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17.423 Causes and Prevention of War, Spring 2001; Causes and Prevention of War

Van Evera, Stephen
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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EN-US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
Examines the causes of war, with a focus on practical measures to prevent and control war. Topics covered include: causes and consequences of national misperception; military strategy and policy as cause of war; US foreign policy as a cause of war and peace; and the likelihood and possible nature of another world war. Historical cases are examined, including World War I, World War II, Korea, and Indochina. From the course home page: Course Description Course topic: the causes and prevention of interstate war. Course goal: discovering and assessing means to prevent or control war. Hence we focus on manipulable or controllable war-causes. Covered topics include the dilemmas, misperceptions, crimes and blunders that caused wars of the past; the origins of these and other war-causes; the possible causes of wars of the future; and possible means to prevent such wars, including short-term policy steps and more utopian schemes. Covered historical cases include World War I, World War II, Korea, Indochina, and the Peloponnesian, Crimean and Seven Years wars.

Essay on the influence of the War of 1812 in the confederation of the Union

Lawson, W. T. (William Thornton); Lawson, W. T. (William Thornton). Influence of the War of 1812.
Fonte: New York : Columbia College, Publicador: New York : Columbia College,
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
Cover title: Influence of the War of 1812.

Military map of the peninsula of Florida south of Tampa Bay; Third Seminole military map of south Florida

Ives, Joseph Christmas, d. 1868; Davis, Jefferson, 1808-1889; Humphreys, A. A ( Andrew Atkinson ), 1810-1883; Lamme, Robert E; United States -- War Dept
Fonte: War Dept. ( Washington D.C. ); R. E. Lamme ( Hialeah Fla ) Publicador: War Dept. ( Washington D.C. ); R. E. Lamme ( Hialeah Fla )
Tipo: cartographic Formato: col. map : ; 54 x 42 cm. fold. to 23 x 15 cm.
Publicado em //1856.|1975 ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Folded title: Third Seminole War military map of south Florida as ordered by the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War, U.S.A., with overlay of present day roads and cities.; Facsimile.; Includes text.; Text and col. illus. on verso.; Accompanied by transparent overlay. [1] l.; (Funding) Senate document (United States. Congress. Senate) ;; (Statement of Responsibility) Compiled from the latest and most reliable authorities by Lieut. J. C. Ives, Top. Engineers, under the general direction of Capt. A. A. Humphreys, Top. Engineers, by order of the Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War, April 1856. Engr. on stone by Konrad Huber.

Australia’s Cold War university : the relationship between the Australian National University’s Research School of Pacific Studies and the federal government 1946-1975.

Van Konkelenberg, Jude Nicholas
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
The impacts of the Cold War on academic-state relations in this country have been neglected in the growing literature on the Australian Cold War. There were greater similarities between the American and Australian university experience during the Cold War than have previously been recognised. The close relationship between the Australian National University and the federal government meant that Cold War tensions were particularly heightened in the case of this university, making it an ideal site for a case study of the Australian Cold War university experience. This thesis asks, ‘what was the nature of the relationship between the Australian National University and the federal government during the Cold War and was the university‘s experience comparable to American Cold War universities?‘ The thesis seeks to address two main themes related to the Cold War experience of universities. The first is the intrusion of government agencies into universities to identify and limit the influence of communist sympathisers and the degree of complicity or otherwise of the university in these activities. The second theme is the role of universities in providing expert advice to government and the implications of this role for academic independence. The concept of the Cold War university has received significant attention in America in recent years. Discussion on this topic had moved from a belief that government influence over the universities was evil and coercive to a more moderate assessment which emphasises the mutual advantages to be gained in the relationship and the role of university administrators in creating it. Despite some significant cultural and local differences...

War as Art or Science: A Humanist Vision

Sears, Todd Richard
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 107 p.
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis attempts to answer the question, Is War art of science? In doing so it draws heavily upon Thomas Kuhn's humanistic philosophy of science. If War can be separated theoretically into two distinct analytical units, preparation for war, and conduct of war, then the answer to the question becomes more accessible. The war preparation process is notably similar to the Kuhnian dynamic of scientific process, i.e., the evolution of a paradigm through inter-disciplinary criticism and rearticulation. A case study of post-WWII US nuclear strategy is offered to substantiate the claim that war preparation operates in a way that is remarkably similar to Kuhnian science. So, if war preparation is scientific, then the conduct of war, a fundamentally different activity, may be seen as artistic. This case is made by drawing heavily upon the writings of General Carl von Clausewitz, and the 18th century German idealist Immanuel Kant. The end result of the work is to posit the existence of two types of men necessary for the execution of War, those who demonstrate ability in the sublime genius of science, and those who are more suited to develop the heroic genius of battle. The question then arises as pertains to the US military educational system's ability to identify these men and intensify their development within each's specific forte.; US Navy (USN) author

Historical perspectives on developing and maintaining homefront morale for the War on Terrorism

Snavely, Christopher B.
Fonte: Monterey, Calif. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, Calif. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: viii, 65 p. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The War on Terrorism will be vastly different than any previous U.S. military campaign. The war will span a wide range of geographic, economic and political boundaries. Terrorist organizations will rely on stealth and dispersion to evade the American military and international law enforcement agencies. The United States will therefore be required to engage the enemy in a wide variety of arenas and with a wide variety of tools. Thus, the War on Terrorism will require the skillful blending of many American and international capabilities in order to meet the challenge. One such challenge is to cultivate and sustain homefront morale for the War on Terrorism. This paper will offer recommendations on how the United States should address their current homefront morale challenge through the analysis of two case studies. The first case study will examine how Great Britain was able to develop and sustain homefront morale during World War II. The second case study will examine the homefront morale issues concerning the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War, specifically on their loss of public support for the war. Both case studies will address the applicability of the respective information campaign to the War on Terrorism...

Black Seminole Involvement and Leadership During the Second Seminole War, 1835-1842

Dixon , Anthony E.
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, History, 2007; This thesis examines the involvement, leadership, and impact of the Black Seminoles during the Second Seminole War. In Florida, free Blacks, runaway slaves, and Blacks owned by Seminoles collectively became known as Black Seminoles. Black Seminoles either lived in separate communities near Seminole Indians, or joined them by cohabitating or intermarriage. Throughout this cohabitation, Blacks became an integral part of Seminole life by taking positions as advisers, counselors, and trusted interpreters to the English (who were rapidly advancing plantation society into territorial Florida). By the advent of the Second Seminole War, Black Seminoles, unlike their Seminole Indian counterparts were not given the opportunity to emigrate westward under the United States government's Indian Removal Policy. The United States government's objective became to return as many Black Seminoles, if not all, to slavery. Therefore, it became the Black Seminole's objective to resist enslavement or re-enslavement (for many) on American plantations. The Introduction explains the objective and focus of this study. Moreover, it explains the need and importance of this study while examining the historiography of the Second Seminole War in relation to the Black Seminoles. The origins and cultural aspects of the Black Seminoles is the topic of chapter one. By examining the origins and cultural aspects of the Black Seminoles...

War, politics and morality : the Spanish Catholic church and World War II.

Varley, Gerald
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
This thesis starts from the proposition that moral and ideological issues now drive the continuing intense interest in World War II. There has been an increasing challenge to the probity of the response of both opponents and bystanders to the threat raised by Nazism. The thesis views these issues from the viewpoint of the Spanish Catholic Church, an institution involved in yet detached from the war, having morality as its core concern yet itself struggling to reconcile moral principles with political imperatives. Such tensions might illuminate, in particular, the similar struggles of the Western Allies. This study has been set against a background of historiographical development. It has considered the evolution of Catholic teaching on the morality of war and threats posed to the Church in the early twentieth Century political world of conflicting ideologies. In Spain, the Church, quintessentially Spanish yet inspiring extremes of devotion and hatred in Spain's total, ideological Civil War, had been devastated by that struggle. In defending its urgent spiritual priorities during a new European war, it faced many challenges that necessitated reactions involving complex interplay of morality and politics. Not only was its relationship with the victorious Franco regime uncertain but it feared the infiltration into Spain of any of the European war's contending ideologies-Fascism and Nazism...

How Much War Will We See? Estimating the Incidence of Civil War in 161 Countries

Elbadawi, Ibrahim; Sambanis, Nicholas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Quantitative studies of civil war have focused either on war's onset, or its termination, producing important insights into these end points of the process. The authors complement these studies by studying how much war we are likely to observe in any given period. To answer this question, they combine recent advances in the theory of civil war initiation, and duration, and, develop the concept of war incidence, denoting th probability of observing an event of civil war in any given period. They test theories of war initiation, and duration against this new concept, using a five-year panel data set for 161 countries. Their analysis of the incidence of war corroborates most of the results of earlier studies, enriching those results by highlighting the significance of socio-ppolitical variables as determinants of the risk of civil war. Their findings: 1) Steps toward advancing political liberalization, or economic development reduce the risk of civil war, whatever the degree of ethno-linguistic fractionalization in a society. 2) This effect is amplified in polarized societies. The probability of civil war is lower in very homogeneous societies...

Canada & the First World War: An Introduction

Petronis, Daina; Vranich, Bob
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Outros
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Developing an historical understanding of the twentieth--‐ and twenty--‐first centuries requires, first and foremost, an understanding of the First World War. The root causes of such historically significant events as the Russian Revolution, the rise of Adolph Hitler, World War II, the Cold War, American superpower status, the Yugoslav civil war, and contemporary ethnic and military conflicts within the Middle East, each stem in part from the consequences and legacy of the “war to end all wars.” This resource package provides educators with 6 lessons that serve to explore the main causes of World War I and the impacts of the war on Canada and Canadians. Specifically, students will explore the main causes of the war; the Canadian reactions to the outbreak of war; technological advancements throughout the war; French--‐English relations and the conscription crisis; the human cost of war; and the Treaty of Versailles. Students will explore these topics through the inspection of geographic maps, political cartoons, Canadian artwork, films, oral histories, newspaper excerpts and other forms of differentiated instruction. Each lesson is grounded in one of the Big Six Historical Thinking Concepts developed by Seixas and Morton – historical significance...

World War I and Wartime Canada Through the Lens of The Big Six

McCarthy, Meg; Lewis, Vicky
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Outros
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
The purpose of this unit is to provide students with an in-depth understanding of Canada in World War I and World War I on a global scale. Lesson one focuses on the concept Evidence, as students will look at different textbooks to consider the changing causes of World War I. Lesson two is based on Continuity and Change and will teach students about Canada’s changing relationship with Britain in wartime and beyond. Lesson three is rooted in Cause and Consequence and revolves around the topic of alliances in World War I. In Lesson four, the concept of Historical Perspectives is used as a lens through which to learn about the differing mindsets of Canadian soldiers during World War I through archival research. Lesson five has students consider the Ethical Dimension of war, particularly focusing on enlistment and the conscription crisis of World War I. Finally, students will finish the unit with an ISU project about the lasting impact of World War I, including discussion of the psychological impact of war on veterans and our duty to honour their sacrifice on Remembrance Day and throughout the year (the lesson is based on Historical Significance). Students will have the opportunity to engage in a wide range of activities and discussions...

An Other Woman's Rape: Abjection and Objection in Representations of War Rape Victims in the DRC

Victoor, Amanda
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
The growing global awareness of sexual violence as a weapon of war has been accompanied by the strategic and pervasive inclusion of women’s personal stories of war rape. This representational strategy of Western media, academia and humanitarian policies was critically examined in order to understand how war raped women in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are discursively situated as “Other.” Drawing on the theoretical concepts of abjection and objection, the study did not question the truth of women’s experience but rather examined whether the pervasive inclusion of war rape stories constituted a true feminine subjectivity. A foucaldian notion of discourse provided a method to expose meaning and dominant discourses, which make certain identities and stories of war rape more visible than others. The purpose of this study was to critically engage with dominant Western discourses of war rape and provide a more complex understanding of how diverse power structures, identities and representational practices impact the struggle of Congolese women to open self-determined pathways of empowerment. A qualitative method of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) was used to examine the textual and visual processes of representation. Samples of text were taken from three main areas: media coverage (print...

FUELLING A WAR MACHINE: Canadian Foreign Policy in the Sino-Japanese War, 1937-1945

FRANCOEUR, David
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
The subject of Canada’s policy-making in relation to the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) has been neglected for over half a century. Therefore neither the scope of Canada’s official assistance to the Chinese during their War of Resistance against Japan nor the motivations behind this assistance have been fully explained or adequately contextualized. Through research using archival records and other primary and secondary sources, the thesis sheds light on the ways in which Canadians chose to respond to Chinese efforts to secure an ally against Japan. Revealing unscrupulous opportunism on the Canadian side during China’s struggle against Japan, the thesis contributes to a revisionist trend which takes aim at romantic mythology about Canadians’ virtuous role in the Second World War. From 1931 to 1941, the Government of Canada sought to maintain a neutral position regarding Japanese encroachments in China. This was partly to honour a friendship established in the First World War but also to protect Canadian exporters’ valuable sales of strategic minerals to Japan. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, pro-Japanese sympathy among Canadians eroded and trade with Japan became politically untenable. In 1942, already five years after the beginning of full-scale war between Japan and China...

A Great War of Expectations: Men, Mothers, and Monsters in Toronto, 1914-1918

Chaktsiris, MARY
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
Gendered expectations about wartime duty were central to Toronto’s mobilization during the First World War. How Torontonians defined these duties and responsibilities – and how they imagined the war they were waging – exposes attitudes and reactions towards war that were contrary to those expected and promoted by the war effort. Many of these expectations were based on the prevailing imperial understandings of manhood, war, and militarism of the era. The historiography of the First World War generally presents ideas of a national coming of age. However, how Torontonians lived and imagined war from 1914 to 1918 demonstrates this experience was both contested and gendered. This case study of wartime Toronto examines how municipal, provincial, and federal authorities reinforced masculine expectations during wartime, and especially how active service was framed as the ultimate expression of manhood and masculinity. This study traces links between masculine duty and enlistment for war as communicated through war posters and the city’s municipal organizations. Wartime activities – including recruitment and conscription, the identification of enemy aliens, and civil unrest – were framed by understandings of manhood that valued active military service as its ultimate test. Toronto was a military centre for the recruitment of acceptable soldier-volunteers...

The Empire of Chance: War, Literature, and the Epistemic Order of Modernity

Engberg-Pedersen, Anders
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
The dissertation charts the momentous shift in the thinking of war that takes place in Europe around 1800. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, it examines the discourse on war in literature, military theory, philosophy, cartography, mathematics, and pedagogy. It argues that across these fields and disciplines, war is constituted as a world in itself, but a destabilized world governed by chance and contingency. As one theorist states, the complexity of warfare has risen to such a degree that war has become an empire of chance – 'l'empire du hazard.' Centered on the notion of the 'state of war,' the dissertation maps out the attempts to describe this complex epistemic regime as well as the inventions devised to manage it. These inventions are inextricably linked to a reconfiguration of the poetics of war. Across traditional genre boundaries, in treatises, in novellas and novels, but also on sketches, maps, and in games, war becomes just as much a poetological problem as an epistemological one. Having to reconstruct the state of war with symbolic means, the operational logic of war games, the topographical image of the military map, and the structure of a text all reveal so many conceptions of the phenomenon of war. I show how these different media are refashioned into technologies of experience that simulate the matrix of war virtually in order to immerse individuals into this symbolic world. Against the tradition of speculative philosophy that flourishes around 1800...

Jus Post Bellum: Post-War Responsibilities

Sullivan, Shannon
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' thesis
Publicado em 14/05/2015 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%
The United States failed to consider the realities of post-war Iraq prior to entering the country in 2003. Policymakers assumed the dismantling of Saddam Hussein’s regime and defense capabilities would bring immediate peace, stability and democracy to the country. These assumptions proved false. Lack of planning, insight and resources prevented the United States from addressing the community-level conflicts that plague the Iraqi state. As a result, in 2014, a terrorist organization killed and terrorized innocent civilians in unstable post-war Iraq. Even though members of the United Nations questioned the legality of the Iraq War in 2003, the international law of armed conflict does not hold the United States accountable for the hostile environment that plagues post-war Iraq today. The United Nations Charter developed after World War II as a means for regulating and limiting violence and war does not legally define expected post-war behavior or results. Lack of post- war legal standards allows preference and self-interest to dictate occupation and reconstruction plans. The transformative reconstruction of Japan from 1945-1952 highlights this reality. The United States after World War II, motivated by the communist threat, extensively calculated and contributed to the rebuilding of Japan. Over 50 years later...

Winged Defiance: The Air Force and Preventive Nuclear War in the Early Cold War

Redman, Edwin Henry
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.74%

This dissertation examines a continuum of insubordination in the Air Force during the early Cold War. After World War II, a coterie of top generals in the Air Force embraced a view held by a minority in American government and the public, which believed that the United States should conduct a preventive war against the Soviet Union before it could develop its own nuclear arsenal. This strategy contradicted the stated national security policies of President Harry S. Truman and his successor, President Dwight D. Eisenhower. This influential circle of Air Force leaders undermined presidential policy by drafting preventive war plans, pushing preventive war strategies on civilian leaders in the executive branch, and indoctrinating senior field grade officers at the Air War College in preventive war thinking and strategies.

Previous accounts of preventive war activity in the Air Force centered about the Air War College and its first commandant, General Orvil Anderson. In 1950, General Anderson disparaged President Truman and urged for preventive war against the Soviet Union an interview to a local news reporter. Syndicated newspapers reprinted General Anderson's remarks, and the Air Force Chief of Staff, General Hoyt S. Vandenberg...

Haunted Borderland : The Politics on the Border War against China in post-Cold War Vietnam

Shim, Juhyung
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.75%

This dissertation deals with the history and memory of the Border War with China in contemporary Vietnam. Due to its particularity as a war between two neighboring socialist countries in Cold War Asia, the Border War has been a sensitive topic in Vietnam. While political sensitivity regarding the national past derives largely from the Party-State, the history and memory of the war has permeated Vietnamese society. The war's legacy can be seen in anti-China sentiments that, in the globalized neoliberal order, appear to be reviving alongside post-Cold War nationalism. The Border War against China represented an important nationalist turn for Vietnam. At the same time, the traumatic breakdown of the socialist fraternity cultivated anxiety over domestic and international relations. The recent territorial dispute over the South China Sea, between Vietnam and China, has recalled the history and memory of the war in 1979. The growing anti-China sentiment in Vietnam also interpellates the war as a near future.

As an anthropological approach to the history and memory of war, this dissertation addresses five primary questions: 1) how the historyscape of Vietnam's past has been shifted through politics on the Border War; 2) how the memoryscape involving the Border War has been configured as national and local experience; 3) how the Border War has shaped the politics of ethnic minorities in a border province; 4) why the borderscape in Vietnam constantly affects the politics of the nation-state in the globalized world order; and 5) why the border markets and trade activities have been a realm of competing instantiations of post-Cold War nationalism and global neoliberalism.

In order to tackle these questions...

War letters: A Thematic approach and comparison of military letters from World War II and the Vietnam War

Yamonaco, Jeanne
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.69%
Letters, a form of mediated interpersonal communication, provide readers and writers the opportunity to transcend space and time. Letters can also serve as a permanent record of communicated information. The present study compares themes of selected letters written by soldiers from two wars: World War II and Vietnam. Two research questions are posed: What are the themes expressed in soldiers` letters? Is there a difference in themes that relate to the particular war fought? This study analyzed 202 letters written by military personnel from both World War II and the Vietnam War. After content analysis of the 10 most prevalent themes, no significant differences were noted between the themes of either war.

The Indian war memorial: National memory and selective forgetting - Connecting public histories

Itzkin,Eric
Fonte: Historia Publicador: Historia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
The article uncovers the neglected history of the War Memorial commemorating thousands of Indian Army soldiers involved as non-combatants in the Anglo-Boer War. Erected in 1902, the monument in Observatory, Johannesburg, overlooks the site of a large remount camp staffed by Indians. Excluded from official accounts of the time which viewed the conflict as a "white man's war", the Indian auxiliaries have likewise been overlooked in more recent historiography aimed at creating a more inclusive view of the War. Revisionist scholarship focused on African involvement in the conflict, while the role of the Indian auxiliaries remains largely forgotten. By comparison, the role of Gandhi's Stretcher-Bearer Corps in the War is well known. Commemorations to mark the centenary of the War, although intended as an inclusive anniversary, failed to recover the public memory of these auxiliaries. Reviving their memory may not fit into a narrow nation-building concept, but is important to acknowledge the varied, transnational elements which have shaped South Africa's past. After the War, most of the Indian soldiers returned to India. Only a few of these veterans remained in South Africa, notably including Captain Nawab Khan who joined Gandhi's Satyagraha movement.