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Vitis vinifera leaves towards bioactivity

Fernandes, Fátima; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Pires, Patrícia; Andrade, João Verdial; Valentão, P.; Andrade, P.B.; Bento, Albino; Pereira, J.A.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.39%
The majority of the works about Vitis vinifera L. (grape) focus their attention on wine or its major by-product, the grape pomace. Nevertheless, leaves of V. vinifera also constitute an important matrix of this agro-industry. In this study, the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of V. vinifera leaves from twenty Portuguese varieties (white and red) were evaluated for the first time, concerning their reducing total capacity, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The phenolics presente in the aqueous extracts of V. vinifera leaves were trans-caffeoyltartaric and trans-coumaroyltartaric acids, myricetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside and kaempferol-3- O-glucoside, the last two compounds being the most predominant. Despite showing different activities profiles, all samples exhibited antiradical capacity against DPPH radical and reducing power in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC50 values below 800 g/mL. The obtained results are encouraging, increasing the possibility of taking profit from the great wastes produced by the grapes processing industry.

Volatile composition of Vitis vinifera L. Fernão-Pires variety from Bairrada appellation : 1.

Ferreira, Paula Raquel da Silva Jorge Coutinho
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A Bairrada é uma das regiões vitivinícolas mais antigas de Portugal, apesar de a Região Demarcada da Bairrada só ter sido oficialmente criada em 1979. A casta Fernão-Pires (FP) Vitis vinifera L. é a principal casta branca cultivada nesta região, onde é conhecida pelo nome de Maria-Gomes. As castas Bical (Bic), Arinto (Ari) e Cerceal (Cer), são outras castas brancas relevantes igualmente cultivadas na Região Demarcada da Bairrada. Estas quatro castas representam, respectivamente, 70%, 10%, 10% e 5% do total do encepamento de castas brancas nesta região. O conhecimento da composição volátil destas quatro variedades pode oferecer um meio de avaliar o seu potencial de aroma e melhorar a qualidade do aroma dos seus vinhos. No entanto, a composição volátil destas variedades ainda não se encontra caracterizada. Neste trabalho, o estudo foi centrado na casta FP, devido à sua importância no contexto da Região Demarcada da Bairrada, mostrando que esta casta apresenta um perfil significativamente diferente das outras castas brancas mais representativas (Bic, Ari e Cer), contendo um maior número de compostos voláteis e em maior concentração. As potencialidades de aroma da casta FP foram avaliadas pela análise da composição volátil das uvas...

Phenolic profile of Sercial and Tinta Negra Vitis vinifera L. grape skins by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn: Novel phenolic compounds in Vitis vinifera L. grape

Perestrelo, Rosa; Lu, Ying; Santos, Sónia A. O.; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Neto, Carlos P.; Câmara, José S.; Rocha, Sílvia M.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.51%
This study represents the first phytochemical research of phenolic components of Sercial and Tinta Negra Vitis vinifera L. The phenolic profiles of Sercial and Tinta Negra V. vinifera L. grape skins (white and red varieties, respectively) were established using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn), at different ripening stages (veraison and maturity). A total of 40 phenolic compounds were identified, which included 3 hydroxybenzoic acids, 8 hydroxycinnamic acids, 4 flavanols, 5 flavanones, 8 flavonols, 4 stilbenes, and 8 anthocyanins. For the white variety, in both ripening stages, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were the main phenolic classes, representing about 80% of the phenolic composition. For red variety, at veraison, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were also the predominant classes (71%), but at maturity, anthocyanins represented 84% of the phenolic composition. As far as we know, 10 compounds were reported for the first time in V. vinifera L. grapes, namely protocatechuic acid-glucoside, p-hydroxybenzoyl glucoside, caftaric acid vanilloyl pentoside, p-coumaric acid-erythroside, naringenin hexose derivate, eriodictyol-glucoside...

Caracterização fisiológica e agronómica de diferentes estratégias culturais para minimizar o stress estival em vitis vinifera L. na Região Demarcada do Douro

Pereira, José Manuel Moutinho
Fonte: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Publicador: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.58%
Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Agrícola; Este trabalho teve como objectivo: comparar o comportamento vegetativo e vitícola das videiras situadas em cotas extremas duma parcela de vinha “ao alto”; estudar a influência que a grandeza da superfície foliar exposta e/ou a presença de partículas de calda bordalesa pode ter nesse comportamento, em particular no compromisso fotossíntese-transpiração e avaliar as implicações fisiológicas da orientação NW-SE das linhas de plantação das mesmas videiras. Os ensaios decorreram na Região Demarcada do Douro, em 1995, 1996 e 1997. No capítulo 1 - - faz-se uma breve reflexão aos aspectos essenciais que motivaram o presente estudo, salientando-se o modo de implantação e condução da vinha duriense nas últimas décadas e certos conhecimentos locais de natureza empírica. No capítulo 2 - - procurou-se, num primeiro ponto, caracterizar a Região Demarcada do Douro nos domínios institucional, geográfico, geológico, microclimático e fitossociológico; num segundo e terceiro ponto dentificaram-se alguns meca-nismos fisiológicos de resposta das videiras ao efeito do stress hídrico, luminoso e térmico e referiram-se algumas práticas culturais que podem ser mais adequadas à viticultura de regiões onde esses tipos de stress são mais frequentes...

Efeitos da disponibilidade hídrica na fisiologia e produção de vitis vinifera l. Na região demarcada do douro

Sousa, Tiago Pinho Alves de
Fonte: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Publicador: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.55%
Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências Agronómicas; A temática das relações hídricas na vinha e sobretudo o seu impacto na produção não é consensual. Embora a rega seja uma prática agronómica comum em muitas zonas vitícolas do Globo, continuam a ser levantadas questões acerca das vantagens/inconvenientes que poderão advir da sua utilização. O presente trabalho pretende contribuir para a clarificação do tema e contextualizá-lo nas condições particulares da Região Demarcada do Douro (RDD). Em 2003 foi assim estabelecido um campo experimental na sub-região do Douro Superior numa parcela de Vitis vinífera L. cv. Tinta Roriz enxertada em 1103P, com o objectivo de avaliar o impacto de diferentes regimes hídricos no comportamento fisiológico da videira e as suas consequências no rendimento e composição dos mostos da RDD. Os tratamentos experimentais definidos diferiam quer na quantidade de água aplicada à vinha, quer no período da sua aplicação: não regado (NR), regado da floração ao pintor a 50% da ET (FP1), regado da floração ao pintor a 100% da ET (FP2), regado do pintor à maturação a 50% da ET (PM1), regado do pintor à maturação a 100% da ET (PM2) e regado da floração à maturação a 100% da ET (FM2). Foram utilizados vários métodos de avaliação do estado hídrico da videira...

Avaliação de stress oxidativo em bagos de videira (Vitis vinifera L.) da casta Trincadeira em condições de stress hídrico

Carvalho, Inês Sequeira de
Fonte: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2009 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.34%
Mestrado em Engenharia Agronómica - Hortofruticultura e Viticultura - Instituto Superior de Agronomia; The plants respond to oxidative stress with the activation of defensive antioxidants mechanisms, which come up as an integrative part of the drought stress tolerance strategies. With this work it was attempted to evaluate oxidative stress caused by three different irrigation treatments – NI (non irrigated), RDI (Regulated Deficit Irrigation) and FI (Full Irrigation) – in the skin of Vitis vinifera L. cv ‘Trincadeira’ grapes, throughout ripening process. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase (POD), poliphenol oxidase (PPO), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) was determined on different stages of ripening. Higher levels of drought stress were found in NI treatment, with the highest average levels of POD activity, and have originated possibly a major incidence of oxidative stress, followed by RDI and FI treatments, where the level of drought stress was respectively minor. Water availability seems to affect the plant’s response to the accumulation of ROS on the different stages of ripening, showing a more efficient response on the final stage in NI treatment and on vérasion on RDI and FI treatments...

Rheological behavior and color stability of anthocyanins from Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) and Bordô (Vitis labrusca L.) grapes in a jam model system

Falcão,Ana Paula; Chaves,Eduardo Sidinei; Falcão,Leila Denise; Gauche,Cony; Barreto,Pedro Luiz Manique; Bordignon-Luiz,Marilde Terezinha
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.46%
Anthocyanins are the pigments responsible for the color of most red grapes and are easily degraded following various reaction mechanisms affected by oxygen, enzymes, pH, and temperature among other variables. In this study, a jam model system was developed using Merlot and Bordô grape extracts and polysaccharides (xanthan and locust bean gums) and different temperatures (45, 55 and 65 °C). The stability of the anthocyanin pigments and the rheological behavior of the jam model system were studied. For the determination of the stability, the half-life time and first-order reaction rate constants for the anthocyanin pigments were calculated. The rheological behavior was determined through the Power law model. The jam model system produced using a temperature of 45 °C showed the best results for the anthocyanin half-life time. The first-order reaction rate constants for the 45, 55, and 65 °C treatments were not significantly different among each other (p > 0.05). It was observed that with an increase in the jam model system temperature there was an increase in the index of consistency.

Dinâmica do potássio no solo cultivado com videira de vinho fertirrigada: 1° ciclo de produção.

SILVA, D. J.; SILVA, A. O.; BASSOI, L. H.; SOUZA, D. R. M.; SANTOS, L. M.; BARBOSA, B. D. R.
Fonte: In: INOVAGRI INTERNATIONAL MEETING, 2.; SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DE SALINIDADE, 2.; REUNIÃO BRASILEIRA SOBRE ENGENHARIA DA IRRIGAÇÃO, 2., Fortaleza, 2014. Anais... Piracicaba: INOVAGRI: INCT-EI: INCTSA, 2014. Publicador: In: INOVAGRI INTERNATIONAL MEETING, 2.; SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DE SALINIDADE, 2.; REUNIÃO BRASILEIRA SOBRE ENGENHARIA DA IRRIGAÇÃO, 2., Fortaleza, 2014. Anais... Piracicaba: INOVAGRI: INCT-EI: INCTSA, 2014.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Formato: 1 DVD.
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.27%
A fruticultura irrigada no Vale do Submédio São Francisco é uma das principais fontes de renda e emprego na região, com destaque para a prática da vitivinicultura. Com o objetivo de determinar a disponibilidade de potássio na solução do solo, em função de cinco doses (0, 20, 40, 80 e 160 kg ha-1), um experimento foi instalado na Embrapa Semiárido, em Petrolina-PE, com videiras (Vitis vinifera L.) ?Syrah? enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto ?Paulsen? 1103 e cultivadas no espaçamento 3 x 1 m. O sistema de irrigação utilizado foi o gotejamento, com um emissor de 2 L h-1 por planta. Foram avaliadas durante o período de 111 dias as concentrações de potássio (K mg L-1), nitrato (N-NO3, mg L-1), pH e condutividade elétrica (CE, dS m-1) na solução do solo. Para extração da solução do solo, foram instalados 30 extratores de cápsulas porosas nas profundidades do solo de 0,4 m e 0,6 m. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão linear e polinomial. As médias foram comparadas entre as profundidades estudadas pelo teste F a 5% de probabilidade. As dosagens estudadas apresentaram efeito significativo para a concentração de potássio, apresentando comportamento linear com acréscimo de 0,45 e 0,33 mg L-1 (nas profundidades de 0...

A study of seed development and phenolic compounds in seeds, skins and wines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz / Renata Ristic.

Ristic, Renata
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 280906 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.22%
This study investigated seed development, phenolic composition of seeds and skins, and phenolic composition and sensory properties of wines made from berries of Vitis Vinifera L. cv. Shiraz that were developed and ripened under different levels of sunlight intensity at the bunch zone. The study also examined the relationships between seed and berry development, and the links between berry composition, wine composition and wine sensory properties.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Adelaide, School of Agriculture and Wine, Discipline of Wine and Horticulture, 2004; Bibliography: leaves 195-209.; xxvi, 209 leaves : ill., ; 30 cm.; Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library.

Composition and synthesis of raphide crystals and druse crystals in berries of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon: Ascorbic acid as precursor for both oxalic and tartaric acids as revealed by radiolabelling studies

DeBolt, S.; Hardie, J.; Tyerman, S.; Ford, C.
Fonte: Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Publicador: Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.39%
Biomineralisation in the fleshy pericarp of berries of Vitis vinifera L. gives rise to crystals of two distinct forms, viz. raphides and druses, which are found in exocarp and endocarp cells respectively. Druses have generally been considered as crystalline aggregates of calcium oxalate. However, the organic moiety of raphide crystals has been commonly accepted as tartrate, although we have found no analytical data to support that assumption. We now present TEM and X-ray powder diffraction analysis data showing that raphide crystals of V. vinifera berries are composed of calcium oxalate monohydrate. This work also established ascorbic acid as the biosynthetic precursor of both oxalic and tartaric acids. When ascorbic acid labelled with ¹⁴C at position 1 was introduced into berries via the rachis, 21% and 52% of the added radiolabel was recovered as oxalic and tartaric acids respectively. Purified crystals from the radiolabelled grape berries contained approximately 20% of the original radioactivity, further confirming the role of ascorbic acid in oxalic acid biosynthesis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence to be published on the formation of oxalic and tartaric acids from ascorbic acid via two distinct pathways operating within the same physiological entity (organ).; Seth Debolt...

The relationship between the expression of abscisic acid biosynthesis genes, accumulation of abscisic acid and the promotion of Vitis vinifera L. berry ripening by abscisic acid

Wheeler, S.; Loveys, B.; Ford, C.; Davies, C.
Fonte: Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Publicador: Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.34%
Background and Aims: Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) are considered to have non-climacteric fruit, but the trigger initiating ripening (veraison) is poorly understood. This study aimed to further investigate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) during berry ripening. Methods and Results: In field-grown grapes over three seasons, free ABA levels increased at veraison then subsequently declined to low levels. Bound ABA increased as the free ABA level decreased after 10–11 weeks post-flowering (wpf), but ABA must also be degraded and/or exported. The absence of a large pool of bound ABA before veraison makes it unlikely that the increase in free ABA is due to the mobilization of conjugated ABA. The expression pattern of genes crucial for ABA synthesis, zeaxanthin epoxidase and two 9-cis-epoxycartenoid dioxygenases (NCEDs) indicates that berries may have the potential to synthesize ABA in situ. However, the expression profile of these genes did not correlate well with ABA levels indicating that ABA accumulation is under more complex control. The application of (+)-ABA advanced ripening as measured by colour formation, berry size increase and to a lesser extent sugar accumulation and altered the expression of one of the NCED genes. Conclusions: The changes in berry ABA levels around the time of veraison...

An observational study into the recovery of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) following a bushfire

Collins, C.; Gao, H.; Wilkinson, K.L.
Fonte: American Society for Enology and Viticulture Publicador: American Society for Enology and Viticulture
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.25%
Bushfires occur worldwide, including regions in which winegrapes are grown. Recent research on grape and wine composition has demonstrated that wine made from smoke-affected grapes can be tainted. However, little is known about the impact of fire on grapevines, in particular the growth and recovery of grapevines scorched during a bushfire. In 2008, a vineyard in the southern Adelaide Hills region of South Australia was partially burned by a bushfire. Vegetative and reproductive measurements were taken for two cultivars, Pinot noir and Semillon (Vitis vinifera L.), in the subsequent growing seasons to compare the growth and development of scorched and unscorched vines. Reductions in shoot number, bunch number, bunch weight, pruning weight, and yield were observed for scorched vines compared with unscorched vines, in the season following the fire, but both cultivars showed improved signs of recovery two seasons after fire damage occurred. Fire-damaged vines produced lower crop yields due to decreased fruitfulness and berry numbers, and in the season after the bushfire, shoot development was mostly from buds located on the cordon, rather than buds of specific nodes retained after pruning. Elemental analysis of leaf tissue and juice was performed using inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry...

Effect of increased irrigation and additional nitrogen fertilisation on the concentration of green aroma compounds in Vitis vinifera L. Merlot fruit and wine

Mendez-Costabel, M.P.; Wilkinson, K.L.; Bastian, S.E.P.; Jordans, C.; McCarthy, M.; Ford, C.M.; Dokoozlian, K.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.25%
Background and Aims: Green aroma compounds are considered undesirable when present at a high concentration in red wines. This study aimed to understand the effect of two irrigation levels and a higher than standard nitrogen fertilisation on the concentration of both 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) and six C6 compounds during fruit development. Methods and Results: Fruit samples were collected biweekly during the 2009 and 2010 seasons in a commercial Vitis vinifera L. Merlot vineyard in California, USA, where two irrigation levels (70 and 100% of crop evapotranspiration) and a higher than standard nitrogen fertilisation dose were implemented. The higher irrigation level and additional nitrogen promoted canopy growth and decreased fruit exposure, resulting in increased concentration of IBMP during fruit maturation. The concentration of the six measured C6 compounds, however, was not affected. Deficit irrigation increased fruit colour, quercetin glycosides and phenol-free glucose glycosides (i.e. aroma precursors), and decreased vine yield. The two irrigation levels did not differ on the sensory vegetal perception of the wines, but the additional application of nitrogen fertiliser at fruitset enhanced it. Significance of the Study: These findings confirm previous work showing that vineyard management practices influence fruit and wine concentration of IBMP...

Aplicação de AG3 e CPPU na qualidade da uva 'Itália' em Porto Feliz-SP; GA3 and CPPU application on 'Itália' grapes grown in Porto Feliz-SP

RODRIGUES, Alessandro; ARAUJO, João Paulo Campos de; GIRARDI, Eduardo Augusto; SCARPARE, Fabio Vale; SCARPARE FILHO, João Alexio
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Fruticultura Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Fruticultura
Tipo: Relatório
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.39%
A videira 'Itália' (Vitis vinifera L.) é a cultivar de uva fina para mesa mais consumida no Brasil. A qualidade dos cachos é uma característica fundamental, sendo o tamanho das bagas o componente mais valorizado pelos consumidores. Uma das alternativas para incrementar a qualidade das bagas é o uso de biorreguladores. Avaliaram-se, em três ciclos de produção, os efeitos de doses de ácido giberélico (AG3) isolado e associado com forchlorfenuron (CPPU), na qualidade dos cachos de uva Itália produzida em Porto Feliz-SP. A aplicação dos biorreguladores foi realizada aos 25 dias após o florescimento, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 4X4 (zero, 10; 20 e 30 mg L-1 AG3 X zero, 5; 10 e 15 mg L-1 CPPU), com oito repetições para o primeiro ciclo, e fatorial 3X3 (zero, 20 e 30 mg L-1 AG3 X zero, 10 e 20 mg L-1 CPPU) com dez repetições para o segundo e terceiro ciclos. A mistura de 20 mg L-1 de AG3 com 10 mg L-1 de CPPU promoveu o incremento do comprimento e do diâmetro das bagas sem prejuízo da massa dos cachos, melhorando sua qualidade, em Porto Feliz-SP. O uso de CPPU isoladamente acarretou em redução do teor de sólidos solúveis das bagas.; 'Itália' grape (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the main varieties for fresh market in Brazil. Cluster quality is determinant for commercialization and the berry size is highly valued by consumers. An alternative for improving berry size is the use of growth regulators. The effect of increasing concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) and forchlorfenuron (CPPU) applied alone or in mixtures was evaluated during three production cycles. Growth regulators were applied 25 days after flowering in the "pea berry size" phenologic stage. Experimental design was completely randomized 4x4 factorial (zero...

Comparative Study of the Phenolic Composition of Seeds and Skins from Carme´n ere and Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) during Ripening

Laureano, Olga; Zamora Marín, Fernando; López Solís, Remigio; Peña Neira, Alvaro; Da Silva, Jorge M. Ricardo; Obreque Slier, Elías
Fonte: Universidade do Chile Publicador: Universidade do Chile
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.53%
The phenolic composition of skins and seeds from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Carme´n ere and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes during ripening was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and spectrophotometric analysis. As compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins, Carme´n ere grape skins presented higher contents of total anthocyanins, monomeric flavan-3-ols, and total flavonoids, a higher mean degree of polymerization, a higher percentage of galloylation, a higher average molecular weight of the flavanol fraction, and a higher color intensity. As compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grape seeds, Carme´n ere grape seeds presented a lower content of monomeric flavan-3-ols, a higher mean degree of polymerization, a higher percentage of galloylation, a higher average molecular weight of the flavanol fraction, a lower content of (þ)-catechin, and higher contents of (-)-epicatechin, epicatechin-3-O-gallate, gallic acid, and dimeric procyanidins esterified with gallic acid. Altogether, we conclude that Carme´n ere grapes present a differential composition and evolution of phenolic compounds when compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.; This study was partially supported by Grants Corfo-INNOVA TecnoVid-05CTE02- 04...

Phenolic profile of Sercial and Tinta Negra Vitis vinifera L. grape skins by HPLC–DAD–ESI-MSn: novel phenolic compounds in Vitis vinifera L. grape

Perestrelo, Rosa; Lu, Ying; Santos, Sónia A. O.; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Neto, Carlos P.; Câmara, José S.; Rocha, Sílvia M.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.51%
This study represents the first phytochemical research of phenolic components of Sercial and Tinta Negra Vitis vinifera L. The phenolic profiles of Sercial and Tinta Negra V. vinifera L. grape skins (white and red varieties, respectively) were established using high performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection–electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–DAD–ESI-MSn), at different ripening stages (véraison and maturity). A total of 40 phenolic compounds were identified, which included 3 hydroxybenzoic acids, 8 hydroxycinnamic acids, 4 flavanols, 5 flavanones, 8 flavonols, 4 stilbenes, and 8 anthocyanins. For the white variety, in both ripening stages, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were the main phenolic classes, representing about 80% of the phenolic composition. For red variety, at véraison, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were also the predominant classes (71%), but at maturity, anthocyanins represented 84% of the phenolic composition. As far as we know, 10 compounds were reported for the first time in V. vinifera L. grapes, namely protocatechuic acid-glucoside, p-hydroxybenzoyl glucoside, caftaric acid vanilloyl pentoside, p-coumaric acid-erythroside, naringenin hexose derivate, eriodictyol-glucoside...

Enriched ozone atmosphere enhances bioactive phenolics in seedless table grapes after prolonged shelf life

Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Artés Calero, Francisco; Aguayo, Encarnación; Tomás Barberán, Francisco
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Publicador: John Wiley & Sons
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 259768 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.41%
8 pages, 3 tables.; Autumn Seedless table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) were stored for up to 60 days at 0 °C under ten different gas treatments. An additional simulated retail display period of 7 days in air at 15 °C was also applied in all cases. These postharvest treatments were tested as an alternative to the usual industrial SO2 application and included modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), with and without natural fungicides (hexanal and hexenal), controlled atmosphere (CA) and intermittent and continuous applications of ozone (O3). The sensory quality was preserved with MAP of 13-16 kPa O2 + 8-11 kPa CO2, CA of 5 kPa O2 + 15 kPa CO2 and both O3 treatments. Although O3 did not completely inhibit fungal development, its application increased the total flavan-3-ol content at any sampling time. Continuous 0.1 µL L-1 O3 application also preserved the total amount of hydroxycinnamates, while all treatments assayed maintained the flavonol content sampled at harvest. Total phenolics increased after the retail period in O3-treated berries. MAP preserved the total polyphenol content, while a slight decrease was observed under the CA conditions used. Therefore the improved techniques tested for retaining the quality of Autumn Seedless table grapes during long-term storage seem to maintain or even enhance the antioxidant compound content. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry; The authors are grateful to CICYT-FEDER...

Solid phase microextraction as a reliable alternative to conventional extraction techniques to evaluate the pattern of hydrolytically released components in Vitis vinifera L. grapes

Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Câmara, José S.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
106.54%
In present research, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–qMS), was evaluated as a reliable and improved alternative to the commonly used liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) technique for the establishment of the pattern of hydrolytically released components of 7 Vitis vinifera L. grape varieties, commonly used to produce the world-famous Madeira wine. Since there is no data available on their glycosidic fractions, at a first step, two hydrolyse procedures, acid and enzymatic, were carried out using Boal grapes as matrix. Several parameters susceptible of influencing the hydrolytic process were studied. The best results, expressed as GC peak area, number of identified components and reproducibility, were obtained using ProZym M with b-glucosidase activity at 35 °C for 42 h. For the extraction of hydrolytically released components, HS-SPME technique was evaluated as a reliable and improved alternative to the conventional extraction technique, LLE (ethyl acetate). HS-SPME using DVB/CAR/PDMS as coating fiber displayed an extraction capacity two fold higher than LLE (ethyl acetate). The hydrolyzed fraction was mainly characterized by the occurrence of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols...

Optimisation of solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry based methodology to establish the global volatile signature in pulp and skin of Vitis vinifera L. grape varieties

Perestrelo, Rosa; Barros, António S.; Rocha, Sílvia M.; Câmara, José S.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 ENG
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106.47%
The volatiles (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) responsible for aroma are mainly present in skin of grape varieties. Thus, the present investigation is directed towards the optimisation of a solvent free methodology based on headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography–quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC–qMS) in order to establish the global volatile composition in pulp and skin of Bual and Bastardo Vitis vinifera L. varieties. A deep study on the extraction-influencing parameters was performed, and the best results, expressed as GC peak area, number of identified compounds and reproducibility, were obtained using 4 g of sample homogenised in 5 mL of ultra-pure Milli-Q water in a 20 mL glass vial with addition of 2 g of sodium chloride (NaCl). A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fibre was selected for extraction at 60 °C for 45 min under continuous stirring at 800 rpm. More than 100 VOCs and SVOCs, including 27 monoterpenoids, 27 sesquiterpenoids, 21 carbonyl compounds, 17 alcohols (from which 2 aromatics), 10 C13 norisoprenoids and 5 acids were identified. The results showed that, for both grape varieties, the levels and number of volatiles in skin were considerably higher than those observed in pulp. According to the data obtained by principal component analysis (PCA)...

Phenology and ripening of Vitis vinifera L. and Vitis labrusca L. varieties in the maritime climate of Samsun in Turkey's Black Sea Region

Köse,B.
Fonte: South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture Publicador: South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
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Heavy rainfall in Turkey's northern Black Sea Region in spring and autumn, combined with insufficient sunshine during the vegetation period, results in poor ripening of European grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars. Compared to other coastal provinces in the Central and Eastern Black Sea Region, Samsun receives relatively little rainfall. This study evaluated the adaptation of Vitis vinifera L. and Vitis labrusca L. grapes to Samsun by examining the phenology and ripening characteristics of these cultivars in 2010 and 2011 and calculating climatic indices using long-term data for Samsun in order to assess the potential for viticulture in the area. The following climatic characteristics were identified: annual sunshine duration, 1 836 hours; Branas Heliothermic Index (BHI), 3.0; Hydrothermic Index (HyI), 4 053.7°C mm; Winkler Index (WI growing degree days) 1 832/Region III "Warm"; and Huglin Index (HI) 1 978°C/HI-1 "Temperate". Phenological cycles (budburst to harvest) varied between 120 and 176 days, with Trakya ilkeren and Yalova incisi the most precocious varieties and Favli the latest variety in both years. Heat summation requirements ranged from 1 210 to 1 844 GDD, with Trakya ilkeren requiring the least and Narince the most heat summation. Total soluble solid (TSS) values ranged from 15.1 °Brix (Trakya ilkeren) to 21.4 °Brix (Labrusca). Although Favli was the last to ripen...