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Diferenças salariais entre os gêneros no setor público : evolução e principais determinantes; Wage gap between genders in the Brazilian public sector

Daniela Verzola Vaz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/04/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
: O objetivo principal deste trabalho é estudar o hiato de rendimento observado entre os sexos no setor público brasileiro, investigando em que medida ele pode ser atribuído a diferenças nas dotações produtivas dos servidores, ao padrão diferenciado de inserção setorial e ocupacional das mulheres no mercado de trabalho e à discriminação sexual — seja ela ocupacional, hierárquica ou salarial propriamente dita. As hipóteses que se pretende verificar são as de que i) não obstante a adoção de práticas de recrutamento mais transparentes e a igualdade de tratamento graças ao sistema de carreira, também no setor público observa-se a segregação feminina nas ocupações e nos setores menos bem remunerados; ii) a crescente feminização do emprego público no período recente não impediu a persistência da segmentação por sexo no desempenho das ocupações. Para cumprir tal objetivo, o trabalho foi estruturado em cinco capítulos: i) o primeiro tem como finalidade identificar as características pessoais e os atributos produtivos que influenciam a probabilidade de um indivíduo ocupado no setor de serviços, na condição de empregado, ser servidor público no Brasil, destacando as diferenças observadas entre os sexos; ii) o segundo capítulo analisa a evolução da representação feminina nos diversos segmentos do setor público entre os anos de 1992 e 2008...

Public sector wage gap and fiscal adjustments on the run-up to the euro area

Campos, Maria Manuel Trindade
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /06/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54%
Mestrado em Econometria Aplicada e Previsão; This study examines the fiscal adjustments that took place on the run-up to the euro area and how were they reflected on the func¬tioning of the public sector labour markets in euro area countries. OECD data are used to identify and characterize episodes of fiscal consolidation in a broad set of countries and within the 1983-2001 time-frame, but focusing, in particular, on those corresponding to the euro area founding Member States and to the 1993-1997 period. To assess developments referring to compensation of employees and how the occurrence of these episodes affected public sector employment and wage growth in countries that in the 1990s were engaged in the fulfilment of the Maastricht criteria, microeconomic data drawn from the European Community Household Panel is used. Such data is also employed to estimate the public-private wage gap, using a novel ap¬proach that allows the estimation of quantile regressions accounting for individual-specific fixed effects. Results suggest that, on the run-up to the euro area, macroeconomic and interest rate conditions made it easier to comply with the Maastricht criteria without requiring partic¬ularly strong primary expenditure cuts. Regarding...

Using normalized equations to solve the indetermination problem in the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition: an application to the gender wage gap in Brazil

Scorzafave,Luiz Guilherme; Pazello,Elaine Toldo
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.46%
There are hundreds of works that implement the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. However, this decomposition is not invariant to the choice of reference group when dummy variables are used. This paper applies the solution proposed by Yun (005a,b) for this identification problem to Brazilian gender wage gap estimation. Our principal finding is the increasing difference in part-time work coefficients between men and women, which contributes to narrow the gender wage gap. Other studies in Brazil not using any correction of the identification problem have found different results.

Occupational segregation and the gender wage gap in Brazil: an empirical analysis

Madalozzo,Regina
Fonte: Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
Several countries experienced an increase in female labor participation during the twentieth century. Even so, few can be proud of the conditions female workers faced. This paper analyzes the occupational distribution by gender from 1978 to in 2007 in Brazil. It shows that women have penetrated traditionally male occupations to a certain extent, but that traditionally female occupations have maintained their gender composition over the past 30 years. We also provide a regression analysis with an Oaxaca decomposition that shows that the gender wage gap is lower than in 1978, but that it has remained constant over the last decade.

The Wage Effects of Immigration and Emigration

Docquier, Frederic; Ozden, Caglar; Peri, Giovanni
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.57%
Immigrants in Rome or Paris are more visible to the public eye than the Italian or French engineers in Silicon Valley, especially when it comes to the debate on the effects of immigration on the employment and wages of natives in high-income countries. This paper argues that such public fears, especially in European countries are misplaced; instead, more concern should be directed towards emigration. Using a new dataset on migration flows by education levels for the period 1990-2000, the results show the following: First, immigration had zero to small positive long-run effect on the average wages of natives, ranging from zero in Italy to +1.7 percent in Australia. Second, emigration had a mild to significant negative long-run effect ranging from zero for the US to -0.8 percent in the UK. Third, over the period 1990-2000, immigration generally improved the income distribution of European countries while emigration worsened it by increasing the wage gap between the high and low skilled natives. These patterns hold true using a range of parameters for the simulations...

Globalization and the Gender Wage Gap

Oostendorp, Remco H.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.75%
There are several theoretical reasons why globalization will have a narrowing as well as a widening effect on the gender wage gap, but little is known about the actual impact, except for some country studies. This study contributes to the literature in three respects. First, it is a large cross-country study of the impact of globalization on the gender wage gap. Second, it employs the rarely used ILO October Inquiry database, which is the most far-ranging survey of wages around the world. Third, it focuses on the within-occupation gender wage gap, an alternative to the commonly used raw and residual wage gaps as a measure of the gender wage gap. This study finds that the occupational gender wage gap tends to decrease with increasing economic development, at least in richer countries, and to decrease with trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) in richer countries, but finds little evidence that trade and FDI also reduce the occupational gender wage gap in poorer countries.

Can the Introduction of a Minimum Wage in FYR Macedonia Decrease the Gender Wage Gap?

Angel-Urdinola, Diego F.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.83%
This paper relies on a simple framework to understand the gender wage gap in Macedonia, and simulates how the gender wage gap would behave after the introduction of a minimum wage. First, it presents a new - albeit simple - decomposition of the wage gap into three factors: (i) a wage level factor, which measures the extent to which the gender gap is driven by differences in wage levels among low-skilled workers of opposite sex; (ii) a skills endowment factor, which quantifies the extent to which the gender wage gap is driven by the difference in the share of high-skilled workers by gender; and (iii) returns to education, which measures the extent to which the gender gap is driven by differences by gender in returns to education. Second, the paper presents simple set of simulations that indicate that the introduction of a minimum wage in Macedonia could contribute to decrease the gender wage gap by up to 23 percent. Nevertheless, in order to significantly improve the wage gap, a rather high minimum wage may be required...

Can Minimum Wages Close the Gender Wage Gap?

Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Rijkers, Bob; Waxman, Andrew
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.68%
Using manufacturing plant-level census data, this paper demonstrates that minimum wage increases in Indonesia reduced gender wage gaps among production workers, with heterogeneous impacts by level of education and position of the firm in the wage distribution. Paradoxically, educated women appear to have benefitted the most, particularly in the lower half of the firm average earnings distribution. By contrast, women who did not complete primary education did not benefit on average, and even lost ground in the upper end of the earnings distribution. Minimum wage increases were thus associated with exacerbated gender pay gaps among the least educated, and reduced gender gaps among the best educated production workers. Unconditional quantile regression analysis attests to wage compression and lighthouse effects. Changes in relative employment prospects were limited.

Gender Gap in Pay in the Russian Federation

Atencio, Andrea; Posadas, Josefina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.73%
This paper decomposes the gender gap in pay in the Russian Federation along the earnings distribution for the period 1996–2011. The analysis uses a reweighted, recentered influence function decomposition that allows estimating the contribution of each covariate on the wage structure and composition effects along the earnings distribution. The paper finds that women are in flat career paths compared with men; the importance of observable characteristics that proxy human capital in the gender pay gap decrease along the earnings distribution; and if women’s pay took into account their educational degrees as much as men’s, the gender pay gap would disappear or even reverse at the top of the earnings distribution. The results suggest that women at the bottom of the earnings distribution should be helped to increase their labor market skills, and women at the top of the distribution should be helped to break the glass ceiling and be remunerated for their skills to the same extent as men.

Parametric vs. semi-parametric estimation of the male-female wage gap: an application to France [March 2007]

Breunig, Robert; Rospabe, Sandrine
Fonte: Centre for Economic Policy Research, RSSS, ANU Publicador: Centre for Economic Policy Research, RSSS, ANU
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.58%
We use a semi-parametric method to decompose the difference in male and female wage densities into two parts-one explained by characteristics and one which is attributable to differences in returns to characteristics. We demonstrate that one learns substantially more about the gender wage gap in France through this analysis than through standard parametric techniques. In particular, we find that there are no unexplained differences in male and female earning distributions in the bottom fifth of the data. Occupation and part-time status are the most important determinants of the wage gap for all workers. In the semi-parametric estimates we find that education plays no role in the wage gap once we account for occupation and part-time status.; no

The Public-Private Wage Differential in the West Bank and Gaza: Before and During the Second Intifada

MIAARI, Sami H.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.61%
This paper measures the public-private wage differential in the West Bank and Gaza and describes its dynamics before and during the second Intifada using data from the Palestinian Labour Force Survey (PLFS) of the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS). Because the distribution of individual characteristics and their returns might differ across workers, the wage differential is decomposed into two components: a “human capital” effect and an “unexplained” effect. The results show that in the pre-Intifada period, the wage gap between the public and private sectors had narrowed both in the West Bank and Gaza. However, a sharp increase is seen in the post-Intifada Period. Moreover, most of this increase comes from an increase in “returns” to skill composition in the public sector (unexplained effect), rather than a change in the skill composition of public sector workers (human capital effect). An analysis of the public-private sector wage gap from 1998 to 2006 at various points along the wage distribution using recent quantile regression econometric techniques shows that the wage premium (penalty) for the public sector varies across the distribution, being higher (lower) at the lowest end of the wage distribution and decreasing (increasing) along the wage distribution; it becomes negative in the top percentiles.; I am deeply grateful to Luay Shabanch of the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics for providing the Palestinian Labour Force Survey data; I owe special thanks to Michael Beenstock...

La incidencia de los aspectos pre-market : segregación laboral y gap salarial por género

Dueñas Fernández, Diego; Iglesias Fernández, Carlos; Llorente Heras, Raquel
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.65%
Los autores agradecen la financiación recibida por el Centro de Estudios Andaluces (CENTRA - Junta De Andalucía) para la realización del proyecto “Consecuencias y Medidas hacia la Igualdad de Género (Pry055/12)” publicado en Factoría de Ideas; gracias a la cual ha sido posible desarrollar parte de los resultados alcanzados en este artículo; El presente artículo tiene como objetivo determinar cuál es la desigual influencia que tienen en el mercado de trabajo español de los nuevos aspectos pre-market: factores sociales y sociológicos que influyen en la propia personalidad y que condicionan de manera diferente las decisiones laborales de hombres y mujeres. Concretamente nuestro objeto de estudio es la segregación laboral y las diferencias salariales por género. Para ello, el trabajo analiza los datos de la Encuesta de Clases Sociales y Estructura Social elaborada por el Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS) en 2006. Con respecto a la segregación ocupacional, los resultados alcanzados sobre la estimación de una serie de probits multinivel indican que la segregación ocupacional femenina se fundamenta en las decisiones personales y el tipo de ubicación laboral detentada más que en los aspectos pre-market que no consiguen alcanzar una influencia significativa. Los resultados alcanzados en las estimaciones salariales sobre la descomposición de Oaxaca-Blinder establecen que los aspectos relacionados con el puesto de trabajo siguen siendo los factores determinantes de la desigual remuneración por género existente en España. Asimismo...

The gender wage gap in Vietnam, 1993–1998

Liu, Amy Y.C.
Fonte: Crawford School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University; http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au Publicador: Crawford School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University; http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au
Tipo: Other; Working/Technical Paper Formato: 16 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.53%
This paper uses the Vietnam Living Standards Surveys 1992–93 and 1997–98 to examine changes in the gender wage gap. The intertemporal decomposition of Juhn et al. (1991) indicates that changes in observed variables, skill prices and wage inequality have tended to narrow the gap, but the gap effect has tended to widen it, with the net effect being one of little change. This finding is in contrast with that for the EEC but in line with the experience of China. Improving education about equity practices in the workplace to combat discriminatory attitudes, and further decentralisation to facilitate the growth of the private sector, are two of the policy implications drawn.

Globalization and the Gender Wage Gap

Oostendorp, Remco H.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.8%
There are several theoretical reasons why globalization will have a narrowing as well as widening effect on the gender wage gap, but little is known about the actual impact, except for a number of country studies. The author provides a cross-country study of the impact of globalization on the occupational gender wage gap, based on the rarely used but most far-ranging survey of wages around the world, the International Labour Organization's October Inquiry. This annual survey was started in 1924 and contains a wealth of information on wages and the gender wage gap. For the period 1983-99, there is information on the gender wage gap in 161 narrowly defined occupations in more than 80 countries around the world. The author finds the following: (i) The occupational gender wage gap appears to be narrowing with increases in GDP per capita; (ii) There is a significantly narrowing impact of trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) net inflows on the occupational gender wage gap for low-skill occupations, both in poorer and richer countries...

International Trade and Wage Discrimination : Evidence from East Asia

Berik, Gunseli; Van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana; Zveglich, Joseph E., Jr.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.55%
This study explores the impact of competition from international trade on wage discrimination by sex in two highly open economies. If discrimination is costly, as posited in neoclassical theory based on Becker (1959), then increased industry competitiveness from international trade reduces the incentive for employers to discriminate against women. Alternatively, increased international trade may contribute to employment segregation and reduced bargaining power for women to achieve wage gains. The approach centers on comparing the impact of international trade on wage discrimination in concentrated and nonconcentrated sectors. The effect of international trade competition is expected to be more pronounced in concentrated sectors, where employers can use excess profits in the absence of trade to cover the costs of discrimination. Wage discrimination is proxied by the portion of the wage gap that cannot be explained by observable skill differences between men and women. The empirical model is estimated using a rich panel data set of residual wage gaps...

The gender wage gap in four countries

Daly, Anne; Kawaguchi, Akira; Meng, Xin; Mumford, Karen
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
In a series of studies written during the 1980s, Bob Gregory and his co-authors compared the gender wage gap in Australia with that found in other countries. They found it was not the difference in human capital endowments that explained different gender

Occupational segregation and the gender wage gap in Brazil: an empirical analysis

Madalozzo, Regina
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de RP Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de RP
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
Several countries experienced an increase in female labor participation during the twentieth century. Even so, few can be proud of the conditions female workers faced. This paper analyzes the occupational distribution by gender from 1978 to in 2007 in Brazil. It shows that women have penetrated traditionally male occupations to a certain extent, but that traditionally female occupations have maintained their gender composition over the past 30 years. We also provide a regression analysis with an Oaxaca decomposition that shows that the gender wage gap is lower than in 1978, but that it has remained constant over the last decade.

Sectoral Gender Wage Gap in Vietnam

Liu, Yuk Chu (Amy)
Fonte: Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.34%
Vietnam is under pressure to reduce the size of the state sector. Using the Vietnam Living Standards Survey 1997-98, the paper examines the impact of this change on the gender earnings gap. Women have traditionally been over-represented in the state sector. After exiting the state sector, some seek jobs in the private sector. Estimation of separate earnings equations by sector suggests that the gender pay gaps in the state-owned enterprises and the private sector are comparable. One may then conclude that women's relative economic position may not have worsened significantly. However, Appleton's decomposition (1999) has demonstrated that the gender pay gap would be much wider if men and women were equally distributed between state and private sectors. Given that further downsizing is planned, it is important to increase women's human capital to reduce their vulnerability. Equal pay legislation and paid maternity leave are some policies that can reduce within-sector earnings inequality.

The early career gender wage gap

Napari, Sami
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2006 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.72%
In Finland the gender wage gap increases significantly during the first 10 years after labor market entry accounting most of the life-time increase in the gender wage gap. This paper focuses on the early career gender wage differences among university graduates and considers several explanations for the gender wage gap based on the human capital theory, job mobility and labor market segregation. Gender differences in the accumulation of experience and in the type of education explain about 16 percent of the average gender wage gap that emerges during the first 11 years after labor market entry among university graduates. Differences in employer characteristics between male and female graduates account about 10 percent for the average early career gender wage gap. In all gender differences in background characteristics explain about 27 percent of the average early career wage differences between male and female university graduates. The most important single factor contributing to the gender wage gap is the family type. Women seem to suffer considerable larger wage losses due to marriage and children than men.

The wage gap among male and female top managers

Mendes,Raquel Vale
Fonte: ISCTE-IUL Business School Publicador: ISCTE-IUL Business School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.51%
This paper studies gender wage differentials among top managers in the Portuguese economy. The objective is to investigate whether men and women within the same occupational group, with relatively high levels of human capital, and who are evaluated basically on their performance, are treated unequally in relation to pay. The Oaxaca wage decomposition method is used, relying on micro data from the Quadros de Pessoal (QP). The main findings indicate that a substantial portion of the wage gap between male and female top managers is potentially due to wage discrimination.