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Antioxidant potential of chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) and almond (Prunus dulcis L.) by-products.

Barreira, João C.M.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Pereira, J.A.
Fonte: Sage Publicador: Sage
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
The antioxidant properties of almond green husks (Cvs. Duro Italiano, Ferraduel, Ferranhês, Ferrastar and Orelha de Mula), chestnut skins and chestnut leaves (Cvs. Aveleira, Boa Ventura, Judia and Longal) were evaluated through several chemical and biochemical assays in order to provide a novel strategy to stimulate the application of waste products as new suppliers of useful bioactive compounds, namely antioxidants. All the assayed by-products revealed good antioxidant properties, with very low EC50 values (lower than 380 μg/mL), particularly for lipid peroxidation inhibition (lower than 140 μg/mL). The total phenols and flavonoids contents were also determined. The correlation between these bioactive compounds and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in pig brain tissue through formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was also obtained. Although, all the assayed by-products proved to have a high potential of application in new antioxidants formulations, chestnut skins and leaves demonstrated better results.

Characterization and application of the solid waste generated in the production of calcium carbonate precipitate as a corrective for the soil acidity

MELLO FILHO, Carlos Henrique Ramos; OLIVEIRA, Jose Roberto de; ESPINOSA, Denise Crocce Romano; TENORIO, Jorge Alberto Soares
Fonte: ESCOLA DE MINAS Publicador: ESCOLA DE MINAS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
The calcium carbonate industry generates solid waste products which, because of their high alkaline content (CaO, CaCO(3) and Ca (OH)(2)), have a substantial impact on the environment. The objectives of this study are to characterize and classify the solid waste products, which are generated during the hydration process of the calcium carbonate industry, according to ABNT`s NBR 10.000 series, and to determine the potential and efficiency of using these solid residues to correct soil acidity. Initially, the studied residue was submitted to gross mass, leaching, solubility, pH. X-ray Diffractometry, Inductive Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), granularity and humidity analyses. The potential and efficiency of the residue for correcting soil acidity was determined by analysis of the quality attributes for soil correctives (PN, PRNT, Ca and Mg contents, granularity). Consequently, the results show that the studied residue may be used as a soil acidity corrective, considering that a typical corrective compound is recommended for each different type of soil. Additionally, the product must be further treated (dried and ground) to suit the specific requirements of the consumer market.

Estudo do processamento do combustível UO2-7%Gd2O3 via mistura mecânica com reutilização de rejeitos do processo de fabricação e aditivo de densificação; UO 2 -7%Gd 2 O 3 FUEL PROCESS DEVELOPMENT BY MECHANICAL BLENDING WITH REPROCESSING OF WASTE PRODUCTS AND USAGE OF DENSIFICATION ADDITIVE

Santos, Lauro Roberto dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/03/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
No ciclo do combustível nuclear as etapas de reprocessamento e estocagem do combustível queimado, seja ela de modo provisório ou definitivo, demandam um alto custo além de problemas ambientais. Uma estratégia para minorar estes problemas é adoção de medidas que diminuam a quantidade de rejeitos. A utilização de veneno queimável integrado a base de gadolínia é uma medida que contribui para esse objetivo. A função do veneno queimável é controlar a população de nêutrons no início da vida do reator ou no início do ciclo de queima de cada recarga do combustível, podendo prolongar o tempo de recarga do combustível, além de se poder operar o reator com maiores taxas de queima, otimizando com isso o uso do combustível. O processo de fabricação de pastilhas de veneno queimável integrado UO2-Gd2O3, gera rejeito que, na medida do possível, deve ser reaproveitado. A incorporação do Gd2O3 no UO2 exige a utilização de um aditivo para que a densidade especificada das pastilhas de combustível seja obtida. O objetivo deste trabalho é o desenvolvimento do processo de obtenção do veneno queimável integrado UO2 - 7%Gd2O3 com o auxílio do aditivo de densificação, hidróxido de alumínio (Al(OH)3) e reutilizando-se os rejeitos do processo de fabricação...

Residues of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in some Brazilian municipal solid waste compost

Lourencetti, Carolina; Favoreto, Rodrigo; Marchi, Mary R. R.; Ribeiro, Maria L.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 697-705
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), listed as per the Stockholm Convention (α -HCH, β -HCH, γ -HCH, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDD, p,p′-DDE, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, PCBs 28, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180), were analyzed in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost samples from three different Brazilian composting plants located in three São Paulo State cities: Araras, Araraquara and São Paulo (Vila Leopoldinha). Quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out using gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (Ion Trap, electron impact ionization), respectively. The samples were analyzed in triplicate and the target POPs were not detected by GC-ECD. Twelve pollutants were identified in two samples when qualitative analysis (GC-MS) was used (β -HCH, γ -HCH, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDD, and p,p′-DDE, PCBs 28, 118, 138, 153 and 180). The composting process has advantages such as urban solid waste reduction and landfill life-span increase, however the MSW compost quality, which can be utilized for agricultural purposes, should be evaluated and be controlled. This kind of study is the first step in making available information to answer questions regarding MSW compost for sustainable agricultural use...

Estudo do albedo de maracuja e de seu aproveitamento em barra de cereais; Study of passion fruit albedo and its industrial use in cereal bars

Fernando Cesar Akira Urbano Matsuura
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/02/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
Existem consideráveis perdas de produtos agrícolas nas diversas etapas da cadeia produtiva, desde a produção no campo até o momento de consumo, passando pela elevada geração de resíduos no processamento agroindustrial de produtos animais e vegetais. Estima-se que o aproveitamento das matérias-primas vegetais não ultrapasse 80% a 85% e que os resíduos gerados possam chegar a até 30%. Além da preservação ambiental, o aproveitamento desses resíduos abrange questões econômicas e sociais. O Brasil é um grande produtor mundial de maracujá, principalmente o amarelo, e o albedo, resíduo do consumo "in natura" e do processamento, representa 12% a 32% da fruta. Os resíduos das frutas e hortaliças comumente podem conter fibras, vitaminas, minerais, substâncias fenólicas e flavonóides, entre outros, que podem ser benéficos à saúde humana, mas também podem possuir compostos tóxicos e antinutricionais que necessitam ser eliminados antes do uso. Pesquisas sobre os resíduos vegetais do processamento agroindustrial têm envolvido o tratamento dos resíduos; a extração de componentes específicos dos resíduos, como a pectina e o óleo das sementes do maracujá; e o aproveitamento integral dos resíduos em produtos alimentícios...

Bond strength between concrete substance and repair materials : comparisons between tungsten mine waste geopolymeric binder versus current commercial repair products.

Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2006 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
An experimental preliminary investigation was conducted to evaluate bond strength between Ordinary Portland Cement concrete substrate and three repair materials. Tungsten mine waste geopolymeric binder and two commercial repair products were used as repair materials. This study indicates that tungsten mine waste geopolymeric binders possess much higher bond strength than current commercial repair products. Results also shows that commercial repair products gain no bond whatsoever to sawn concrete specimens. Scanning electron micrographs reveal that tungsten mine waste geopolymeric binders chemically bond to the concrete substrate. Cost comparisons between tungsten mine waste geopolymeric binder and current commercial repair products are also made showing that geopolymeric ones are by far the most cost efficient solution.

An Electron Microscopic and Radioautographic Study on Experimental Kernicterus: II. Bilirubin Movement Within Neurons and Release of Waste Products via Astroglia

Chen, Hai-chin; Wang, Chiu-hua; Tsan, Kun-Wu; Chen, Yin-cheng
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1971 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
Response of the neurons to bilirubin in asphyxiated newborn rabbits was studied in vivo with the use of the electron microscope and radioautographic technics. A morphologic basis for the mode of intraneuronal bilirubin movement in kernicterus has been established. The absorbed bilirubin had ready access to the Golgi complex from the dendrite through the neurotubules by a mechanism of centripetal dendroplasmic flow. The endoplasmic reticulum provided a subcellular canalicular system for the directed passage from the Golgi complex to the nuclear membrane. Proximodistal flow of bilirubin in the axoplasm caused spotty destruction of axons. The release of waste products from the affected neurons toward the capillaries is very likely an effect of reverse transastroglial transport.

Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review

Jayathilakan, K.; Sultana, Khudsia; Radhakrishna, K.; Bawa, A. S.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
India is bestowed with vast livestock wealth and it is growing at the rate of 6% per annum. The contribution of livestock industry including poultry and fish is increasing substantially in GDP of country which accounts for >40% of total agricultural sector and >12% of GDP. This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value. Traditions, culture and religion are often important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food. Regulatory requirements are also important because many countries restrict the use of meat by-products for reasons of food safety and quality. By-products such as blood, liver...

Ultrasensitive detection of waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy

Bixler, Joel N.; Cone, Michael T.; Hokr, Brett H.; Mason, John D.; Figueroa, Eleonora; Fry, Edward S.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Scully, Marlan O.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Clean water is paramount to human health. Contaminants, such as human waste products in drinking water, can result in significant health issues. In this article, we present a technique for detection of trace amounts of human or animal waste products in water. This technique could allow for real-time assessment of water quality without the need for expensive laboratory equipment.

Embutido tipo salsicha utilizando carne mecanicamente separada de tilápia: uma alternativa para o aproveitamento de resíduo da filetagem; Sausage from mechanically separated meat of tilapia: an alternative to filleting waste utilization

Lago, Amanda Maria Teixeira
Fonte: Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência dos Alimentos; UFLA; brasil; Departamento de Ciência dos Alimentos Publicador: Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência dos Alimentos; UFLA; brasil; Departamento de Ciência dos Alimentos
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em 04/09/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
The fish industry presents a large growth potential because their disposal can be processed into products with marketing uses. An alternative technology for better utilization of the edible part of the fish is the mechanically separated meat (MSM), which can be used as raw material in a range of products. However, there are few studies on its use in the preparation of sausages. Given this situation, the aim of this study was to develop and characterize sausages made with increasing inclusion of MSM. In addition to analyze which formulation was the most accepted, the study aimed to set its shelf life, based on laboratory tests. In the first step, different formulations of sausages were developed with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of MSM. The nutritional value, physical and chemical properties, microbiological aspects and sensory quality of each formulation were evaluated. The last phase of the study consisted of the analysis of the shelf life of the best formulation for a period of 60 days of storage under freezing at -10°C. In terms of technological and nutritional parameters, the use of MSM from tilapia in the production of sausages did not depreciate the quality of the final product. It was found that, in general, all developed sausages met the requirements established by current legislation...

Methane production and microbial community structure in single-stage batch and sequential batch systems anaerobically co-digesting food waste and biosolids

Dearman, B.; Marschner, P.; Bentham, R.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and biosolids was carried out in sequential batch and single-stage batch systems in four treatments. Methane yield, which was used as a functional process parameter, differed between treatments, with the single-stage batch system generating lower volumes than the sequential batch systems. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and pH in the leachate also differed between treatments. VFA concentrations were highest and methane generation yields lowest in the single-stage batch system in comparison to the sequential batch systems. The anaerobic microbial community structure of the domains Archaea and Bacteria, determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, differed between treatments and was correlated to a number of environmental parameters such as pH, VFA concentration and methane generation rate. Methane generation rate was significantly correlated to the community structure of Bacteria but not Archaea. This indicated that the substrates that are produced by acetogens (Bacteria) are important for the growth and community structure of the methanogens (Archaea). Community structure of Archaea changed over time, but this had no observable effect on functional ability based on methane yields. Microbial diversity (H′) was shown to be not important in developing a functionally successful anaerobic microbial community.; B. Dearman...

Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from waste potato starch

Haas, R.; Jin, B.; Zepf, F.
Fonte: Japan Soc Biosci Biotechn Agrochem Publicador: Japan Soc Biosci Biotechn Agrochem
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
There has been a considerable interest in using low cost carbon substrates for the production of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). We have shown that saccharified waste potato starch can be used as a viable alternative carbon source in high cell density PHB production. Using Ralstonia eutropha NCIMB 11599 with phosphate limitation, 179 g/l biomass, 94 g/l PHB, Y(biomass/starch) = 0.46 g/g, Y(PHB/starch) = 0.22 g/g, and PHB productivity = 1.47 g/(l*h) were achieved. Residual maltose accumulated in the fed-batch reactor but caused no noticeable inhibition. Performance with saccharified starch was virtually identical to that with glucose.; Richard Haas, Bo Jin, and Florian Tobias Zepf; Copyright © 2008 by Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry

Sustainability in municipal solid waste management in Bamenda and Yaounde, Cameroon

Achankeng, Eric
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 607910 bytes; 1209096 bytes; 2290498 bytes; 2275050 bytes; 1216538 bytes; 126687 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
In Cameroon, and most other developing countries, the problem of inefficient municipal solid waste management ( MSWM ) is endemic. This is easily identified by persistent heaps of uncollected waste found on street sides or ubiquitous illegal dumps. This thesis examines the sustainability of MSWM in Cameroon using two contrasting city cases of Yaoundé ( 1.5m people ) and Bamenda ( 300 000 people ). As major contributions the thesis generates the much - needed basic original data, critically examines and compares the sustainability of MSWM in both cities ' systems, evaluates the environmental impacts and uses these findings to suggest valuable research, policy and strategic - planning recommendations needed to make both systems, and others in similar situations, sustainable. To achieve these goals multiple triangulated methods were used. In Bamenda, where reliable basic data are non - existent, solid waste from sampled households was collected and analysed for generation rates, quantities and characteristics. In both cities questionnaire were administered to sampled household units selected from four stratified quarters. The survey questions addressed waste management issues and sustainability indicators that were needed to study, compare and evaluate the systems within the wider concept of the waste management hierarchy. The statistical programme for social sciences ( SPSS ) computer software was used to analyse the survey results. Field observations...

How Perspective Impacts Policy: A Comparison of the Social, Scientific, and Political Perspectives on Native Forest Waste Utilization as a Renewable Energy Source in the United States and Australia

Caldwell, Mandi
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
This report compares the political, social and scientific perspectives of native forest utilization between the United States and Australia. The report focuses on the perspectives of using native forest waste from harvesting and management for renewable energy ce11ificates (REC). Methods for comparison include extensive research and discussions with a broad range of stake holders (Appendix A). A standard set of questions were used to initiate discussions (Appendix B). There is a growing emphasis on encouraging renewable energy research and use, driven by a multitude of factors including concerns of climate change, dwindling resources and increasing emphasis on recycling and efficient resource use. Generating energy by burning wood is one of the suites of renewable energy options available for many countries. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, renewable energy is d~fined as an energy source that can be "continuously replenished" on the planet (US EPA 2007). Australia and the United States have active forestry industries that produce by-product, or waste. This waste may be created at any stage in the process of converting wood to useable items such as timber and furniture. However, there is debate regarding the eligibility of certain wood wastes for REC. The social perspective for the United States and Australia are very similar: both want to protect the environment. This is not unusual in more affluent countries...

Minding the Stock : Bringing Public Policy to Bear on Livestock Sector Development

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
Driven by population growth, urbanization, and increased income, the demand for animal-source food products in developing countries is rapidly increasing. Livestock, which already constitutes 30 percent of the agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the developing world, and about 40 percent of the global agricultural GDP, is one of the fastest-growing subsectors in agriculture. Growing demand presents real opportunities for economic growth and poverty reduction in rural areas. It could directly benefit the one billion poor people who depend on livestock as a source of income and subsistence. Livestock also provides traction for about 50 percent of the world's farmers and is a source of organic fertilizer for most of the world's croplands, converting waste products into inputs in the production of high-value food. For these reasons, the sector has a critical role to play in making agriculture sustainable, in reducing poverty, and in contributing to economic growth. This report presents an analysis of the issues related to market failures in the livestock sector...

Caracterização e aplicação dos resíduos sólidos gerados na fabricação de precipitado de carbonato de cálcio como corretivo da acidez do solo; Characterization and application of the solid waste generated in the production of calcium carbonate precipitate as a corrective for the soil acidity

MELLO FILHO, Carlos Henrique Ramos; OLIVEIRA, José Roberto de; ESPINOSA, Denise Crocce Romano; TENÓRIO, Jorge Alberto Soares
Fonte: Escola de Minas Publicador: Escola de Minas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
A indústria de carbonato de cálcio é uma atividade produtiva geradora de resíduos sólidos impactantes para o meio ambiente por conterem alta concentração de elementos alcalinos (CaO, CaCO3 e Ca(OH)2). Esse trabalho visa à caracterização e à classificação dos resíduos sólidos gerados no processo de hidratação de uma indústria de carbonato de cálcio, segundo as normas NBR série 10.000 da ABNT, e à determinação do potencial e à eficiência da utilização dos resíduos sólidos como corretivo da acidez do solo. Inicialmente os resíduos estudados foram submetidos à análise de massa bruta, à ensaios de lixiviação, solubilização, à ensaios de pH, à difratometria de raios X, à espectrometria de emissão atômica, via plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP-AES), à análise granulométrica e à análise de teor de umidade. A determinação do potencial e da eficiência dos resíduos como corretivo da acidez do solo foi realizada através da análise dos atributos da qualidade dos corretivos do solo (PN, PRNT, teores de Ca e Mg, granulometria). Pelos resultados apresentados, os resíduos estudados podem ser utilizados como corretivo da acidez do solo, considerando que, para cada tipo de solo, uma composição típica de corretivo é necessária. É necessário realizar o beneficiamento do produto...

Subsídios à gestão de resíduos de equipamentos elétricos e eletrônicos : diagnóstico do município de Piracicaba - SP; Subsidies to the management of waste of electrical and electronic equipment : diagnosis of city of Piracicaba - SP

Márcia Cristina Martilho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
A fração de resíduos de equipamentos elétricos e eletrônicos (REEE) presente nos resíduos sólidos urbanos vem crescendo em todo o mundo, trazendo novos desafios às administrações municipais para a gestão dos resíduos. Os REEE possuem uma combinação de substâncias e elementos que lhes conferem ao mesmo tempo alto valor agregado e periculosidade, requerendo um tratamento pós-consumo diferenciados. A Lei Nº 12.305, de 2 de agosto de 2010, que institui a Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos, regulamentada pelo Decreto nº 7.404, de 23 de dezembro de 2011, obriga fabricantes, importadores, distribuidores e comerciantes de produtos eletroeletrônicos a estruturar e implementar sistemas de logística reversa. O objetivo desta dissertação foi realizar um diagnóstico da situação atual dos REEE no município de Piracicaba-SP. Para tanto foi utilizada como metodologia a pesquisa qualitativa exploratória através de entrevistas com atores relevantes dentro do contexto de geração e manejo de REEE, dessa forma foram levantadas as principais rotas de fluxo pós- consumo destes resíduos. A geração de REEE em Piracicaba para o período de 2010 a 2030 foi estimada através do Método de Consumo e Uso, resultando em uma geração de 48 mil toneladas para o período...

Anaerobic codigestion of dairy manure and food manufacturing waste for renewable energy generation in New York State

Rankin, Matthew
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
Anaerobic digestion is a microbiological process that converts biodegradable organic material into biogas, consisting primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. Anaerobic digestion technologies have been integrated into wastewater treatment facilities nationwide for many decades to increase the economic viability of the treatment process by converting a waste stream into two valuable products: biogas and fertilizer. Thus, anaerobic digestion offers potential economic and environmental benefits of organic waste diversion and renewable energy generation. The use of biogas has many applications, including cogeneration, direct combustion, upgrading for conversion to feed a fuel cell, and compression for injection into the natural gas grid or for vehicular use. The potential benefits of waste diversion and renewable energy generation are now being realized by major organic waste generators in New York State, in particular the food manufacturing and dairy industries, thus warranting an analysis of the energy generation potential for these waste products. Anaerobic codigestion of dairy manure and food-based feedstocks reflects a cradle-to- cradle approach to organic waste management. Given both of their abundance throughout New York State...

Estimating hydraulic properties of landfill waste using multi step drainage experiments

Scicchitano, Vincent
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
Imhoff, Paul T.; Laboratory tests were conducted on two types of waste samples in order to explore how the hydraulic properties and constitutive relationships of waste samples can vary. The first waste sample was idealized and composed entirely of newspaper. The second set of samples was made up of components typically found in municipal solid waste landfills. The tests used were developed by Han (2009) and performed as a continuation of his research. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, drainage, multi step outflow, and porosity tests were performed on a newspaper sample similar to those used by Han (2009), but packed to a higher compaction density. The results of those tests supported conclusions drawn by Han (2009). First, a dual permeability model is needed to accurately describe the hydraulic behavior of an idealized waste sample and it is likely that such a model would be necessary to describe real waste. Second, although physical manipulations of the waste (i.e. changing the compaction density) can alter the fracture properties of the waste significantly, there is very little variation in the matrix properties of the waste. This suggests that the matrix domain of landfilled waste should be similar if the compositions of porous materials in the landfills are similar. Four real waste samples with very similar compositions were studied using modified versions of the saturated hydraulic conductivity...

Effects of dietary replacement of maize grain with popcorn waste products on nutrient digestibility and performance by lambs

Nkosi,B.D.; Meeske,R.; van der Merwe,H.J.; Acheampong-Boateng,O.; Langa,T.
Fonte: South African Journal of Animal Science Publicador: South African Journal of Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary replacement of maize with popcorn waste (PW) on the intake, nutrient digestibility and growth performance of lambs. Diets replacing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% maize with PW were formulated and fed ad libitum to 40 South African Mutton Merino lambs (25.0 ± 0.45 kg live-weight). The diets had similar intake and nutrient digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Lambs fed the 25 and 50% PW diets had higher intakes of crude protein (CP), metabolizable energy and ether extract compared to the other diets. Growth rate was highest (226 g/d) on the 25% diet and lowest (109 g/d) on the 75% PW diet. Best feed conversion ratio (FCR), of 5.1 (kg feed/kg live weight) was obtained with the 0% PW diet. Improved digestibility of CP and EE occurred in the 25 and 75% PW diets. Higher intake of nitrogen (N) and N retention were obtained in the 25 and 50% PW diets. Dietary replacement of >75% of maize resulted in poor animal performance (ADG < 150 g/d and FCR >7.00). It was concluded that PW can replace up to 50% of the maize in diets for growing lambs.