolabial cusp of the second molars (M). Twelve hours after final flask closure, the acrylic resin was cured in water at 74ºC for 9 h. The flasks were removed from the thermo-polymerizing unit after water-cooling and the dentures were deflasked, finished and stored in water at a temperature of 37ºC for 1 week, 1 month and 3 months. At deflasking and at the water storage intervals, the I-I (incisor to incisor), PM-PM (pre-molar to pre-molar), and M-M (molar to molar) transversal distances, and LI-LM (left incisor to left molar) and RI-RM (right incisor to right molar) anteroposterior distances were measured using an optical microscope with 0.0005 mm accuracy. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey´s test (5%). Comparing the evaluation periods for each individual transversal and anteroposterior reference point...

Influence of water storage time on the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive systems

Dantas,Darlene Cristina Ramos Eloy; Ribeiro,Ana Isabella Arruda Meira; Lima,Lúcia Helena Marques de Almeida; Lima,Marcelino Guedes de; Guênes,Gymenna Maria Tenório; Braz,Ana Karla Souza; Braz,Rodivan
Fonte: Fundação Odontológica de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Fundação Odontológica de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
The purpose of this study was to evaluate comparatively the shear bond strength (SBS) of etch-and-rinse (Adper Scotch Bond Multi Purpose - ASBMP and Adper Single Bond 2 - ASB2) and self-etching (AdheSe -AD and Adper Prompt - AP) adhesive systems after short- and long-term water storage. Eighty bovine teeth were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=20, 10 teeth for 24 h and 10 for 6 months). After surface treatment, composite resin cylinders were made with Tetric Ceram using a bisected metallic matrix. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for either 24 h or 6 months. After these periods, shear strength was assessed in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). Data were submitted to ANOVA and F test at 5% significance level. Mean SBSs (MPa) for ASBMP (10.03 ± 3.78) and ASB2 (6.10 ± 2.67) showed no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between times. The self-etching systems did not differ significantly from each other within the 24-h period, but significant difference was found for AD (1.37 ± 0.64) after 6 months of water storage. In conclusion, the tested etch-and-rinse systems had a better performance in terms of bond durability over time than the self-etching systems.

Investigating xylem embolism formation, refilling and water storage in tree trunks using frequency domain reflectometry

Hao, Guang-You; Wheeler, James K; Holbrook, Noel Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
Trunks of large trees play an important role in whole-plant water balance but technical difficulties have limited most hydraulic research to small stems, leaves, and roots. To investigate the dynamics of water-related processes in tree trunks, such as winter embolism refilling, xylem hydraulic vulnerability, and water storage, volumetric water content (VWC) in the main stem was monitored continuously using frequency domain moisture sensors in adult Betula papyrifera trees from early spring through the beginning of winter. An air injection technique was developed to estimate hydraulic vulnerability of the trunk xylem. Trunk VWC increased in early spring and again in autumn, concurrently with root pressure during both seasons. Diurnal fluctuations and a gradual decrease in trunk VWC through the growing season were observed, which, in combination with VWC increase after significant rainfall events and depletion during periods of high water demand, indicate the importance of stem water storage in both short- and long-term water balance. Comparisons between the trunk air injection results and conventional branch hydraulic vulnerability curves showed no evidence of ‘vulnerability segmentation’ between the main stem and small branches in B. papyrifera. Measurements of VWC following air injection...

Water Resources Sector Strategy : Strategic Directions for World Bank Engagement

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
In 1993 the Board of the World Bank endorsed a Water Resources Management Policy Paper (WRMPP). In that paper, and in this Strategy, water resources management comprises the institutional framework (legal, regulatory and organizational roles), management instruments (regulatory and financial), and the development, maintenance and operation of infrastructure (including water storage structures and conveyance, wastewater treatment, and watershed protection). The 1993 Policy Paper reflected the broad global consensus that was forged during the Rio Earth Summit of 1992. This consensus stated that modern water resources management should be based on three fundamental principles (known as the Dublin Principles). First is the ecological principle which argues that independent management of water by different water-using sectors is not appropriate, that the river basin should be the unit of analysis, that land and water need to be managed together and that much greater attention needs to be paid to the environment. Second is the institutional principle...

Towards a Strategic Analysis of Water Resources Investments in Kenya : Hydrological, Economic, and Institutional Assessment for Storage Development

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.34%
The objective of this study was to advance the process of prioritizing water storage investments that could reduce water stress in economically important areas. The specific objectives of the study were to (i) outline a comprehensive framework for screening of potential storage sites; (ii) identify important water stressed areas through an updated water balance; (iii) assess alternative multipurpose water storage projects through physical, hydrological and economic criteria; and (iv) analyze institutional and financing aspects of water resources development in Kenya to identify capacity and knowledge inadequacies. The study focused on identifying viable surface water storage projects to increase water supply reliability and mitigate the effects of common multi-year droughts. No new estimates of groundwater resources were made, though they were considered in quantifying overall water availability. The scope of the study was limited to an initial screening of infrastructure options that will increase the reliability of water supply. The state of water service delivery was not assessed as it was outside the scope of this study.

Armazenagem de água e produtividade de meloeiro irrigado por gotejamento, com a superfície do solo coberta e desnuda; Water storage and muskmelon productivity of a drip-irrigated soil with and without soil cover

MOTA, Jaedson Cláudio Anunciato; LIBARDI, Paulo Leonel; BRITO, Alexsandro dos Santos; ASSIS JÚNIOR, Raimundo Nonato de; AMARO FILHO, Joaquim
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
Em regiões com escassez hídrica, a irrigação por métodos que otimizam a aplicação de água às plantas torna-se necessária à produção agrícola. Dessa maneira, o conhecimento da armazenagem de água na camada de solo explorada pelas raízes de uma cultura agrícola ao longo de seu desenvolvimento é essencial ao manejo dos recursos água e solo. Partindo desse problema, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a armazenagem de água em Cambissolo cultivado com meloeiro, irrigado por gotejamento, sem e com cobertura da superfície do solo. O experimento foi conduzido em Baraúna-RN, e a estimativa de armazenagem foi feita para a camada de 0-0,3 m, correspondente à camada explorada pelo sistema radicular efetivo da cultura. O monitoramento diário foi realizado durante todo o ciclo, sendo dividido em quatro fases fenológicas: inicial, vegetativa, de frutificação e de maturação. A cobertura da superfície do solo aumentou a armazenagem de água, especialmente nas fases inicial e vegetativa da cultura, mas não teve influência sobre a produtividade e as características pós-colheita dos frutos.; In regions with water stress, irrigation methods that optimize water application to crops are required for agricultural production. Knowledge on soil water storage in the soil rooting zone during an agricultural crop cycle is essential for water and soil management. The objective of this study was to evaluate water storage in an Inceptisol under drip-irrigated muskmelon...

Effect of water storage on the shear strength and fatigue limit of the reline resin bond to denture base resins

Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Seo, Rosangela Seiko; Santos Nunes Reis, Jose Mauricio; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha; Pavarina, Ana Claudia; Machado, Ana Lucia
Fonte: Quintessence Publishing Co Inc Publicador: Quintessence Publishing Co Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 319-327
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 02/13728-8; Processo FAPESP: 03/03278-8; Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of water storage (WS) on the shear bond strength (SBS) and shear bond fatigue limit (SBFL) between denture base and reline resins. In addition, a possible correlation between SBS and SBFL was evaluated.Materials and Methods: Two denture base (Lucitone 550-L and Acron MC-AC) and two reline resins (Ufi Gel Hard-UGH and Tokuso Rebase Fast-TR) were selected. Cylinders (20 x 20 mm) of each denture base resin were processed, and the reline resins were packed on the bonding surfaces using a split mold (3.5 x 5.0 mm). Specimens of each denture base-reline resin combination were subjected to shear forces (0.5 mm/min) until fracture. A staircase approach was used to determine the SBFL. Specimens were submitted to either 10,000 cycles (5.0 Hz) or until fracture. For both SBS and SBFL, specimens were tested after relining (control) and after 30 days of WS. Data (MPa) were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (alpha = 0.05). To test for a possible correlation between the SBS and SBFL, a linear regression analysis was performed.Results: WS significantly increased (p < 0.05) the SBS of AC-TR and AC-UGH and the SBFL of AC-TR...

Using glass-fibre reinforced polymer composites in the production of sustainable water storage vessels

Simões, C. L.; Vasconcelos, M.; Nunes, J. P.; Bernardo, C. A.
Fonte: Inderscience Publicador: Inderscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/08/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
The present work focuses on the use of the life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC)methodologies to evaluate environmental and economic impacts of polymers and polymer composites materials and products. Initially a literature review is performed in order to assess the scope and limitations of existing LCA and LCC studies on these topics. Then, a case study, based on the production of a water storage glass-fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite storage tank, is presented. The storage tank was evaluated via a LCA/LCC integrated model, a novel way of analysing the life cycle (LC) environmental and economic performances of structural products. The overarching conclusion of the review is that the environmental and economic performances of polymers composites in non-mobile applications are seldom assessed and never in a combined integrated way.; This work was funded by FEDER, through the COMPETE 2020 program, and by FCT, the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under project UID/CTM/50025/2013. The authors acknowledge the data provided by Vidropol SA, which was essential for its completion. Carla L. Simões also thanks FCT for a personal research grant (SFRH/BD/60852/2009).

MONITORING MASS CHANGES IN THE VOLTA RIVER BASIN USING GRACE SATELLITE GRAVITY AND TRMM PRECIPITATION

FERREIRA, VAGNER G.; School of Earth Sciences and Engineering; GONG, ZHENG; State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering; ANDAM-AKORFUL, SAMUEL A.; School of Earth Sciences and Engineering
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Paraná-UFPR Publicador: Universidade Federal do Paraná-UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/12/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
GRACE satellite gravity data was used to estimate mass changes within the Volta River basin in West African for the period of January, 2005 to December, 2010. We also used the precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) to determine relative contributions source to the seasonal hydrological balance within the Volta River basin. We found out that the seasonal mass change tends to be detected by GRACE for periods from 1 month in the south to 4 months in the north of the basin after the rainfall events. The results suggested a significant gain in water storage in the basin at reference epoch 2007.5 and a dominant annualcycle for the period under consideration for both in the mass changes and rainfall time series. However, there was a low correlation between mass changes and rainfall implying that there must be other processes which cause mass changeswithout rainfall in the upstream of the Volta River basin.

Evaluation of the CDC safe water-storage intervention to improve the microbiological quality of point-of-use drinking water in rural communities in South Africa

Potgieter,N; Becker,PJ; Ehlers,MM
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2009 EN
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76.3%
The use of different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite solutions (placebo; 1% and 3.5% sodium hypochlorite solutions) and 2 water-storage containers (traditional plastic container and the improved CDC safe water-storage container) as interventions in 2 rural communities using different water sources (improved vs. unimproved) was evaluated over a period of 4 months. Standard methods were used to determine the presence of indicator organisms (total coliforms, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, faecal enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, male-specific F-RNA and somatic coliphages) in the water samples. The results indicated that the 1% and the 3.5% sodium hypochlorite solutions effectively reduced the numbers of indicator microorganisms to undetectable counts in both types of water-storage containers. However, no statistical differences were seen between the 2 types of water-storage containers in the numbers of indicator microorganisms present in the stored water with the addition of a placebo sodium hypochlorite solution. Compliance of households with the use of the sodium hypochlorite intervention ranged between 60% and 100%. A household questionnaire survey indicated an urgent need for education concerning the risk of waterborne diseases...

Comparison of GRACE with in situ hydrological measurement data shows storage depletion in Hai River basin, Northern China

Moiwo,Juana Paul; Yang,Yonghui; Li,Huilong; Han,Shumin; Hu,Yukun
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2009 EN
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66.33%
Water storage change has implications not only for the hydrological cycle, but also for sustainable water resource management in especially semi-arid river basins. Satellite/remote sensing techniques have gained increasing application in monitoring basin and regional hydrological processes in recent decades. In this study, the latest version of GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) is used to estimate total water storage change in the Hai River basin (HRB) of Northern China for the period January 2003 to December 2006. Time-series comparisons show a good agreement between the estimated storage change from the GRACE satellite data and in situ hydrological measurement data at especially the seasonal cycle with R = 0.82 and RMSE = 17.25 mm. The good agreement suggests that GRACE detects storage change in the 318 866 km² HRB study area. It also implies that the in situ hydrological measurements of soil moisture and groundwater sufficiently characterise storage change in the semi-arid river basin. Change in soil moisture storage is less than that in saturated storage, suggesting that storage depletion in the basin is mainly in the saturated zone. Both the GRACE and hydrological measurement data indicate storage loss in the range of 12.72 to 23.76 mm/yr - a phenomenon that has been detected in previous studies in the basin. GRACE hydrology data could therefore be handy in monitoring storage dynamics and water availability in the study area. As GRACE data are available for virtually every region of the world...