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An application of the SF-6D to create heath values in Portuguese working age adults

Ferreira, Lara Noronha; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes; Pereira, Luís Nobre; Brazier, John
Fonte: Journal of Medical Economics Publicador: Journal of Medical Economics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.98%
Objectives : This study describes the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of the Portuguese working age population and investigates sociodemographic differences. Methods : Subjects randomly selected from the working age population ( n =2,459) were assessed using the SF-36v2 and converted into the preference-based SF-6D. Results : The mean SF-6D utility value was 0.70 (range 0.63–0.73). The mean utility value was lower for the lower educational level than for the highest. Women, people living in rural areas and older adults reported lower levels of utility values. Non-parametric tests showed that health utility values were signifi cantly related to employment; unskilled manual workers reported utility values lower than non-manual workers. For different diseases, mean utility values ranged from 0.58 (sexual diseases) to 0.66 (hepatic conditions). Cluster analysis was adopted to classify individuals into three groups according to their answers to the SF-6D dimensions. Multinomial logit regression was used to detect sociodemographic characteristics affecting the probability of following each cluster pattern. This study yielded normative data by age and gender for the SF-6D. Conclusions: The authors conclude that SF-6D is an effective tool for measuring HRQOL in the community so that different population groups can be compared. The preference-based measure used seems to discriminate adequately across sociodemographic differences. These results allow a better understanding of the impact of sociodemographic variables on the burden of illness perception.

Sustainability of Pension Systems in the New EU member States and Croatia : Coping with Aging Challenges and Fiscal Pressures

Kąsek, Leszek; Laursen, Thomas; Skrok, Emilia
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
This report concerns recent pension reforms in Europe. Over the last decade, pension reform has been a major issue on the political agenda across Europe. All European countries are profoundly affected by aging populations resulting from lower fertility and increased life expectancy. In order to make pension systems more sustainable in light of prospective demographic developments, and in some cases to address current financing problems, EU10+1countries have been reforming their pension systems since the mid-1990s. The reforms have combined measures to delay retirement, link benefits more closely to contributions, and diversify risk. Three major forces drive the ageing process: increasing life expectancy, low fertility rates, and finally the baby-boom generation reaching retirement age. All these factors, even in countries where the system is currently fiscally balanced, will produce a major financial challenge for pension systems over the coming decades when the number of pensioners will rapidly increase and the size of the working-age population diminish. This report conclude that some countries (in particular...

The Demography of Youth in Developing Countries and its Economic Implications

Lam, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
The number of young people is reaching unprecedented levels in most developing countries. In many countries, especially in East Asia and Latin America, youth populations are at or near their peak, and will decline in coming decades. In other countries, especially in Africa and South Asia, youth populations will continue growing for several decades. From an economic perspective, absolute numbers may be less important than the growth rate or relative size of youth cohorts. Growth rates and the ratio of youth to working-age population reached a peak in the 1970s or 1980s in most developing countries. The worst economic pressures of youth demography may have already occurred in many countries, although significant pressure will continue in Africa and South Asia.

Policy Note on Population Growth and its Implications in Timor-Leste

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.11%
The report offers a description of current demographics, including density, population structure, and the components of population change. It explains projection procedures and provides results, including some alternative projections. The report assesses consequences of population growth for key sectors of society such as education and employment and offers options for modifying future population trends, focusing on high fertility and the reasons behind it. A brief discussion of the health sector highlights problems of promoting family planning. Comparisons are made where appropriate with other developing countries, particularly within Southeast Asia.

Kyrgyz Republic Public Expenditure Review Policy Notes : Pensions

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
Today, the Kyrgyz pension system plays a major role in poverty alleviation of the elderly but this role is diminishing fast due to low coverage of working age population. The system currently provides pensions to more than 90 percent of the population over age 65 thus being a significant buffer against poverty. Over time, though, the poverty reduction effect of the pension system is expected to weaken substantially as the current low coverage rates among the working age population translate into much lower coverage rates of about only 60 percent for the future old age population. As a result, poverty rates among the old-age population will grow and government spending on social pensions will increase dramatically. The structure of this chapter is as follows. The next section provides an overview of the current pension system and the main issues facing it. Section three presents the results of the financial projections for the current system assuming a no-reform scenario and the implications of doing nothing on the finances of the Social Fund...

The Effects of Tobacco Taxes on Health : An Analysis of the Effects by Income Quintile and Gender in Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine

Denisova, Irina; Kuznetsova, Polina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
The main objectives of this paper are to estimate the burden of tobacco-caused mortality as a whole and by main tobacco-related diseases in Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine, and to assess the distributional health impact of an increase in tobacco taxation in these three countries. According to the results obtained, in 2012 smoking caused around 310,000 deaths in Russia, about 70,000 in Ukraine, and 14,300 in Kazakhstan, representing a key factor of mortality among the working-age population. Using data from various sources, the paper estimates the distributional consequences of a hypothetical tax rise in the three countries that leads to an approximately 30 percent increase of the average retail price of cigarettes. The analysis includes an estimation of changes in smoking prevalence, mortality, life expectancy, and public health expenditures by income quintile and gender. Considered excise growth can lead to about 3.5 to 4.0 percent fall in smoking prevalence, which in turn can avert about 600...

Assessing Disability in Working Age Population

Bickenbach, Jerome; Posarac, Aleksandra; Cieza, Alarcos; Kostanjsek, Nenad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.85%
The objectives of this study are two-fold. First, it presents the basics of assessing working age populations for disability benefits. Increasingly, the operational staffs of the World Bank Group (WBG) and the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as of other development organizations, are being requested by governmental policy agencies for technical advice and assistance on how to reform their disability assessment system. Secondly, while acknowledging limitations, both in conception and implementation; it makes a case for why adopting the international classification of functioning, disability, and health (ICF) approach to disability assessment may be smart policy that corresponds well with the aims of modern disability policy that focuses on social and economic inclusion for individuals with disabilities, in the context of a recognition of their fundamental human rights. The study is a follow up work to the world report on disability that WHO and WB published jointly in June 2011. The world report made it clear that the process of disability assessment is an important lever of disability policy in any country...

Searching for a New Silver Age in Russia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.09%
Russia’s population is expected to age significantly over the next few decades. The coming decline in Russia’s working-age population will pose serious social and economic challenges, but it can also open up opportunities. Without adequate adjustments of policies and behaviors, an aging population can impair national growth and fiscal sustainability. These pessimistic forecasts, however, are based on the unrealistic assumption that individuals and government policy will not change. Achieving healthy, active, and prosperous aging will require policy changes across a host of areas. Policies to support women can both limit population aging and increase labor force participation. Changes in behavior and policy can greatly mitigate the impact of aging on growth and fiscal sustainability. Promoting adult education and better age-management human resources policies at the firm level is essential to improve the employment prospects for older workers and raise productivity across the age spectrum. This volume presents research from the World Bank on the impact of demographic trends in Russia. The first section focuses on the macroeconomic impacts of aging and considers how aging has affected gross domestic product (GDP) growth and convergence among Russian regions since the early 1990s; it also offers alternative approaches to forecasting the relationship between aging and growth. The second section...

Sri Lanka - Demographic Transition : Facing the Challenges of an Aging Population with Few Resources

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
As a result of low fertility rates and high life expectancy, the current demographic trends in Sri Lanka include a declining share of children and increasing share of elderly, and (for now) an increasing working age population. Sri Lanka has a unique window of opportunity to take advantage of the high share of working age population to stimulate economic growth, but the other two emerging population issues spur questions on their own. In this context, the report discusses some of the economic implications of demographic transition in Sri Lanka, focusing on employment and productivity related issues on one side; and performance of cash transfer programs aiming to assist the poor and vulnerable groups on the other. This report quantifies Sri Lanka's demographic change by providing updated population projections and by applying National Transfers Accounts methodology documenting how the demographic change and aging contribute to life-cycle deficit and to Sri Lanka's employment and labor market. The challenges and opportunities associated with the upcoming demographic transition are highlighted...

Population Aging : Is Latin America Ready?; Envejecimiento de la poblacion : esta preparada America Latina ?

Cotlear, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
The past half-century has seen enormous changes in the demographic makeup of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). In the 1950s, LAC had a small population of about 160 million people, less than today's population of Brazil. Two-thirds of Latin Americans lived in rural areas. Families were large and women had one of the highest fertility rates in the world, low levels of education, and few opportunities for work outside the household. Investments in health and education reached only a small fraction of the children, many of whom died before reaching age five. Since then, the size of the LAC population has tripled and the mostly rural population has been transformed into a largely urban population. There have been steep reductions in child mortality, and investments in health and education have increased, today reaching a majority of children. Fertility has been more than halved and the opportunities for women in education and for work outside the household have improved significantly. Life expectancy has grown by 22 years. Less obvious to the casual observer...

The Foreign-born Population in the European Union and Its Contribution to National Tax and Benefit Systems : Some Insights from Recent Household Survey Data

Barbone, Luca; Bontch-Osmolovsky, Misha; Zaidi, Salman
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.05%
Despite the purported surge in internal migration following the 2004 enlargement of the European Union, data from the 2006 European Union Survey of Income and Living Conditions show that internal migrants are a relatively small share of the European Union's population. Depending on the exact definition used, only about 1 to 2 percent of the population of European Union-13 countries (members prior to the 2004 enlargement, not including Germany and Luxembourg) were born in other European Union countries, while the corresponding share for European Union-4 countries (Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia) is even lower. By contrast, about 6 percent of the population of European Union-13 countries was born outside the European Union. On examining the demographic and socio-economic background of the migrant population (both from within as well as outside the European Union), this paper finds that migrants tend to include a concentration of both low as well as highly educated workers. Both sets of migrants uniformly contribute to raising the working-age population of receiving countries. Using data on average incomes and taxes paid and benefits received by migrant and non-migrant households...

Turkey : Managing Labor Markets through the Economic Cycle

World Bank; Ministry of Development, Republic of Turkey
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.93%
The Turkish economy was hit hard by the global economic crisis, but recovered fast and strong. The economy had already started to slow down in 2007, but the global financial events of late 2008 led to a sharp contraction starting in the last quarter of 2008 until growth resumed in the last quarter of 2009. The recovery was rapid, with growth reaching 9 percent in 2010 and 8.5 percent in 2011. This study looks at how the labor market fared during the recent downturn and recovery and informs policies to manage labor markets through the economic cycle and address the jobs challenge in Turkey. The study investigates: 1) pre-crisis labor market trends and the structural jobs challenge in Turkey; 2) aggregate and distributional impacts of the recent crisis, and subsequent recovery, on the labor market; and 3) recent policy measures and existing labor market institutions in the context of observed labor market outcomes. Finally, the study links policies to manage labor markets through the cycle with measures to address the longer term...

Prevention and Control of Selected Chronic NCDs in Sri Lanka : Policy Options and Action

Engelgau, Michael; Okamoto, Kyoko; Navaratne, Kumari Vinodhani; Gopalan, Sundararajan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
Strategic decisions to reorient population-based prevention and clinic- and hospital-based care policies toward non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will enable healthier aging and reduce loss of productivity among the working-age population in Sri Lanka. This report aims to stimulate policy dialogue for NCDs and to provide an evidence base to facilitate decisions. Its focus is mainly on chronic NCDs-that is, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to a lesser extent cancer-and their major modifiable risk factors (tobacco use, unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, and harmful alcohol use). This is not to detract, though, from the importance of injuries and mental health since both are major issues that carry a huge burden, as supported by evidence in this report. Several major areas for policies and actions emerged from the analysis of Sri Lanka's health sector organization and capacity as well as its NCD orientation. Some areas are not specific to NCDs but...

Azerbaijan Demographic Change : Implications for Social Policy and Poverty

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
This note provides an overview of demographic changes in Azerbaijan and their policy implications. Azerbaijan's population is younger than the populations of most countries in the region. It is estimated that the population in Azerbaijan will increase from about 7.2 million in 1990 to 10.6 million by 2050. Nevertheless, Azerbaijan is beginning to experience the aging of its population, after having undergone a dramatic decline in fertility from about 5.5 children per woman in the 1950s, to just over two children per woman at present. This trend, combined with increasing life expectancy, underlies the growing rise in the percentage of elderly persons, and the eventual slowdown in the growth of the working-age population. This note provides an overview of key demographic changes unfolding in Azerbaijan, highlights their linkages with social spending, and draws policy implications for labor force participation, productivity, and ultimately for Azerbaijan's development and poverty reduction trajectory. The major driver of Azerbaijan's demographic shift is an aging population. The country has already undergone a dramatic decline in its fertility rate...

Armenia Demographic Change : Implications for Social Policy and Poverty

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
This note provides an overview of demographic changes and their policy implications in Armenia, with particular reference to the poor. Armenia is currently experiencing a significant aging of the population and decrease in the size of the population, these changes have far-reaching implications. The fertility rate in Armenia has fallen dramatically, from about 4.5 children per woman in the 1950s to 1.74 children per woman at present, which is well under the fertility rate required for population replacement. Armenia's population, which stood at 3.5 million people in 1990, is expected to decrease to 3 million by 2050. This trend, combined with increasing life expectancy, underlies the growing rise in the percentage of elderly persons and the decline in the working-age population. This note provides an overview of the key demographic changes unfolding in Armenia, highlights their linkages with social spending, and draws policy implications for labor force participation, productivity, and ultimately for Armenia's development and poverty reduction trajectory. The note is structured as follows: section two summarizes the key demographic trends underway in Armenia; section three presents a profile of poverty and social spending by age; section four analyzes the four policy issues as listed in column 2 of table 1. In each of these three sections...

Investing in Turkey's Next Generation : The School-to-Work Transition and Turkey's Development

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
This report assesses the prospects for Turkey's youth by examining the 'school-to-work transition'. Turkey needs to invest in its young people to capture the potentially substantial dividend of today's large youth cohort. Because of the sheer number of young people, Turkey's working-age population will expand by over 800,000 every year during the next decade. This so-called 'productive population' will continue to grow until around 2020 when the demographic window starts to close. By that time, Turkey will have the population profile of an aging society. East Asia's economic miracle of the 1970s and 1980s demonstrated that a large youth cohort can propel an economy to very high growth rates. However, the experience in other regions, such as Latin America, has shown that this outcome is by no means guaranteed. Investments made now in today's children and youth will be critical in determining the extent to which Turkey benefits from this 'demographic dividend' While the potential benefits are great, so are the risks if today's large youth cohort does not find its place in tomorrow's labor market and society. The potential downside of this demographic profile is also significant. If Turkey's young people are not well prepared for the world of work and if the labor market does not generate more and better jobs for them...

Orphans and Ebola : Estimating the Secondary Impact of a Public Health Crisis

Evans, David K.; Popova, Anna
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
The 2014 Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in West Africa is the largest to date by far. Ebola Virus Disease causes disproportionate mortality among the working-age population, resulting in far more mortality for parents of young children than other health crises. This paper combines data on the age distribution of current and projected mortality from Ebola with the fertility distribution of adults in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, to estimate the likely impact of the epidemic on the number of orphans in these three countries. Using the latest mortality estimates (from February 11, 2015), it is estimated that more than 9,600 children have lost one or both parents to Ebola Virus Disease. The absolute numbers of orphans created by the Ebola epidemic are significant, but represent a small fraction (1.4 percent) of the existing orphan burden in the affected countries. Ebola is unlikely to increase the numbers of orphans beyond extended family networks' capacities to absorb them. Nonetheless, the pressures of caring for increased numbers of orphans may result in lower quality of care. These estimates should be used to guide policy to support family networks to improve the capacity to provide high quality care to orphans.

Sub-Saharan Africa's Recent Growth Spurt : An Analysis of the Sources of Growth

Cho, Yoonyoung; Tien, Bienvenue N.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
Since the mid-1990s, Sub-Saharan Africa has experienced unprecedented levels of high economic growth. A key question follows: What accounts for the turnaround of the growth performance in the mid-1990s? The answer can provide insight into whether the recent growth spurt in Sub-Saharan Africa is merely temporary or the beginning of a sustainable takeoff. This paper examines the sources of growth of 32 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa in a growth accounting framework. The findings suggest that the recent growth spurt is largely associated with an increase in the share of working-age population, capital accumulation, and total factor productivity, unlike previous periods. Resources play a role by attracting capital inflows, particularly from foreign direct investment and shifting labor away from agriculture. However, the growth prospects for Sub-Saharan Africa seem promising beyond resources, with steady progress in decreased fertility, increased foreign direct investment, political stability, and structural transformation.

La "migration de remplacement" au Québec : à quel point peut-on compter sur l’immigration pour contrer les problèmes démographiques appréhendés?

Marois, Guillaume
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66%
Le Québec, comme la plupart des sociétés occidentales, fait face à un vieillissement de sa population, engendrant de nombreuses conséquences économiques, politiques et sociales. Une solution souvent envisagée est de compter sur l’immigration pour amoindrir, repousser ou même contrer certaines conséquences. C’est à cet effet que la migration de remplacement apporte sa contribution : elle a pour but de connaître le nombre d’immigrants nécessaire pour atteindre des objectifs démographiques précis, soit, dans le cadre de cette étude, éviter le déclin de la population totale, éviter le déclin de la population en âge de travailler et éviter que la part des 65 ans et plus dans la population totale dépasse 25%. Les résultats démontrent qu’il serait possible pour le Québec d’éviter le déclin de sa population si la fécondité ne diminue pas et si une bonne gestion de l’immigration est appliquée : la migration de remplacement n’est pas excessivement élevée. Cependant, accueillir trop d’immigrants avant que cela ne soit essentiel nuirait à l’atteinte de cet objectif. Le déclin de la population âgée entre 20 et 64 ans est quant à lui inévitable : peu importe le niveau de fécondité, la migration de remplacement est beaucoup plus élevée pour les deux prochaines décennies que tout ce qui a pu être envisagé pour le Québec. Finalement...

From Demographic Dividend to Demographic Burden?; Regional Trends of Population Aging in Russia

Matytsin, Mikhail; Moorty, Lalita; Richter, Kaspar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
Do regions with higher working age populations grow faster? This paper examines this question using data from Russian regions and finds evidence that demographic trends influence regional growth convergence. In other words, keeping other factors constant, poorer regions grow faster than richer regions, and some of the growth convergence is explained by demographic changes: faster growth in poor regions in the past was related in part to more favorable demographic trends. This finding has important consequences for Russia. If the demographic trends in poorer regions worsen in the future, this could dampen economic convergence. Unless there are significant increases in labor productivity or additions to the labor force through migration, growth in Russian regions will moderate as the Russian population shrinks and ages in the coming decades.