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Women’s Education, Marital Violence, and Divorce: A Social Exchange Perspective

Kreager, Derek A.; Felson, Richard B.; Warner, Cody; Wenger, Marin R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
Drawing on social exchange theories, the authors hypothesized that educated women are more likely than uneducated women to leave violent marriages and suggested that this pattern offsets the negative education – divorce association commonly found in the United States. They tested these hypotheses using 2 waves of young adult data on 914 married women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The evidence suggests that the negative relationship between women’s education and divorce is weaker when marriages involve abuse than when they do not. The authors observed a similar pattern when they examined the association of women’s proportional earnings and divorce, controlling for education. Supplementary analyses suggested that marital satisfaction explains some of the association among women’s resources, victimization, and divorce but that marital violence continues to be a significant moderator of the education – divorce association. In sum, education appears to benefit women by both maintaining stable marriages and dissolving violent ones.

The effect of education on the timing of marriage and first birth in Pakistan

Gangadharan, Lata; Maitra, Pushkar
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 210207 bytes; 28958 bytes; 363 bytes; 368 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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46.02%
A rapid rise in women’s education levels, an increase in the age at marriage and an increase in the age at which they have their first child are key features of demographic transition in any country. Education is considered to be an essential component in this process because increases in educational attainment are likely to significantly affect both age at marriage and the duration between marriage and first birth - in particular increasing both the age at marriage and the time to first child. This paper uses individual level unit record data from Pakistan to examine the effect of education on the age at marriage and on the duration between marriage and first birth. We jointly estimate educational attainment, age at marriage and duration between marriage and first birth allowing for household level unobserved heterogeneity. Our estimation results show that ignoring correlation between the heterogeneity terms in the three main variables of interest results in inconsistent estimates. We find that educated women marry significantly later but education does not have any impact on the duration between marriage and first birth.; no

La educación femenina en la India durante la época colonial; Women education in India during the colonial period

Val Cubero, Alejandra
Fonte: UNED Publicador: UNED
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 SPA
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El sistema de educación femenina en la India es un legado del colonialismo británico puesto en funcionamiento por las misioneras y por los grupos de reformistas indios a mediados del siglo XIX. Las misioneras trataron de propagar la religión cristiana a través de la educación y los reformistas abogaron por una educación siguiendo las tradiciones indias de respeto y sumisión, donde la espiritualidad y la sensibilidad no sólo diferenciaba las mujeres indias de las que no lo eran, también a las mujeres de las castas superiores de otras castas que no podían acceder a la enseñanza formal. Este artículo surgió durante mi estancia en la universidad de Jawahalhal Nehru en Delhi donde pude visitar instituciones educativas como el Victorian Institution. El método de investigación es el genealógico: retraernos al pasado para ver los cambios y transformaciones en los procesos sociales y educativos con el fin de comprender el presente. En la actualidad realizo un estudio sobre la educación femenina en la India en el siglo XXI.; The female education system in India is a legacy of the British colonial times, initiated by missionaries and Indian reformists in the middle of the 19th century. While missionaries intended to spread Christianity through this education system...

Does a Critical Mass Exist? A Comparative Analysis of Women’s Legislative Representation, 1949-1997

Studlar, Donley T; McAllister, Ian
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 181113 bytes; 358 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
It has often been argued theoretically that a ‘critical mass,’ ranging from 10 to 35 percent women, is needed before major changes in legislative institutions, behavior, policy priorities, and policy voting occurs. This paper examines one of the less-explored dimensions of the critical mass concept is there a process by which women reaching a critical mass of the legislature accelerates the election of further women? Using data from the Inter-parliamentary Union and International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, we analyze this question for 17 industrialized democracies over a period of almost half a century, a longer period than any other relevant research. Descriptive results indicate that gains in women’s representation have been incremental rather than a critical mass accelerating the election of women to legislatures. In a multivariate analysis of the percentage of women in the lower house of the legislature, the critical mass is tested against established explanations of women’s gains in seats: institutional rules, egalitarian political culture, political parties, women’s educational achievements, and economic development. Of two measures of the critical mass theory, one has no impact, and the second results in only a small increase in women’s gains. Far from being clearly demonstrated...

Putting Gender on the Agenda: Engaging Women in Development in Burma

Thwaites, Alice
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
Gender equality has become a key development objective over recent decades, and in Burma the discussion around gender equality is quickly developing. Burma is one of the poorest countries in the world, suffering from decades of military rule, ethnic conflict and economic stagnation. Women in Burma are in a particularly difficult situation, where they are often the poorest of the poor, but where they don't have the leadership and decision-making opportunities to do anything about it. Indeed gender norms in Burma dictate that women are inferior and that they are unable to participate fully in public life. Whilst the Burmese government is signatory to such international agreements as the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women, the Beijing Platform for Action, and the Millennium Development goals, they are still sidelining issues of gender equality and the military governance structure excludes women from many roles in governance and public life. However the situation in Burma is slowly beginning to change, particularly since the 2010 election, which went some way to separating military and government. There are now a number of women in parliament, including democracy advocate Aung San Suu Kyi, who was previously imprisoned by the government due to her beliefs. The first female cabinet minister in 60 years has recently been appointed and there are a number of female deputy ministers...

Utilization of maternal health-care services in Peru: the role of women's education

Elo, Irma T
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 66206 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This article explores the hypothesis that formal education of women influences the use of maternal health-care services in Peru, net of the mother’s childhood place of residence, household socioeconomic status and access to health-care services. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis; both cross-sectional and fixed-effects logit models yield quantitatively important and statistically reliable estimates of the positive effect of maternal schooling on the use of prenatal care and delivery assistance. In addition, large differentials were found in the utilization of maternal health-care services by place of residence, suggesting that much greater efforts on the part of the government are required if modern maternal health-care services are to reach women in rural areas.; yes

Women’s education and the demographic transition in Africa

Kane, Penny; Ruzicka, Lado
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 46925 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
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Not supplied; no

Women's education, child welfare and child survival : a review of the evidence

Hobcraft, John
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 49582 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
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This paper reviews recent evidence concerning the relative importance of women’s education for child health, especially child survival in the Third World. Important regional patterns are uncovered, and particular attention is paid to discussion of the weaker associations observed in sub-Saharan Africa.; no

Measuring Women's Empowerment and the Impact of Ethiopia's Women's Development Initiatives Project

Legovini, Arianna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This report discusses the World Bank aided Women's Development Initiatives Project (WDIP), under implementation in Ethiopia. The study assesses the empowerment status of Ethiopian women in both rural and urban areas, and evaluates the impact of participation in WDIP on women's empowerment. Empowerment status and impact are measured against indicators in the economic, political, social, and psychological domains, on the assumption that WDIP, a project designed to expand economic opportunities, strengthen self-reliance, and build awareness, will affect outcomes in all these spheres. WDIP is a community-driven development project that seeks to enhance women's empowerment and participation in development interventions by mobilizing women at the grassroots level and capitalizing on their potential to support development processes. WDIP seeks to redress gender imbalances in development opportunity by investing in women's skills, productivity, and organizational capacity. This report is structured as follows: section one gives introduction. Section two outlines the objective and conceptual framework. Section three presents research design and methodology. Section four focuses on analysis of women's empowerment and the determinants of empowerment. Section five presents impact evaluation of WDIP.

Senegalese Women Remake Their Culture

Easton, Peter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
In 1995, female literacy countrywide in Senegal was just over half of the rate for men, and the discrepancy was greater in rural areas. TOSTAN, literally means "breaking out of the egg" in Wolof, the language spoken by the majority of Senegal's people and is among a number of innovative and rural development and women's education initiatives that are addressing the problem at its sources. It offers an 18-month learning program that combines basic education and national languages with practical development issues, and provides rural people with the resources to improve their standard of living while fostering increased confidence in their way of life. Its popularity among rural women participants broke all records. Shortly after completing their training, the women of Malicounda utilized the program to address the custom of female circumcision. This note discusses elements that contribute to TOSTAN's successful impact in education and sustainable development.

State Policies and Women's Autonomy in China, India, and the Republic of Korea, 1950-2000 : Lessons from Contrasting Experiences

Das Gupta, Monica; Lee, Sunhwa; Uberoi, Patricia; Wang, Danning; Wang, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
The authors compare changes in gender roles and women's empowerment in China, India, and the Republic of Korea. Around 1950, these newly formed states were largely poor and agrarian, with common cultural factors that placed similar severe constraints on women's autonomy. They adopted very different paths of development, which are well known to have profoundly affected development outcomes. These choices have also had a tremendous impact on gender outcomes, and today these countries show striking differences in the extent of gender equity achieved. China has achieved the most gender equity, the Republic of Korea the least. The authors conclude that: a) States can exert enormous influence over gender equity. They can mitigate cultural constraints on women's autonomy (as in China and India) or slow the pace of change in gender equity despite women's rapid integration into education, formal employment, and urbanization (as in the Republic of Korea). b) The impact of policies to provide opportunities for women's empowerment can be greatly enhanced if accompanied by communication efforts to alter cultural values that place heavy constraints on women's access to those opportunities.

Measuring the Gap : Female Education in Sub-Saharan Africa; Evaluation du retard en education de la population feminine en Afrique Subsaharienne

Hartnett, Teresa; Heneveld, Ward
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
Given the significance of female education for development, there is an enormous need for data across countries that can be used to inform policy discussions within and among individual countries. Nowhere, perhaps is this need greater than in sub - Saharan Africa (SSA) where female participation in education is inordinately low, and where disparities between females and males vary greatly among countries. the report previewed in this article responds in two ways to the need for statistics on female education. First, it defines statistical indicators that can be used to describe the level of female participation and the disparities between males and females in education systems. As one form for these indicators, the report introduces the concept of the gender ratio as a generic tool for comparing male and female participation in education across all indicators used to assess the performance of education systems. Second, the report presents data from existing sources for the forty-six countries in sub - Saharan Africa.

Returns to Investment in Education : A Further Update

Psacharopoulos, George; Patrinos, Harry Anthony
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
Returns to investment in education based on human capital theory have been estimated since the late 1950s. In the 40-plus year history of estimates of returns to investment in education, there have been several reviews of the empirical results in attempts to establish patterns. Many more estimates from a wide variety of countries, including over time evidence, and estimates based on new econometric techniques, reaffirm the importance of human capital theory. The suthors review and present the latest estimates and patterns as found in the literature at the turn of the century. However, because the availability of rate of return estimates has grown exponentially, the authors include a new section on the need for selectivity in comparing returns to investment in education and establishing related patterns.

Aboriginal women in education : Honouring our experiences a vision of access to and success within the university

Brant, Jennifer
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
This thesis explores Aboriginal women's access to and success within universities through an examination of Aboriginal women's educational narratives, along with input from key service providers from both the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal community. Implemented through the Wildfire Research Method, participants engaged in a consensusbased vision of accessible education that honours the spiritual, emotional, intellectual, and physical elements necessary for the success of Aboriginal women in university. This study positions Aboriginal women as agents of social change by allowing them to define their own needs and offer viable solutions to those needs. Further, it connects service providers from the many disconnected sectors that implicate Aboriginal women's education access. The realities of Aboriginal women are contextualized through historical, sociocultural, and political analyses, revealing the need for a decolonizing educational approach. This fosters a shift away from a deficit model toward a cultural and linguistic assets based approach that emphasizes the need for strong cultural identity formation. Participants revealed academic, cultural, and linguistic barriers and offered clear educational specifications for responsive and culturally relevant programming that will assist Aboriginal women in developing and maintaining strong cultural identities. Findings reveal the need for curriculum that focuses on decolonizing and reclaiming Aboriginal women's identities...

Perspectives of Educated Expatriate Bangladeshi Women About Post-Secondary Education: The Barriers Encountered and the Strategies They Have Employed

NAHAR, YAMUN
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 447975 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
ABSTRACT Using a qualitative methodology, I conducted this study to identify the barriers to women’s post-secondary education in Bangladesh and to investigate the possible strategies to remove those barriers, from the perspectives of three Bangladeshi women who received post-secondary education in Bangladesh and who are currently living in Canada. To explore participants’ perceptions, I used open-ended structured interviews. I then analyzed data using the conceptual framework of subsystems within an open systems theory. The study revealed that the barriers Bangladeshi women encounter when pursuing a post-secondary education are vast and complex. The findings from this study indicated that Bangladeshi women face barriers from multi-level social subsystems such as family, financial, educational, socio-cultural, political, and governmental subsystems. Six broad themes of major barriers emerged from participants’ reports: (a) financial constraints; (b) socio-cultural practices and attitudes; (c) male domination; (d) inadequate education facilities; (e) student politics and unstable political situations; and (f) corrupt government and inconsistent implementation of law and punishment. Within these six themes, the study identified various factors that hamper women’s post-secondary education in Bangladesh. The participants suggested strategies that may help those who make and implement policy find ways to minimize barriers to women’s post-secondary education in Bangladesh and beyond. The results showed that since the barriers are multifaceted...

Learning as transformation: Women's HIV & AIDS education in Malindi, Kenya

SPALING, MELISA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
Understanding why, when, and with whom women engage in opportunities for HIV & AIDS education is critical in exploring the extent to which popular education strategies promote transformational learning among women in Malindi, Kenya. Three central questions animate this research: a) What do rural women who participate in HIV & AIDS popular education programs learn about HIV & AIDS, b) through what range of pedagogical practices and theories does their learning occur, and c) how does this learning contribute to transformative changes that improve women's health, at both individual (e.g., beliefs, behaviour) and communal levels (e.g., group actions)? Employing a qualitative research design, face-to-face interviews, and document analysis of secondary sources enabled a rich and in-depth exploration of specific learnings and actions among Kenyan women. Qualitative analysis of eight semi-structured interviews reveals three dimensions of transformative learning among adult women in Malindi, including a) striving towards openness, b) culture of support, and c) connected knowing. These inter-related themes outline the potential for Kenyan women's HIV & AIDS education to move beyond instrumental, and communicative, to more empowering transformative learning.; Thesis (Master...

A educação católica da elite campineira na Primeira República : o Colégio Sagrado Coração de Jesus (1909-1930); The catholic education of Campinas' elite class the first republic : o Colégio Sagrado Coração de Jesus (1909-1930)

Isabela Cristina Salgado
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/02/2011 PT
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46.12%
A presente dissertação teve como objetivo analisar a história da educação feminina em um colégio confessional católico, ministrada por irmãs calvarianas francesas, instalado em 1909 na cidade de Campinas, no Estado de São Paulo, o Colégio Sagrado Coração de Jesus. O Coração de Jesus iniciou suas atividades educando as meninas da elite da cidade e região, na forma de internato, semi-internato e externato, e completou 100 anos em 2009. O trabalho buscou compreender principalmente duas questões fundamentais ao percorrer a história da Instituição no período da Primeira República brasileira, entre 1909 e 1930: 1) A necessidade de instalação do colégio na cidade, que atendeu aos anseios da Igreja Católica, que principalmente através das congregações religiosas femininas e masculinas européias, fortaleceu o movimento de romanização da Igreja no Brasil. Também denominado de ultramontanismo, este movimento que pretendia recristianizar a sociedade foi praticado no Brasil aproximadamente entre meados do século XIX e 1960, marcado pela adequação da Igreja Católica brasileira a Roma, pelo fechamento da instituição sobre si mesma, a necessidade de afastar os jovens do ensino leigo e do mundo moderno, e de preparar as mulheres para exercer o papel de mães exemplares e professoras dedicadas; 2) A singularidade da instalação da Instituição na cidade...

Fertility and infant mortality trends in Nicaragua 1964-1993. The role of women's education

Pena, R.; Liljestrand, J.; Zelaya, E.; Persson, L. A.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
OBJECTIVES: To assess trends in fertility and infant mortality rates (IMR) in Leon, Nicaragua, and to examine the effect of women's education on these trends during 1964-1993, a period of rapid social change. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey, based on random cluster sampling. A retrospective questionnaire on reproductive events was used. SETTING: The municipality of Leon, which is the second largest city in Nicaragua, with a total population of 195,000 inhabitants. SUBJECTS: 10,867 women aged 15-49 years, corresponding to 176,281 person years of reproductive life. Their children contributed 22,899 person years under 12 months of age to the IMR analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fertility rate (number of pregnancies per 1000 person years) for specific age groups and calendar periods, total fertility rate, and IMR. RESULTS: Fertility rates and IMR declined in parallel, especially during the 1980s. However, education specific fertility rates did not decline, but the proportion of educated young women increased from 20% to 46%. This had also an impact on the overall IMR decline, although IMR reduction mainly took place among infants of women without formal education, decreasing from 118 to 69 per 1000 during the observation period. CONCLUSIONS: In this demographic transition over three decades...

Societal Perceptions of Women’s Education and the Related Process of Gender Disparity: A Case Study of Kakamega, Kenya

Cowan, Caroline
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em /12/2010 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
This research project aims to identify which aspect of society in Kakamega, Kenya, wields the most influence over perceptions of women’s education. Through conducting primary research in the form of surveys, interviews, and focus groups, this research determines what most affects a parent’s decision to send a daughter to school. The findings reveal a dynamic process of social factors at work that create the condition of Kakamega. This process entails two opposing ideological forces, traditional thought and progressive reform, converging in an environmental context of financial stress and health disadvantages. Early marriage is both at the crux of this process and also a byproduct of the process. Trapping girls in a nearly inescapable cycle of low educational attainment and early marriage, the condition of Kakamega is undergoing transformation. Despite the presence of traditional ideologies and this repressive cycle, women’s empowerment groups and progressive reformative efforts are palpable signs of hope and change for gender parity and for the girls of Kakamega, Kenya.; Public Policy Studies Undergraduate Honor Thesis.

Fertility, education and development: further evidence from India

Dreze, Jean; Murthi, Mamta
Fonte: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2000 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
There has been a significant decline in fertility in many parts of India since the early 1980s. This paper reexamines the determinants of fertility levels and fertility decline, using panel data on Indian districts for 1981 and 1991. We find that women's education is the most important factor explaining fertility differences across the country and over time. Low levels of child mortality and son preferences also contribute to lower fertility. By contrast, general indicators of modernization and development such as urbanisation, poverty reduction, and male literacy bear no significant association with fertility. En passant, we probe a subject of much confusion - the relation between fertility decline and gender bias.