This article presents the steps made for the development of a new water
management system (WMS) for a private water utility in the south of Portugal, and its main
results. The WMS is composed of a set of models representing the water resources, surface
and groundwater, water quality models, economic models, and water allocation
optimization models. The system was developed at the request of the regional water utility
(Águas do Algarve, S.A.), which is responsible for distributing water to the entire Algarve
region (most touristic area in Portugal, with about ten million tourists per year, and a local
population of about four hundred thousand). Results clearly show that independently of the
amount of water available, inter-annual exploration is always the best solution, if possible.
When water scarcity is high, as in consecutive dry years, the water utility will need to call
municipalities to use their systems to complement supply. The level of supply deficit is
higher, in any case, for annual exploration management, and so are exploration costs. These
results clearly show that water resources management needs careful inter-annual planning,
even for a private water supply utility with very limited control over water exploration by
other competing users.
The document is structured in three
parts covering the key thematic areas of water supply
service delivery, sanitation service delivery, and overall
policy. Each part describes a series of different actions
that can be taken to improve service delivery to low-income
communities, outlines key lessons and challenges and
identifies the principles of good practice. This project is
aimed at developing a better understanding of the conditions
necessary for water and sanitation services to reach
low-income communities. It sought to build on the knowledge
and experience of the various actors currently involved in
delivering or supporting these services. One of the main
observations of the authors is that there is never just one
solution to any particular problem. Within each country
context, the key to a successful strategy lies in the
capacity of practitioners working in the water and
sanitation sector to innovate and to adapt solutions to
address local constraints and opportunities. This document
aims to: (i) describe the challenges facing service delivery
to low-income urban communities; (ii) outline key principles
that guide water and sanitation sector practitioners in the
delivery of services to the urban poor; and (iii) provide
tangible examples from a range of sub-saharan African
countries to illustrate these principles and challenges.
(Bibliography) Bibliography.; "Color separation by Don Tucker."; Includes text, location map, geologic section, and 3 graphs.; (Funding) Map series (Florida. Division of Geology) ;; (Statement of Responsibility) by M.I. Kaufman and N.P. Dion ; prepared by the United States Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Division of Geology, Florida Board of Conservation and the Southwest Florida Water Management District.
(Bibliography) References.; Includes text, location map, 3 ancillary maps, and 3 charts.; "October 1984"(on envelope).; Photocopy of envelope affixed on verso of map.; Title on envelope: Ground water withdrawals from the Floridan Aquifer in Clay County and portions of Bradford County 1983-1984.; (Funding) Technical publication (St. Johns River Water Management District, Fla.) ;; (Statement of Responsibility) by Richard L. Marella ; prepared by the St. Johns River Water Management District.
The first round of Country Status
Overviews (CSO1) published in 2006 benchmarked the
preparedness of sectors of 16 countries in Africa to meet
the Millenial Development Goals (MDGs) based on their
medium-term spending plans and a set of success factors
selected from regional experience. Combined with a process
of national stakeholder consultation, this prompted
countries to ask whether they had those success factors in
place and, if not, whether they should put them in place.
The African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW)
commissioned the production of a second round of Country
Status Overviews (CSO2s) to better understand what underpins
progress in water supply and sanitation and what its member
governments can do to accelerate that progress across
countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The analysis aims to
help countries assess their own service delivery pathways
for turning finance into water supply and sanitation
services in each of four subsectors: rural and urban water
supply, and rural and urban sanitation and hygiene. The CSO2
analysis has three main components: a review of past
coverage; a costing model to assess the adequacy of future
investments; and a scorecard which allows diagnosis of
particular bottlenecks along the service delivery pathway.
The CSO2 s contribution is to answer not only whether past
trends and future finance are sufficient to meet sector
The African Ministers Council on Water
(AMCOW) commissioned the production of a second round of
Country Status Overviews (CSOs) to better understand what
underpins progress in water supply and sanitation and what
its member governments can do to accelerate that progress
across countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Based on the
extensive in-country diagnostics, analysis, and stakeholder
consultations, the second CSO provides these insights for 32
countries in SSA, for which there are separate individual
country reports. This document is the regional synthesis of
the 32 country status overviews which collectively account
for 95 percent of SSA's population and over 90 percent
of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The report highlights the
most important trends, challenges, and proposed actions for
achieving improved water supply and sanitation (WSS)
services across Sub-Saharan Africa. The opportunities for
progress are identified based on: understanding trends,
identifying the challenge, and prioritizing action.
This article is based on an in-depth case study of urban water services to poor households in the community of Eastwood, Pietermaritzburg, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, for the period 2005-2007. The article adopts a mixedmethodological approach. Despite government progress in delivering water infrastructure post-1994, ability to pay for the service limited access. The free basic water policy, initiated by national Government in 2001, sought to provide all citizens, but particularly the poor, with a basic supply of free water. The concessions were envisaged to improve public health, gender and equity, affordability, and as an instrument of post-apartheid redress and poverty alleviation. Once free basic water (FBW) was declared a new imperative for local government the debate on exactly how much was enough, why 6 kl was chosen, the structure of the offering and broader state intentions opened up. This article positions the FBW offering within the prevailing international discourse on 'need' calculation. Through the exploration of actual water consumption patterns of urban poor households, the ideological assumptions and 'scientific' calculations underpinning this discourse were found to have ignored the fluidness of use as well as the value of water beyond mere physiological need. In this regard...
This paper presents a case study of large- and small-scale irrigators negotiating for access to water from Nduruma River in the Pangani River Basin, Tanzania. The paper shows that despite the existence of a formal statutory water permit system, all users need to conform to the existing local rules in order to secure access to water. The spatial geography of Nduruma is such that smallholder farmers are located upstream and downstream, while large-scale irrigators are in the midstream part of the sub-catchment. There is not enough water in the river to satisfy all demands. The majority of the smallholder farmers currently access water under local arrangements, but large-scale irrigators have obtained state-issued water use permits. To access water the estates adopt a variety of strategies: they try to claim water access by adhering to state water law; they engage with the downstream smallholder farmers and negotiate rotational allocation; and/or they band with downstream farmers to secure more water from upstream farmers. Estates that were successful in securing their water access were those that engaged with the local system and negotiated a fair rotational water-sharing arrangement. By adopting this strategy, the estates not only avoid conflict with the poor downstream farmers but also gain social reputation...
Drinking water quality was investigated at source and corresponding point-of-use in 2 peri-urban areas receiving drinking water either by communal water tanker or by delivery directly from the distribution system to household-based groundtanks with taps. Water quality variables measured were heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, E. coli, conductivity, turbidity, pH, and total and residual chlorine. Water quality data were analysed together with an existing epidemiological database to investigate links between microbial quality of drinking water, household demographics, health outcomes, socio-economic status, hygiene and sanitation practices. Groundtank households had better quality drinking water than households using storage containers filled from communal tankers. Uncovered storage containers had the poorest microbial water quality among all storage containers. All stored water did not meet drinking water standards, although mains water did. Households with children under 5 years and using open-topped containers had the poorest water quality overall. Households with groundtanks had the best water quality at point-of-use, but did not have the lowest occurrence of health effects. Although groundtanks were supplied together with urine diversion (UD) toilets and hygiene education...
The South African water resource management institutional landscape has seen some dramatic changes since the new dispensation came into power in 1994. Not only have legislation and policies changed, but there has also been a significant increase in the number of non-state actors in the policy development process. Water resource governance has therefore become more complex and its regulatory component is being implemented by a number of legislative institutions: catchment management agencies, water user associations, irrigation boards, and international water management bodies. Policy development is influenced by a myriad of non-state actors, scientists included. A comprehensive literature review of research on water resource management institutions published between 1997 and 2011 shows that scientists are focusing predominantly on catchment management agencies and aspects regarding their institutionalisation and organisational functionality. There is much less of a focus on other entities, such as advisory committees, international water management bodies, irrigation boards, the water tribunal and water user associations. What the review has also revealed is that research on water resource management institutions has been conducted predominantly by scientists from the natural sciences. There is therefore an evident need for a research focus on water resource management institutions other than catchment management agencies. In addition...
Increased infrastructural development and potable water consumption have highlighted the importance of accurate water-demand estimates for effective municipal water services infrastructure planning and design. In the light of evolving water consumption trends, the current guideline for municipal water demand estimation, published in 1983, needs to be revised. This study investigated, using regression analyses, the combined effect of various socio-economic and climatic parameters on municipal water consumption with the objective of determining the dominant influencing parameters and suggesting a new guideline for water-demand estimation. To this end, an initial database comprising more than 2.5 x10(6) metered water consumption records extracted from 48 municipal treasury databases, which are located within 5 out of the 7 South African water regions was analysed. Each of the 48 municipal treasury databases spanned a period of at least 12 months. The final amalgamated database, after rigorous cleaning and filtering, comprised 1 091 685 consumption records. Single variable and stepwise multiple variable regression analyses were utilised. Results show that stand area, stand value and geographical location are the dominant parameters influencing municipal water consumption...
In the search for alternative and reliable water sources to irrigate vegetables for backyard gardens, an experimental field was set up in the vicinity of the Umtata Dam, north-west of the town of Umtata, to test grey-water quality and its effects on soil nutrient content following 4 successive growing seasons. Samples of grey-water that were generated from informal housing adjacent to the Umtata Dam were collected from kitchen and bath tubs/washing basins. These samples were analysed before being used for irrigating vegetable crops. The results showed that grey-water quality was 'fit for purpose' for irrigating edible vegetable plants. Although the average Na+ (16 mg/ℓ) and Cl- (15 mg/ℓ) ions were significantly higher (p = 0.05) for grey-water than other treatments, both were below the limit of 100 mg/ℓ set in the South African Water Quality Guidelines. The concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals found in the grey-water samples were significantly lower compared to the World Health Organization guidelines for the safe use of grey-water and within the target water quality range (TWQR) prescribed by South African guidelines for irrigation water. However, the study strongly recommends that grey-water be diluted in order to lower the salt content and to improve the irrigation water quality. Results from an analysis of soil samples showed no significant differences in pH as a result of applying grey-water throughout the soil profile of up to 90 cm depth. Na content of the soil irrigated with grey-water was not significantly different than that of plots where diluted grey-water and potable water were used. Therefore...
Following the political changes in the early 1990s, the South African government introduced a comprehensive reform process for the water sector with the goal of achieving an enhanced and more equitable water management system. This paper analyses the existing water allocation situations and applies a non-linear optimisation model to investigate the optimal intra- and inter-regional allocation regimes in the Middle Olifants sub-basin of South Africa. Economic issues such as efficiency gains related to water transfers are discussed and calculated water price elasticities and estimated water demand functions provide necessary fundamentals for further modelling work. Social and environmental aspects are accounted for by including constant water demands in the model. Results show higher benefits from inter-regional water allocation. Reducing water supply levels to conform to the sustainable water supply policy, it can be shown that although water supply is reduced by approximately 50%, total benefits from water use are only reduced by 5% and 11% for inter- and intra-regional allocation regimes, respectively. These results indicate that alternative water allocation mechanisms can serve as policy instruments to offset the effects of water scarcity.
Microbial water quality is an essential aspect in the provision of potable water for domestic use. The provision of adequate amounts of safe water for domestic purposes has become difficult for most municipalities mandated to do so in Zimbabwe. Morton-Jaffray Treatment Plant supplies potable water to Harare City and areas surrounding Harare. This study investigated microbial water quality and the impact of microbial water quality related disasters in the area supplied by the Morton Jaffray Treatment Plant. Questionnaires were distributed to household owners in Harare who receive their water from the Municipality and those who use alternate water supplies. Candidates were randomly selected from their workplace. The raw water quality of Manyame River and its tributaries was assessed. Treated water in households was assessed for microbial quality using hydrogen sulphide test and heterotrophic bacteria plate count. Raw water sources were found to be contaminated by faecal matter. Household water sources tested negative for faecal contamination but positive for heterotrophic bacteria. CFU quantities ranged from 1 to 452 CFU/ml for all samples. The WHO guidelines for domestic water sources state that water used for domestic purposes should not be contain than 100 CFU/ml. Public perceptions of water quality ranged from 'unsafe' to 'highly contaminated'. A decrease in the level of aesthetic appeal resulted in residents resorting to alternative sources such as wells and rivers for their domestic water. The current state of treated water was suitable for domestic use. Pathogen monitoring of domestic water is recommended using the hydrogen sulphide test and R2A agar test.
This paper gives an overview of human water requirements (Part 1) and water quality for nutritional health (Part 2). A balance between water input and water output is needed to maintain a normal hydration status. Water requirements of individuals differ in different stages and circumstances in the healthy life cycle, e.g. childhood, pregnancy and lactation as well for the elderly. Various sources of dietary water as well as water consumption of the South African population are discussed. Water is needed to maintain a normal hydration status, yet the non-water ingredients of beverages may also have hydration and non-hydration-related (ill-) effects, mostly in the longer term. Furthermore, water quality can affect nutrition-related health. Water is a source of nutrients, with fluoride being the most important from a nutritional perspective. Water is needed for hygiene and there are various transmission routes for diseases related to water i.e. water-borne, water-washed, water-based and water-related. In South Africa, 2.6% of all deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) are attributable to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene. The figures are much higher for children under 5 years of age. Of the diseases associated with water...
South Africa is a water-scarce country where the sustainable provision of water to its citizens is one of the most significant challenges faced. A recent study in Cape Town, South Africa, investigated the impact of residential swimming pools on household water demand and found that, on average, the presence of a swimming pool increased water demand by 8.85 kℓ/ month or 37.36%. Should cities in South Africa wish to develop in a water sensitive manner - where water is treated as a scarce resource with economic value in all its competing uses - it will be vital to understand the impact of swimming pools on residential water demand. Should there be a significant increase in water demand attributable to the presence of a swimming pool on a property, it would highlight the need to consider whether it is acceptable for properties to use municipal water to fill them or top them up - especially in water-scarce/stressed areas. This paper describes a study undertaken in the Liesbeek River catchment, Cape Town, to investigate the impact that swimming pools have on domestic water demand. The results support the contention that properties with swimming pools use significantly more water than those without. This study estimated the additional demand resulting from swimming pools at between 2.2-2.4 kℓ/month or 7-8% of total water demand. The data also indicate that the presence of a swimming pool correlates with a higher indoor demand. The study shows the need to reduce the impact of swimming pools. This could include: pool covers to reduce evaporation...
The mining industry utilises 3% of the total water withdrawn in South Africa and is one of the industries responsible for the deterioration of water quality in South Africa. Mine water requirements can be reduced with correct implementation and/ or improvement of current mine water management strategies. Any reduction in mine water requirements will reduce the demand on current water resources and hence the impact on water quality. The direct water footprint for 2 concentrators, a smelter and a tailings dam of a platinum processing plant were calculated using the Water Footprint Network assessment method. This includes the sum of the blue-, green- and grey-water footprints. Water footprints of chemicals used during flotation were excluded from the scope of the investigation. Water used in change houses and offices was included. The water footprint calculated from June 2012 until May 2013 was 201 m³/kg PGM (platinum group metals). The first concentrator had a water footprint of 76 m³/kg PGM, while the second had a water footprint of 110 m³/kg PGM. Overall, the total grey-water footprint made the largest contribution, accounting for 73%, the blue-water footprint was the second largest (27%), and there was no green-water footprint.
One method to inform decisions with respect to sustainable, efficient and equitable water allocation and use is water footprint assessment (WFA). This paper presents a preliminary WFA of South Africa (SA) based on data for the period 1996-2005. Crop production was found to contribute about 75% of the total water footprint of national production. The total water footprint of crop production is mainly composed of five crops: maize, fodder crops, sugarcane, wheat and sunflower seed, which account for 83% of the crop water footprint. The average water footprint of a South African consumer is 1 255 m³/yr, below the world average of 1 385 m³/yr, and is dominated by the consumption of meat (32%) and cereals (29%). About one fifth of this water footprint of consumption is external to SA. While SA is a net virtual water importer, the virtual water trade analysis revealed that a large share of blue water consumption is related to export. Sustainability concerns are that the major river basins face severe blue-water scarcity for extended periods of the year, and that water pollution levels related to nitrogen and phosphorus were found to be unsustainable in all river basins in SA. Efficient allocation and use of water is investigated by means of comparing the consumptive water footprint to global benchmark values...
In this article several economic studies undertaken to assist with the implementation of the National Water Act (NWA) No. 36 of 1998 are reviewed. In these studies the following procedures were applied to model water use: operational research, econometric analysis, input/output analysis, willingness to pay and the conceptual framework of water markets. Main use sectors are agriculture, forestry, municipalities (domestic consumption) and the environment. Water values estimated in the studies differ significantly between sectors, as well as between and within catchment areas. Most of the studies focused on irrigated agriculture as an important use sector in terms of water volumes, food production and capital investment. Input/ output analysis indicates that South African agriculture is a less productive user of water in terms of gross income generated per unit of water. Evidence suggests that industrial and domestic use place a high value on assurance of supply of current water consumption levels. In contrast, agriculture requires large volumes of water for food production in response to market demand. The average value product of water is much higher for industry than agriculture, but the marginal value products appear similar in both sectors. From this it is concluded that water-use rights will in future be transferred from agriculture to industry but there is no urgency at present. As water is transferred in future from agriculture to domestic use and industrial use...
The purpose of an irrigation system is to apply the desired amount of water, at the correct application rate and uniformly to the whole field, at the right time, with the least amount of non-beneficial water consumption (losses), and as economically as possible. We know that irrigated agriculture plays a major role in the livelihoods of nations all over the world and South Africa is no exception. With the agricultural water-use sector being the largest of all water-use sectors in South Africa, there have been increased expectations that the sector should increase efficiency and reduce consumption in order to increase the amount of water available for other uses. Studies and research over 40 years, on the techniques of flood-, mobile- and micro-irrigation have contributed to the knowledge base of applying irrigation methods correctly. In a recent study on irrigation efficiency, the approach is that irrigation efficiency should be assessed by applying a water balance to a specific situation rather than by calculating various performance indicators. The fraction of the water abstracted from the source that is utilised by the plant is called the beneficial water-use component, and optimised irrigation water supply is therefore aimed at maximising this component. It implies that water must be delivered from the source to the field both efficiently and effectively. Optimising water use at farm level requires careful consideration of the implications of decisions made during both development (planning and design)...