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A comparative analysis of the relative efficacy of vector-control strategies against dengue fever

Amaku, Marcos; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Raimundo, Silvia Martorano; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Massad, Eduardo
Fonte: Springer; Nova York Publicador: Springer; Nova York
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.03%
Dengue is considered one of the most important vector-borne infection, affecting almost half of the world population with 50 to 100 million cases every year. In this paper, we present one of the simplest models that can encapsulate all the important variables related to vector control of dengue fever. The model considers the human population, the adult mosquito population and the population of immature stages, which includes eggs, larvae and pupae. The model also considers the vertical transmission of dengue in the mosquitoes and the seasonal variation in the mosquito population. From this basic model describing the dynamics of dengue infection, we deduce thresholds for avoiding the introduction of the disease and for the elimination of the disease. In particular, we deduce a Basic Reproduction Number for dengue that includes parameters related to the immature stages of the mosquito. By neglecting seasonal variation, we calculate the equilibrium values of the model’s variables. We also present a sensitivity analysis of the impact of four vector-control strategies on the Basic Reproduction Number, on the Force of Infection and on the human prevalence of dengue. Each of the strategies was studied separately from the others. The analysis presented allows us to conclude that of the available vector control strategies...

O controlador complexo aplicado ao controle vetorial do motor de indução; The complex controller applied to the induction motor vector control

Alfeu Joãozinho Sguarezi Filho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/07/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
Este trabalho visa o estudo de métodos de projeto de controladores mediante o emprego da função de transferência complexa; o controle em baixas velocidades de um motor de indução trifásico orientado no fluxo do rotor, bem como no do estator, é o objetivo a ser alcançado. A formulação do modelo vetorial do motor de indução com emprego da função de transferência complexa e do controle vetorial são apresentados. Para validar a proposta, um controlador de ganho proporcional complexo é realizado. Resultados de simulação e de experimentos são obtidos; This work aims the study of tunning methods for controllers on vector control using the complex transfer function; low speed control by using the rotor or stator flux orientation on the induction motor is the objetctive. The complex transfer function formulation, its aplication on induction machine model and vector control are presented. To validate the proposal, a proportional complex gains is proposed. Simulation and experimentally results are presented

Estudo e implementação de inversor de tensão a três níveis com modulação em largura de pulsos por vetores espaciais aplicado ao controle vetorial de motor síncrono de imãs permanentes = : Study and implementation of three level voltage inverter with space vector modulation by pulse width modulation applied to vector control of permanent magnet synchronous motor; Study and implementation of three level voltage inverter with space vector modulation by pulse width modulation applied to vector control of permanent magnet synchronous motor

Marcos Fernando Espindola
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/07/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
Apresenta-se a implementação de um inversor trifásico de tensão a três níveis para ser utilizado no controle de velocidade de um motor síncrono trifásico a imãs permanentes usando o método de controle vetorial. Realizou-se o estudo, projeto e construção de um inversor de tensão a três níveis com neutro grampeado ou inversor NPC neutral point clamped. Utilizou-se modulação em largura de pulsos por vetores espaciais no controle vetorial de velocidade do motor. Foram realizadas simulações do sistema proposto usando os aplicativos computacionais Matlab/Simulink e PSIM. Realizou-se em seguida uma montagem experimental constituída de um motor síncrono a imãs permanentes de 0,75 kW acoplado a um freio eletromagnético que lhe serviu de carga mecânica. O sistema motor e carga foi acionado pelo inversor com modulação em largura de pulsos por vetores espaciais e os resultados obtidos do controle de velocidade realizado, incluindo reversão de velocidade e frenação do motor, são apresentados no trabalho. Comparou-se também o desempenho de um inversor a três níveis usando modulação em largura de pulsos por vetores espaciais com o desempenho de um inversor a dois níveis usando modulação em largura de pulsos por vetores espaciais na alimentação de uma carga resistiva. Resultados de simulação e resultados experimentais são apresentados. Neste trabalho realizou-se uma comparação qualitativa entre o uso do inversor a dois níveis e do inversor a três níveis que mostra em que situações é conveniente utilizar o inversor a três níveis.; It is presented the implementation of a three phase three level voltage inverter to be used in the speed control of a three phase permanent magnet synchronous motor using the vector control method. To achieve this goal...

Estratégias de controle direto de torque para motores de indução trifásicos usando controladores fuzzy tipo Takagi-Sugeno e controladores por modos deslizantes; Direct torque control strategies for three-phase induction motors with Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy controllers and sliding mode controllers

José Luis Azcue Puma
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/05/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.98%
Na presente tese de doutorado propõe estratégias de controle por orientação direta de campo (FOC direto) e de controle direto de torque (CDT) com emprego de controladores fuzzy do tipo Takagi-Sugeno (fuzzy T-S). Propõe-se também, uma estratégia de CDT baseado no controle do ¿angulo de carga com o emprego do controle por modos deslizantes (CDT-CMD). As estratégias de controle vetorial propostas são utilizadas para o controle de alto desempenho do motor de indução trifásico. O controlador fuzzy T-S proposto utiliza uma única base de regras para gerar as componentes de eixo direto e de quadratura do vetor espacial da tensão do estator. Isto simplifica a estrutura do controlador fuzzy T-S e em consequência diminui o custo computacional e seu tempo de processamento. Na estratégia de CDT com o controle por modos deslizantes o esforço de controle é sempre o máximo possível no sentido de reduzir os erros do torque e do fluxo. Assim, é possível obter uma resposta rápida no controle do fluxo e do torque. Os resultados de simulação e experimentais são apresentados para validarem as propostas desta tese de doutorado. Os controladores apresentaram um desempenho dinâmico satisfatório pois as referências de torque e de fluxo foram atendidas. Todos os resultados obtidos mostraram-se compatíveis com os resultados apresentados na literatura...

Sustainability of vector control strategies in the Gran Chaco Region: current challenges and possible approaches

Gürtler,Ricardo E
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
Sustainability has become a focal point of the international agenda. At the heart of its range of distribution in the Gran Chaco Region, the elimination of Triatoma infestans has failed, even in areas subject to intensive professional vector control efforts. Chagas disease control programs traditionally have been composed of two divorced entities: a vector control program in charge of routine field operations (bug detection and insecticide spraying) and a disease control program in charge of screening blood donors, diagnosis, etiologic treatment and providing medical care to chronic patients. The challenge of sustainable suppression of bug infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi transmission can be met through integrated disease management, in which vector control is combined with active case detection and treatment to increase impact, cost-effectiveness and public acceptance in resource-limited settings. Multi-stakeholder involvement may add sustainability and resilience to the surveillance system. Chagas vector control and disease management must remain a regional effort within the frame of sustainable development rather than being viewed exclusively as a matter of health pertinent to the health sector. Sustained and continuous coordination between governments...

Vector control intervention towards interruption of transmission of Chagas disease by Rhodnius prolixus, main vector in Guatemala

Hashimoto,Ken; Álvarez,Hugo; Nakagawa,Jun; Juarez,Jaime; Monroy,Carlota; Cordón-Rosales,Celia; Gil,Enrique
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
In Guatemala, the Ministry of Health (MoH) began a vector control project with Japanese cooperation in 2000 to reduce the risk of Chagas disease infection. Rhodnius prolixus is one of the principal vectors and is targeted for elimination. The control method consisted of extensive residual insecticide spraying campaigns, followed by community-based surveillance with selective respraying. Interventions in nine endemic departments identified 317 villages with R. prolixus of 4,417 villages surveyed. Two cycles of residual insecticide spraying covered over 98% of the houses in the identified villages. Fourteen villages reinfestated were all resprayed. Between 2000-2003 and 2008, the number of infested villages decreased from 317 to two and the house infestation rate reduced from 0.86% to 0.0036%. Seroprevalence rates in 2004-2005, when compared with an earlier study in 1998, showed a significant decline from 5.3% to 1.3% among schoolchildren in endemic areas. The total operational cost was US$ 921,815, where the cost ratio between preparatory, attack and surveillance phases was approximately 2:12:1. In 2008, Guatemala was certified for interruption of Chagas disease transmission by R. prolixus. What facilitated the process was existing knowledge in vector control and notable commitment by the MoH...

Intrusive versus domiciliated triatomines and the challenge of adapting vector control practices against Chagas disease

Waleckx,Etienne; Gourbière,Sébastien; Dumonteil,Eric
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
Chagas disease prevention remains mostly based on triatomine vector control to reduce or eliminate house infestation with these bugs. The level of adaptation of triatomines to human housing is a key part of vector competence and needs to be precisely evaluated to allow for the design of effective vector control strategies. In this review, we examine how the domiciliation/intrusion level of different triatomine species/populations has been defined and measured and discuss how these concepts may be improved for a better understanding of their ecology and evolution, as well as for the design of more effective control strategies against a large variety of triatomine species. We suggest that a major limitation of current criteria for classifying triatomines into sylvatic, intrusive, domiciliary and domestic species is that these are essentially qualitative and do not rely on quantitative variables measuring population sustainability and fitness in their different habitats. However, such assessments may be derived from further analysis and modelling of field data. Such approaches can shed new light on the domiciliation process of triatomines and may represent a key tool for decision-making and the design of vector control interventions.

Do malaria vector control measures impact disease-related behaviour and knowledge? Evidence from a large-scale larviciding intervention in Tanzania

Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Castro, Marcia C
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.91%
Background: Recent efforts of accelerated malaria control towards the long-term goal of elimination had significant impacts in reducing malaria transmission. While these efforts need to be sustained over time, a scenario of low transmission could bring about changes in individual disease risk perception, hindering adherence to protective measures, and affecting disease-related knowledge. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential impact of a successful malaria vector control intervention on bed net usage and malaria-related knowledge. Methods: Dar es Salaam’s Urban Malaria Control Program was launched in 2004 with the aim of developing a sustainable larviciding intervention. Larviciding was scaled-up using a stepped-wedge design. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data were collected using a randomized cluster sampling design (2004–2008). Prevalence ratios (PR) for the effect of the larviciding intervention on bed net usage (N = 64,537) and household heads’ knowledge of malaria symptoms and transmission (N = 11,254) were obtained from random effects regression models. Results: The probability that individuals targeted by larviciding had used a bed net was reduced by 5% as compared to those in non-intervention areas (PR = 0.95; 95% credible intervals (CrI): 0.94-0.97) and the magnitude of this effect increased with time. Larviciding also led to a decline in household heads’ knowledge of malaria symptoms (PR = 0.88; 95% CrI: 0.83-0.92) but no evidence of effect on knowledge of malaria transmission was found. Conclusion: Successful control interventions could bring about further challenges to sustaining gains in reducing malaria transmission if not accompanied by strategies to avoid changes in individual knowledge and behaviour. This study points to two major research gaps. First...

Environmental Management for Malaria Control in the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) Region

Lindsay, Steve; Kirby, Matthew; Baris, Enis; Bos, Robert
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
Malaria attacks millions in the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) region, and greatly impedes economic development, particularly affecting the rural poor. In the early 1900s malaria was controlled in many parts of the region using environmental management (EM) for vector control. EM is where the environment is modified or manipulated to reduce malaria transmission by attacking local vector mosquitoes and requires an understanding of the ecology of these species. Today malaria control is based on drugs and insecticides, but their sustainability has been undermined by the development of resistance and growing concerns about the long-term environmental impact of some insecticides. EM would strengthen malaria control activities and be cost-effective. To be successful EM requires co-ordination and collaboration between different public sectors. This document presents the options that exist to minimize malaria risks associated with infrastructure development projects. It also aims to raise awareness of the wide array of opportunities that exist to design...

Multiple insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) populations compromises the effectiveness of dengue vector control in French Guiana

Dusfour,Isabelle; Thalmensy,Véronique; Gaborit,Pascal; Issaly,Jean; Carinci,Romuald; Girod,Romain
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.88%
In French Guiana, pyrethroids and organophosphates have been used for many years against Aedes aegypti. We aimed to establish both the resistance level of Ae. aegypti and the ultra low volume spray efficacy to provide mosquito control services with practical information to implement vector control and resistance management. Resistance to deltamethrin and fenitrothion was observed. In addition, the profound loss of efficacy of AquaK'othrine® and the moderate loss of efficacy of Paluthion® 500 were recorded. Fenitrothion remained the most effective candidate for spatial application in French Guiana until its removal in December 2010. Further investigation of the mechanism of resistance to deltamethrin demonstrated the involvement of mixed-function oxidases and, to a lesser extent, of carboxylesterases. However, these observations alone cannot explain the level of insecticide resistance we observed during tube and cage tests.

Spatial evaluation of larvae of Culicidae (Diptera) from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control

Piovezan,Rafael; Azevedo,Thiago Salomão de; Von Zuben,Cláudio José
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.88%
Spatial evaluation of Culicidae (Diptera) larvae from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control. This study investigates the spatial distribution of urban Culicidae and informs entomological monitoring of species that use artificial containers as larval habitats. Collections of mosquito larvae were conducted in the São Paulo State municipality of Santa Bárbara d' Oeste between 2004 and 2006 during house-to-house visits. A total of 1,891 samples and nine different species were sampled. Species distribution was assessed using the kriging statistical method by extrapolating municipal administrative divisions. The sampling method followed the norms of the municipal health services of the Ministry of Health and can thus be adopted by public health authorities in disease control and delimitation of risk areas. Moreover, this type of survey and analysis can be employed for entomological surveillance of urban vectors that use artificial containers as larval habitat.

Sylvatic triatominae: a new challenge in vector control transmission

Guhl,Felipe; Pinto,Nestor; Aguilera,Germán
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
Over the last 10 years, Uruguay, Chile and Brazil have been certified as being free from disease transmission by Triatoma infestans, the main domiciliated vector for Chagas disease in the Southern Cone countries. This demonstrates that programmes addressing the vector for the disease's transmission are effective. These programmes have resulted in a dramatic decrease in the incidence of Chagas disease in Latin America. Guatemala was certified a few months ago as being free from disease transmission by Rhodnius prolixus, the main domiciliated vector for Chagas disease in Central American countries. However, the main concern for different countries' current control programmes is the continuity and sustainability of future vector control actions. The prevalence and incidence figures for individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico and Andean and Central American countries highlights the need for broadened strategies in the struggle against the disease and its vectors. A number of triatomine insects are parasite vectors, each with a different life history. Therefore, it is important that new vector control strategies be proposed, keeping in mind that some species are found in peridomiciliary areas and wild ecotopes. The only viable control strategy is to reduce human interactions with vector insects so that the re-infestation and re-colonisation of human habitats will not take place.

Bancroftian filariasis in Belém, Pará State: possibilities for eradication by introducing modern methods of control for Culex quinquefasciatus

Fraiha Neto,Habib
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.98%
For the past four decades, Belém has been considered to be the largest focus of Bancroftian filariasis in the Amazon region and one of the most important ones in Brazil. In 1952, practically one-fifth of the population was infected and it was estimated that there were 2,500 cases of Bancroftian elephantiasis. The major factor considered to be responsible for this situation was the high density of the main vector species: it was calculated that in April 1943 there was a mean of 67 infected mosquitoes per house. A control campaign was initiated in 1952, involving treatment of patients with diethylcarbamazine, as well as control of the vector. In 1956, vector control was discontinued because of a lack of efficient insecticides and financial limitations. Even so, the campaign was very successful and the incidence was reduced from 19.9% to 0.03%. Total eradication could be achieved if new methods of vector control were introduced, such as the use of Reiter's expanded polystyrene balls in cesspits and pit latrines, biological control using pathogenic bacteria, and improvement of basic sanitation.

Intensified surveillance and insecticide-based control of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in the Argentinean Chaco.

Gurevitz, Juan Manuel; Gaspe, Maria Sol; Enriquez, Gustavo Fabián; Provecho, Yael Mariana; Kitron, Uriel; Gurtler, Ricardo Esteban
Fonte: Public Library Science Publicador: Public Library Science
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.99%
Background: The elimination of Triatoma infestans, the main Chagas disease vector in the Gran Chaco region, remains elusive. We implemented an intensified control strategy based on full-coverage pyrethroid spraying, followed by frequent vector surveillance and immediate selective insecticide treatment of detected foci in a well-defined rural area in northeastern Argentina with moderate pyrethroid resistance. We assessed long-term impacts, and identified factors and procedures affecting spray effectiveness. Methods and Findings: After initial control interventions, timed-manual searches were performed by skilled personnel in 4,053 sites of 353?411 houses inspected every 4?7 months over a 35-month period. Residual insecticide spraying was less effective than expected throughout the three-year period, mainly because of the occurrence of moderate pyrethroid resistance and the limited effectiveness of selective treatment of infested sites only. After initial interventions, peridomestic infestation prevalence always exceeded domestic infestation, and timed-manual searches consistently outperformed householders? bug detection, except in domiciles. Most of the infestations occurred in houses infested at baseline, and were restricted to four main ecotopes. Houses with an early persistent infestation were spatially aggregated up to a distance of 2.5 km. An Akaike-based multi-model inference approach showed that new site-level infestations increased substantially with the local availability of appropriate refugia for triatomine bugs...

A Pilot Expert Elicitation to Assess the Risks of Malaria Vector Control Strategies in East Africa

Beerbohm, Elissa
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' Project Formato: 285420 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2007 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
Perhaps no other issue has divided the environmental and health communities as much as DDT. The re-introduction of DDT in several East African countries, as well as the demand for evidence-based policy, has led researchers at Duke University to develop the Malaria Decision Analysis Support Tool (MDAST). One facet of the MDAST is to assess the economic, environmental, and human health risks associated with alternative strategies for managing malaria. In this pilot survey and elicitation, risks are assessed for the two most commonly used vector control strategies – indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bednets – in Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya. The elicitation encompasses a broad range of hazard pathways and risks, including harm to nontarget species, agricultural trade restrictions, and vector resistance, some of which are frequently neglected in the policy debate. Preliminary results from the survey indicate that decision-makers are highly concerned with the emergence of vector resistance from ITNs, IRS with DDT, and IRS with ICON. High levels of concern were present for all additional risks associated with DDT, including human health impacts, environmental impacts, and trade restrictions. Results from the elicitation revealed that experts assessing harm to nontarget species and the potential for trade restrictions attributed the highest level of risk to mismanagement of DDT and ICON. Results from the elicitation for vector resistance were even more alarming; the expert assessed high risks of the potential for vector resistance to occur from all pathways associated with permethrin-treated bednets and IRS with DDT. Again...

The Economics of Malaria Vector Control

Brown, Zachary Steven
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%

In recent years, government aid agencies and international organizations have increased their financial commitments to controlling and eliminating malaria from the planet. This renewed emphasis on elimination is reminiscent of a previous worldwide campaign to eradicate malaria in the 1960s, a campaign which ultimately failed. To avoid a repeat of the past, mechanisms must be developed to sustain effective malaria control programs.

A number of sociobehavioral, economic, and biophysical challenges exist for sustainable malaria control, particularly in high-burden areas such as sub-Saharan Africa. Sociobehavioral challenges include maintaining high long-term levels of support for and participation in malaria control programs, at all levels of society. Reasons for the failure of the previous eradication campaign included a decline in donor, governmental, community, and household-level support for control programs, as malaria prevalence ebbed due in part to early successes of these programs.

Biophysical challenges for the sustainability of national malaria control programs (NMCPs) encompass evolutionary challenges in controlling the protozoan parasite and the mosquito vector, as well as volatile transmission dynamics which can lead to epidemics. Evolutionary challenges are particularly daunting due to the rapid generational turnover of both the parasites and the vectors: The reliance on a handful of insecticides and antimalarial drugs in NMCPs has placed significant selection pressures on vectors and parasites respectively...

An Improved MRAS Based Sensorless Vector Control Method for Wind Power Generator

Dumnic,B.; Katic,V.; Vasic,V.; Milicevic,D.; Delimar,M.
Fonte: UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico Publicador: UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.9%
This paper describes an improved sensorless vector control strategy for a squirrel cage induction generator used in variable speed wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The main goal is to design a robust control algorithm immune to generator parameter variations. In order to estimate the rotational speed of the induction generator, a model reference adaptive system (MRAS observer) is used. It is shown that a generator parameter mismatch has a great influence on the rotor speed estimation. In order to estimate the speed accurately, the generator stator resistance must be identified at the same time to correct the mismatched resistance value used in the observer. The proposed rotor speed estimator with parallel stator resistance identification is first verified by computer simulation. Finally, the experiment is conducted in order to verify the obtained simulation results. It is proved that this control scheme can enhance the efficiency of a variable speed WECS.

A study exploring the knowledge, attitudes and practices of young people regarding dengue fever and the extent of community involvement in vector control of the disease in Trinidad and Tobago

Flynn,A
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
OBJECTIVE: This study intends to explore young people s knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding dengue fever in Trinidad and Tobago. METHODS: Interviews and focus groups were carried out with young people studying at the University of Trinidad and Tobago. Thematic analysis was then conducted on these scripts and recommendations for improvement were made. RESULTS: All participants had some knowledge about dengue fever; however, the extent of this knowledge varied greatly. Participants knew most about the mode of spread and symptoms. All participants did something at home as a means of vector control of the disease; ensuring no stagnant water was present in containers in the yard was the most popular method of vector control. All participants were aware that the government sprayed the neighbourhoods against mosquitoes; however, the majority thought they did not do this often enough. CONCLUSION: Following the results of this study, three recommendations were made: the government should spray on a more regular basis, particularly just before the rainy season; a pilot study should take place investigating whether a fining scheme would improve vector control and dengue fever health education should be improved.

Exploiting the potential of vector control for disease prevention

Townson,H; Nathan,MB; Zaim,M; Guillet,P; Manga,L; Bos,R; Kindhauser,M
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
Although vector control has proven highly effective in preventing disease transmission, it is not being used to its full potential, thereby depriving disadvantaged populations of the benefits of well tried and tested methods. Following the discovery of synthetic residual insecticides in the 1940s, large-scale programmes succeeded in bringing many of the important vector-borne diseases under control. By the late 1960s, most vector-borne diseases - with the exception of malaria in Africa - were no longer considered to be of primary public health importance. The result was that control programmes lapsed, resources dwindled, and specialists in vector control disappeared from public health units. Within two decades, many important vector-borne diseases had re-emerged or spread to new areas. The time has come to restore vector control to its key role in the prevention of disease transmission, albeit with an increased emphasis on multiple measures, whether pesticide-based or involving environmental modification, and with a strengthened managerial and operational capacity. Integrated vector management provides a sound conceptual framework for deployment of cost-effective and sustainable methods of vector control. This approach allows for full consideration of the complex determinants of disease transmission...

Bancroftian filariasis in Belém, Pará State: possibilities for eradication by introducing modern methods of control for Culex quinquefasciatus

Fraiha Neto,Habib
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1993 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.98%
For the past four decades, Belém has been considered to be the largest focus of Bancroftian filariasis in the Amazon region and one of the most important ones in Brazil. In 1952, practically one-fifth of the population was infected and it was estimated that there were 2,500 cases of Bancroftian elephantiasis. The major factor considered to be responsible for this situation was the high density of the main vector species: it was calculated that in April 1943 there was a mean of 67 infected mosquitoes per house. A control campaign was initiated in 1952, involving treatment of patients with diethylcarbamazine, as well as control of the vector. In 1956, vector control was discontinued because of a lack of efficient insecticides and financial limitations. Even so, the campaign was very successful and the incidence was reduced from 19.9% to 0.03%. Total eradication could be achieved if new methods of vector control were introduced, such as the use of Reiter's expanded polystyrene balls in cesspits and pit latrines, biological control using pathogenic bacteria, and improvement of basic sanitation.