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Hidrofobização, caracterização e aplicação da vermiculita para remoção de óleo insolúvel em água

Lucas, Golbery Henrique
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química; Físico-Química; Química Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química; Físico-Química; Química
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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Among the various layered silicates, vermiculite has been used as one of the adsorbent material by presenting the ion exchange capacity which facilitates the removal of organic compounds which are potential pollutants in relation to the water surface. The importance of the modification of clay minerals by hydrophobization with carnauba wax establishes the increase in oil removal capacity in aqueous medium, it contributes to a better environment for life in ecosystems. The vermiculite when expanded decreases its hydrophobicity requiring the use of a hydrophobizing leaving - the organoclay. In this work were used in the process of modifying the particle sizes of vermiculite -18+16, -16 +20 and -20 +35 #. Samples of vermiculite hydrophobized with carnauba wax and clay mineral without hydrophobizing were characterized with physicochemical analyzes and analytical. Techniques were used: thermal analysis (thermogravimetry and derivative thermogravimetry), infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence rays - x adsorption tests. The TG / DTG was used to evaluate the thermal behavior of expanded vermiculite and carnauba wax and samples hidrofobizadas with percentages of 5, 10 and 15 % by weight of hydrophobizing. The results of FTIR confirmed increase of the characteristic signs of carnauba wax in samples hidrofobizadas as the greatest amount of hydrophobizing the clay mineral used in hydrophobization. Thermogravimetry and FTIR show based on the results that coating the surface of the vermiculite occur homogeneously. The data obtained by the technique of x-ray fluorescence with loss on ignition confirmed the results of thermogravimetric analysis in relation to the percentage of wax incorporated. The fluorescence indicates through information provided by the analysis shows that the material covered - is homogeneous. The mev inspection was used to texture and morphology of the clay mineral with and without carnauba wax. The scanning electron microscopy confirms the deposition of wax evenly over the surface of the mineral as indicated by the other techniques. To verify the adsorption capacity of the clay without hydrophobizing hydrophobized and used a fixed volume of water to 1 ½ liters in each experiment with 3 g to 50 g of oil sample. The results show that better extraction of oil for the material processed corresponds to 260 % relative to the weight of the sample coated and greater than 80 % of the oil drop in the system; Dentre os vários silicatos em camadas...