Página 1 dos resultados de 2016 itens digitais encontrados em 0.094 segundos

Prospective Characterization of Full-Length Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Quasispecies during Induction and Combination Antiviral Therapy

Nousbaum, J.-B.; Polyak, S. J.; Ray, S. C.; Sullivan, D. G.; Larson, A. M.; Carithers, R. L.; Gretch, D. R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.75%
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein has been controversially implicated in the inherent resistance of HCV to interferon (IFN) antiviral therapy in clinical studies. In this study, the relationship between NS5A mutations and selection pressures before and during antiviral therapy and virologic response to therapy were investigated. Full-length NS5A clones were sequenced from 20 HCV genotype 1-infected patients in a prospective, randomized clinical trial of IFN induction (daily) therapy and IFN plus ribavirin combination therapy. Pretreatment NS5A nucleotide and amino acid phylogenies did not correlate with clinical IFN responses and domains involved in NS5A functions in vitro were all well conserved before and during treatment. A consensus IFN sensitivity-determining region (ISDR237–276) sequence associated with IFN resistance was not found, although the presence of Ala245 within the ISDR was associated with nonresponse to treatment in genotype 1a-infected patients (P < 0.01). There were more mutations in the 26 amino acids downstream of the ISDR required for PKR binding in pretreatment isolates from responders versus nonresponders in both HCV-1a- and HCV-1b-infected patients (P < 0.05). In HCV-1a patients...

Vaccination with a Shigella DNA Vaccine Vector Induces Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Cells and Antiviral Protective Immunity

Shata, Mohamed T.; Hone, David M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.82%
A prototype Shigella human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 DNA vaccine vector was constructed and evaluated for immunogenicity in a murine model. For comparative purposes, mice were also vaccinated with a vaccinia virus-env (vaccinia-env) vector or the gp120 DNA vaccine alone. Enumeration of the CD8+-T-cell responses to gp120 after vaccination using a gamma interferon enzyme-linked spot assay revealed that a single intranasal dose of the Shigella HIV-1 gp120 DNA vaccine vector elicited a CD8+ T-cell response to gp120, the magnitude of which was comparable to the sizes of the analogous responses to gp120 that developed in mice vaccinated intraperitoneally with the vaccinia-env vector or intramuscularly with the gp120 DNA vaccine. In addition, a single dose of the Shigella gp120 DNA vaccine vector afforded significant protection against a vaccinia-env challenge. Moreover, the number of vaccinia-env PFU recovered in mice vaccinated intranasally with the Shigella vector was about fivefold less than the number recovered from mice vaccinated intramuscularly with the gp120 DNA vaccine. Since the Shigella vector did not express detectable levels of gp120, this report confirms that Shigella vectors are capable of delivering passenger DNA vaccines to host cells and inducing robust CD8+ T-cell responses to antigens expressed by the DNA vaccines. Furthermore...

A Potent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Inhibitor, UIC-94003 (TMC-126), and Selection of a Novel (A28S) Mutation in the Protease Active Site

Yoshimura, Kazuhisa; Kato, Ryohei; Kavlick, Mark F.; Nguyen, Aline; Maroun, Victor; Maeda, Kenji; Hussain, Khaja A.; Ghosh, Arun K.; Gulnik, Sergei V.; Erickson, John W.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.75%
We identified UIC-94003, a nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor (PI), containing 3(R),3a(S),6a(R)-bis-tetrahydrofuranyl urethane (bis-THF) and a sulfonamide isostere, which is extremely potent against a wide spectrum of HIV (50% inhibitory concentration, 0.0003 to 0.0005 μM). UIC-94003 was also potent against multi-PI-resistant HIV-1 strains isolated from patients who had no response to any existing antiviral regimens after having received a variety of antiviral agents (50% inhibitory concentration, 0.0005 to 0.0055 μM). Upon selection of HIV-1 in the presence of UIC-94003, mutants carrying a novel active-site mutation, A28S, in the presence of L10F, M46I, I50V, A71V, and N88D appeared. Modeling analysis revealed that the close contact of UIC-94003 with the main chains of the protease active-site amino acids (Asp29 and Asp30) differed from that of other PIs and may be important for its potency and wide-spectrum activity against a variety of drug-resistant HIV-1 variants. Thus, introduction of inhibitor interactions with the main chains of key amino acids and seeking a unique inhibitor-enzyme contact profile should provide a framework for developing novel PIs for treating patients harboring multi-PI-resistant HIV-1.

Neonates Mount Robust and Protective Adult-Like CD8+-T-Cell Responses to DNA Vaccines†

Zhang, Jie; Silvestri, Nicole; Whitton, J. Lindsay; Hassett, Daniel E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.87%
Neonates are thought to mount less vigorous adaptive immune responses than adults to antigens and infectious agents. This concept has led to a delay in the administration of many currently available vaccines until late infancy or early childhood. It has recently been shown that vaccines composed of plasmid DNA can induce both humoral and cell-mediated antimicrobial immunity when administered within hours of birth. In most of these studies, immune responses were measured weeks or months after the initial vaccination, and it is therefore questionable whether the observed responses were actually the result of priming of splenocytes within the neonatal period. Here we show that DNA vaccination at birth results in the rapid induction of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells within neonatal life. Analyses of T-cell effector functions critical for the resolution of many viral infections revealed that neonatal and adult CD8+ T cells produce similar arrays of cytokines. Furthermore, the avidities of neonatal and adult CD8+ T cells for peptide and the rapidity with which they upregulate cytokine production after recall encounters with antigen are similar. Protective immunity against the arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, which is mediated by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells...

Identification and Characterization of Avian Retroviruses in Chicken Embryo-Derived Yellow Fever Vaccines: Investigation of Transmission to Vaccine Recipients

Hussain, Althaf I.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Heneine, Walid
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.78%
All currently licensed yellow fever (YF) vaccines are propagated in chicken embryos. Recent studies of chick cell-derived measles and mumps vaccines show evidence of two types of retrovirus particles, the endogenous avian retrovirus (EAV) and the endogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV-E), which originate from the chicken embryonic fibroblast substrates. In this study, we investigated substrate-derived avian retrovirus contamination in YF vaccines currently produced by three manufacturers (YF-vax [Connaught Laboratories], Stamaril [Aventis], and YF-FIOCRUZ [FIOCRUZ-Bio-Manguinhos]). Testing for reverse transcriptase (RT) activity was not possible because of assay inhibition. However, Western blot analysis of virus pellets with anti-ALV RT antiserum detected three distinct RT proteins in all vaccines, indicating that more than one source is responsible for the RTs present in the vaccines. PCR analysis of both chicken substrate DNA and particle-associated RNA from the YF vaccines showed no evidence of the long terminal repeat sequences of exogenous ALV subgroups A to D in any of the vaccines. In contrast, both ALV-E and EAV particle-associated RNA were detected at equivalent titers in each vaccine by RT-PCR. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed 61...

Amino Acid Changes within Conserved Region III of the Herpes Simplex Virus and Human Cytomegalovirus DNA Polymerases Confer Resistance to 4-Oxo-Dihydroquinolines, a Novel Class of Herpesvirus Antiviral Agents

Thomsen, Darrell R.; Oien, Nancee L.; Hopkins, Todd A.; Knechtel, Mary L.; Brideau, Roger J.; Wathen, Michael W.; Homa, Fred L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.78%
The 4-oxo-dihydroquinolines (PNU-182171 and PNU-183792) are nonnucleoside inhibitors of herpesvirus polymerases (R. J. Brideau et al., Antiviral Res. 54:19-28, 2002; N. L. Oien et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:724-730, 2002). In cell culture these compounds inhibit herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) replication. HSV-1 and HSV-2 mutants resistant to these drugs were isolated and the resistance mutation was mapped to the DNA polymerase gene. Drug resistance correlated with a point mutation in conserved domain III that resulted in a V823A change in the HSV-1 or the equivalent amino acid in the HSV-2 DNA polymerase. Resistance of HCMV was also found to correlate with amino acid changes in conserved domain III (V823A+V824L). V823 is conserved in the DNA polymerases of six (HSV-1, HSV-2, HCMV, VZV, Epstein-Barr virus, and HHV-8) of the eight human herpesviruses; the HHV-6 and HHV-7 polymerases contain an alanine at this amino acid. In vitro polymerase assays demonstrated that HSV-1, HSV-2, HCMV, VZV, and HHV-8 polymerases were inhibited by PNU-183792, whereas the HHV-6 polymerase was not. Changing this amino acid from valine to alanine in the HSV-1...

CpG DNA Induces Protective Antiviral Immune Responses in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.)

Jørgensen, Jorunn B.; Johansen, Lill-Heidi; Steiro, Kari; Johansen, Audny
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.75%
Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides within specific sequence contexts (CpG motifs) are detected, like bacterial or viral DNA, as a danger signal by the vertebrate immune system. CpG ODN show promise as vaccine adjuvants and immunoprotective agents in animal models. Here we report that pretreatment with CpG ODN in animals induces nonspecific protection against viral infection. A panel of different synthetic CpG ODN was tested for the in vitro effects in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) leukocytes. The ODN were tested for their capacity to stimulate proliferation of peripheral blood leukocytes and to induce production of interferon-like factors in head kidney leukocytes. These studies revealed that the sequence and number of the CpG motifs as well as the lengths of the ODN contribute to their stimulatory activity. ODN with the 6-mer CpG motif (5′-GTCGTT-3′) showed the highest stimulatory activity and were shown to induce protection against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus when injected in Atlantic salmon. Expression of the Mx transcript, as an indicator of alpha/beta interferon induction, was induced in the CpG-injected fish. These results suggest that CpG DNA in fish induces early, nonspecific antiviral protection.

Generation of Synthetic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Pseudoparticles: Implications for Assembly and Vaccine Production

Huang, Yue; Yang, Zhi-yong; Kong, Wing-pui; Nabel, Gary J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.73%
The recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) contains four structural genes, two replicase-transcriptase open reading frames, and more than five potential genes of unknown function. Despite this relative simplicity, the molecular regulation of SARS-CoV replication and assembly is not understood. Here, we report that two viral genes, encoding the SARS-CoV membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins, are necessary and sufficient for formation of virus-like particles. Expression vectors encoding these two proteins were synthesized by using preferred human codons. When M and N expression plasmids were cotransfected into human 293 renal epithelial cells, pseudoparticles formed readily. The addition of a third gene, encoding the spike (S) glycoprotein, facilitated budding of particles that contained a corona-like halo resembling SARS-CoV when examined by transmission electron microscopy, with a buoyant density characteristic of coronaviruses. Specific biochemical interactions of these proteins were also shown in vitro. The S, M, and N proteins of the SARS-CoV are, therefore, necessary and sufficient for pseudovirus assembly. These findings advance the understanding of the morphogenesis of SARS-CoV and enable the generation of safe...

Humoral and Cellular Immune Response to RNA Immunization with Flavivirus Replicons Derived from Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus

Aberle, Judith H.; Aberle, Stephan W.; Kofler, Regina M.; Mandl, Christian W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.83%
A new vaccination principle against flaviviruses, based on a tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) self-replicating noninfectious RNA vaccine that produces subviral particles, has recently been introduced (R. M. Kofler, J. H. Aberle, S. W. Aberle, S. L. Allison, F. X. Heinz, and C. W. Mandl, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 7:1951-1956, 2004). In this study, we evaluated the potential of the self-replicating RNA vaccine in mice in comparison to those of live, attenuated vaccines and a formalin-inactivated whole-virus vaccine (ImmunInject). For this purpose, mice were immunized using gene gun-mediated application of the RNA vaccine and tested for CD8+ T-cell responses, long-term duration, neutralizing capacity, and isotype profile of specific antibodies and protection against lethal virus challenge. We demonstrate that the self-replicating RNA vaccine induced a broad-based, humoral and cellular (Th1 and CD8+ T-cell response) immune response comparable to that induced by live vaccines and that it protected mice from challenge. Even a single immunization with 1 μg of the replicon induced a long-lasting antibody response, characterized by high neutralizing antibody titers, which were sustained for at least 1 year. Nevertheless, it was possible to boost this response further by a second injection with the RNA vaccine...

Inhibition of Influenza Virus Infection by a Novel Antiviral Peptide That Targets Viral Attachment to Cells▿

Jones, Jeremy C.; Turpin, Elizabeth A.; Bultmann, Hermann; Brandt, Curtis R.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.8%
Influenza A viruses continue to cause widespread morbidity and mortality. There is an added concern that the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A viruses, currently found throughout many parts of the world, represent a serious public health threat and may result in a pandemic. Intervention strategies to halt an influenza epidemic or pandemic are a high priority, with an emphasis on vaccines and antiviral drugs. In these studies, we demonstrate that a 20-amino-acid peptide (EB, for entry blocker) derived from the signal sequence of fibroblast growth factor 4 exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity against influenza viruses including the H5N1 subtype in vitro. The EB peptide was protective in vivo, even when administered postinfection. Mechanistically, the EB peptide inhibits the attachment to the cellular receptor, preventing infection. Further studies demonstrated that the EB peptide specifically binds to the viral hemagglutinin protein. This novel peptide has potential value as a reagent to study virus attachment and as a future therapeutic.

Monitoring the Antiviral Effect of Alpha Interferon on Individual Cells▿

Kim, Chon Saeng; Jung, Jong Ha; Wakita, Takaji; Yoon, Seung Kew; Jang, Sung Key
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.75%
An infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) cDNA clone (JFH1) was generated recently. However, quantitative analysis of HCV infection and observation of infected cells have proved to be difficult because the yield of HCV in cell cultures is fairly low. We generated infectious HCV clones containing the convenient reporters green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Renilla luciferase in the NS5a-coding sequence. The new viruses responded to antiviral agents in a dose-dependent manner. Responses of individual cells containing HCV to alpha interferon (IFN-α) were monitored using GFP-tagged HCV and time-lapse confocal microscopy. Marked variations in the response to IFN-α were observed among HCV-containing cells.

Evaluation of Vaccines for H5N1 Influenza Virus in Ferrets Reveals the Potential for Protective Single-Shot Immunization▿

Middleton, Deborah; Rockman, Steven; Pearse, Martin; Barr, Ian; Lowther, Sue; Klippel, Jessica; Ryan, David; Brown, Lorena
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.77%
As part of influenza pandemic preparedness, policy decisions need to be made about how best to utilize vaccines once they are manufactured. Since H5N1 avian influenza virus has the potential to initiate the next human pandemic, isolates of this subtype have been used for the production and testing of prepandemic vaccines. Clinical trials of such vaccines indicate that two injections of preparations containing adjuvant will be required to induce protective immunity. However, this is a working assumption based on classical serological measures only. Examined here are the dose of viral hemagglutinin (HA) and the number of inoculations required for two different H5N1 vaccines to achieve protection in ferrets after lethal H5N1 challenge. Ferrets inoculated twice with 30 μg of A/Vietnam/1194/2004 HA vaccine with AlPO4, or with doses as low as 3.8 μg of HA with Iscomatrix (ISCOMATRIX, referred to as Iscomatrix herein, is a registered trademark of CSL Limited) adjuvant, were completely protected against death and disease after H5N1 challenge, and the protection lasted at least 15 months. Cross-clade protection was also observed with both vaccines. Significantly, complete protection against death could be achieved with only a single inoculation of H5N1 vaccine containing as little as 15 μg of HA with AlPO4 or 3.8 μg of HA with Iscomatrix adjuvant. Ferrets vaccinated with the single-injection Iscomatrix vaccines showed fewer clinical manifestations of infection than those given AlPO4 vaccines and remained highly active. Our data provide the first indication that in the event of a future influenza pandemic...

Antiviral Stilbene 1,2-Diamines Prevent Initiation of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication at the Outset of Infection▿

Gastaminza, Pablo; Pitram, Suresh M.; Dreux, Marlene; Krasnova, Larissa B.; Whitten-Bauer, Christina; Dong, Jiajia; Chung, Josan; Fokin, Valery V.; Sharpless, K. Barry; Chisari, Francis V.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.76%
The recent development of a cell culture model of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection based on the JFH-1 molecular clone has enabled discovery of new antiviral agents. Using a cell-based colorimetric screening assay to interrogate a 1,200-compound chemical library for anti-HCV activity, we identified a family of 1,2-diamines derived from trans-stilbene oxide that prevent HCV infection at nontoxic, low micromolar concentrations in cell culture. Structure-activity relationship analysis of ∼300 derivatives synthesized using click chemistry yielded compounds with greatly enhanced low nanomolar potency and a >1,000:1 therapeutic ratio. Using surrogate models of HCV infection, we showed that the compounds selectively block the initiation of replication of incoming HCV RNA but have no impact on viral entry, primary translation, or ongoing HCV RNA replication, nor do they suppress persistent HCV infection. Selection of an escape variant revealed that NS5A is directly or indirectly targeted by this compound. In summary, we have identified a family of HCV inhibitors that target a critical step in the establishment of HCV infection in which NS5A translated de novo from an incoming genomic HCV RNA template is required to initiate the replication of this important human pathogen.

Enhancement of Antiviral Activity of Human Alpha-Defensin 5 against Herpes Simplex Virus 2 by Arginine Mutagenesis at Adaptive Evolution Sites

Wang, Aiping; Chen, Fang; Wang, Yingjie; Shen, Mingqiang; Xu, Yang; Hu, Jian; Wang, Song; Geng, Fang; Wang, Cheng; Ran, Xinze; Su, Yongping; Cheng, Tianmin; Wang, Junping
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.84%
Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection is still one of the common causes of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The prevalence of HSV strains resistant to traditional nucleoside antiviral agents has led to the development of novel antiviral drugs. Human alpha-defensin 5 (HD5), a kind of endogenous antimicrobial peptide expressed in the epithelia of the small intestine and urogenital tract, displays natural antiviral activity. Based on arginine-rich features and adaptive evolution characteristics of vertebrate defensins, we conducted a screen for HD5 derivatives with enhanced anti-HSV-2 activity by a single arginine substitution at the adaptive evolution sites. Cell protection assay and temporal antiviral studies showed that HD5 and its mutants displayed affirmatory but differential anti-HSV-2 effects in vitro by inhibiting viral adhesion and entry. Inspiringly, the E21R-HD5 mutant had significantly higher antiviral activity than natural HD5, which is possibly attributed to the stronger binding affinity of the E21R-HD5 mutant with HSV-2 capsid protein gD, indicating that E21R mutation can increase the anti-HSV-2 potency of HD5. In a mouse model of lethal HSV-2 infection, prophylactic and/or therapeutic treatment with E21R-HD5 via intravaginal instillation remarkably alleviated the symptoms and delayed disease progress and resulted in about a 1.5-fold-higher survival rate than in the HD5 group. Furthermore...

Thiazolides, a New Class of Antiviral Agents Effective against Rotavirus Infection, Target Viral Morphogenesis, Inhibiting Viroplasm Formation

La Frazia, Simone; Ciucci, Alessandra; Arnoldi, Francesca; Coira, Maurizio; Gianferretti, Patrizia; Angelini, Mara; Belardo, Giuseppe; Burrone, Oscar R.; Rossignol, Jean-Francois; Santoro, M. Gabriella
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.78%
Rotaviruses, nonenveloped viruses presenting a distinctive triple-layered particle architecture enclosing a segmented double-stranded RNA genome, exhibit a unique morphogenetic pathway requiring the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies called viroplasms in a process involving the nonstructural viral proteins NSP5 and NSP2. In these structures the concerted packaging and replication of the 11 positive-polarity single-stranded RNAs take place to generate the viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomic segments. Rotavirus infection is a leading cause of gastroenteritis-associated severe morbidity and mortality in young children, but no effective antiviral therapy exists. Herein we investigate the antirotaviral activity of the thiazolide anti-infective nitazoxanide and reveal a novel mechanism by which thiazolides act against rotaviruses. Nitazoxanide and its active circulating metabolite, tizoxanide, inhibit simian A/SA11-G3P[2] and human Wa-G1P[8] rotavirus replication in different types of cells with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) ranging from 0.3 to 2 μg/ml and 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC50s) higher than 50 μg/ml. Thiazolides do not affect virus infectivity, binding, or entry into target cells and do not cause a general inhibition of viral protein expression...

Inhibition of Dengue Virus Replication by a Class of Small-Molecule Compounds That Antagonize Dopamine Receptor D4 and Downstream Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling

Smith, Jessica L.; Stein, David A.; Shum, David; Fischer, Matthew A.; Radu, Constantin; Bhinder, Bhavneet; Djaballah, Hakim; Nelson, Jay A.; Früh, Klaus; Hirsch, Alec J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.77%
Dengue viruses (DENV) are endemic pathogens of tropical and subtropical regions that cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. To date, no vaccines or antiviral therapeutics have been approved for combating DENV-associated disease. In this paper, we describe a class of tricyclic small-molecule compounds—dihydrodibenzothiepines (DHBTs), identified through high-throughput screening—with potent inhibitory activity against DENV serotype 2. SKI-417616, a highly active representative of this class, displayed activity against all four serotypes of DENV, as well as against a related flavivirus, West Nile virus (WNV), and an alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SINV). This compound was characterized to determine its mechanism of antiviral activity. Investigation of the stage of the viral life cycle affected revealed that an early event in the life cycle is inhibited. Due to the structural similarity of the DHBTs to known antagonists of the dopamine and serotonin receptors, we explored the roles of two of these receptors, serotonin receptor 2A (5HTR2A) and the D4 dopamine receptor (DRD4), in DENV infection. Antagonism of DRD4 and subsequent downstream phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-related kinase (ERK) were found to impact DENV infection negatively...

The Impact of the Hepatitis B Virus Polymerase rtA181T Mutation on Replication and Drug Resistance Is Potentially Affected by Overlapping Changes in Surface Gene

Ahn, Sung Hyun; Park, Yong Kwang; Park, Eun-Sook; Kim, Jeong Han; Kim, Doo Hyun; Lim, Keo-Heun; Jang, Moon Sun; Choe, Won Hyeok; Ko, Soon Young; Sung, In-Kyung; Kwon, So Young; Kim, Kyun-Hwan
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.78%
The emergence of drug-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major problem for antiviral treatment in chronic hepatitis B infection. In this study, we analyzed the evolution of drug-resistant mutations and characterized the effects of the rtA181T and rtI233V mutations on viral replication and drug resistance. We performed a clonal analysis of the HBV polymerase gene from serum samples during viral breakthrough treated with antiviral agents. A series of mutant clones containing rtA181T and/or rtI233V mutations were constructed and determined the effect of these mutations on the replication ability and drug resistance. An in vitro study revealed that the effect of the rtA181T mutation on viral replication and drug resistance is dependent on the mutations in the overlapping surface gene. Compared to the rtA181T surface missense mutation (rtA181T/sW172S), the introduction of rtA181T surface nonsense mutation (rtA181T/sW172*) resulted in decreased viral replication and increased drug resistance. Complementation assay revealed that the truncated PreS1 is responsible for reduced replication of rtA181T/sW172* mutant. Moreover, the rtA181T/sW172* mutant exhibited a defect in viral particle secretion. The rtI233V mutation that emerged during adefovir therapy reduced viral replication and conferred resistance to adefovir. Our data suggest that the impact of the rtA181T mutation on replication and drug resistance differs based on the mutation status of the corresponding surface gene. The rtI233V mutation also affects replication ability and drug resistance. This observation suggests the need for genotypic analysis of overlapping surface genes to manage antiviral drug resistance if clinical isolates harbor the rtA181T mutation.

Evaluation of Novel Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates against Human and Animal Gammaherpesviruses Revealed an Altered Metabolism of Cyclic Prodrugs upon Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation in P3HR-1 Cells

Coen, Natacha; Duraffour, Sophie; Naesens, Lieve; Krečmerová, Marcela; Van den Oord, Joost; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.8%
Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), such as (S)-1-[(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonomethoxy)propyl)]cytosine (HPMPC), are an important group of broad-spectrum antiviral agents with activity against DNA viruses. In this report, we present the in vitro potencies of novel ANPs against gammaherpesviruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and three animal gammaherpesviruses. 1-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-5-azacytosine (HPMP-5-azaC), (S)-9-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-3-deazaadenine (3-deaza-HPMPA), and their cyclic derivatives have emerged as highly potent antigammaherpesvirus agents. Interestingly, cyclic prodrugs of ANPs exhibited reduced activities against EBV strain P3HR-1, but not against EBV strain Akata. Cell culture metabolism studies with HPMPC and cyclic HPMPC revealed that these differences were attributable to an altered drug metabolism in P3HR-1 cells after EBV reactivation and, more specifically, to a reduced hydrolysis of cyclic HPMPC by cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase. We did not correlate this effect with phosphodiesterase downregulation, or to functional mutations. Instead, altered cyclic AMP levels in P3HR-1 cells indicated a competitive inhibition of the phosphodiesterase by this cyclic nucleotide. Finally...

Enhanced Potency of Plasmid DNA Microparticle Human Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccines in Rhesus Macaques by Using a Priming-Boosting Regimen with Recombinant Proteins

Otten, Gillis R.; Schaefer, Mary; Doe, Barbara; Liu, Hong; Srivastava, Indresh; zur Megede, Jan; Kazzaz, Jina; Lian, Ying; Singh, Manmohan; Ugozzoli, Mildred; Montefiori, David; Lewis, Mark; Driver, David A.; Dubensky, Thomas; Polo, John M.; Donnelly, Joh
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.77%
DNA vaccines have been used widely in experimental primate models of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but their effectiveness has been limited. In this study, we evaluated three technologies for increasing the potency of DNA vaccines in rhesus macaques. These included DNA encoding Sindbis virus RNA replicons (pSINCP), cationic poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microparticles for DNA delivery, and recombinant protein boosting. The DNA-based pSINCP replicon vaccines encoding HIV Gag and Env were approximately equal in potency to human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter-driven conventional DNA vaccines (pCMV). The PLG microparticle DNA delivery system was particularly effective at enhancing antibody responses induced by both pCMV and pSINCP vaccines and had less effect on T cells. Recombinant Gag and Env protein boosting elicited rapid and strong recall responses, in some cases to levels exceeding those seen after DNA or DNA/PLG priming. Of note, Env protein boosting induced serum-neutralizing antibodies and increased frequencies of gamma interferon-producing CD4 T cells severalfold. Thus, PLG microparticles are an effective means of delivering DNA vaccines in nonhuman primates, as demonstrated for two different types of DNA vaccines encoding two different antigens...

Antiviral Activity of a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Arenavirus Glycoprotein Processing by the Cellular Site 1 Protease▿

Urata, Shuzo; Yun, Nadezhda; Pasquato, Antonella; Paessler, Slobodan; Kunz, Stefan; de la Torre, Juan Carlos
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.86%
Arenaviruses merit interest as clinically important human pathogens and include several causative agents, chiefly Lassa virus (LASV), of hemorrhagic fever disease in humans. There are no licensed LASV vaccines, and current antiarenavirus therapy is limited to the use of ribavirin, which is only partially effective and is associated with significant side effects. The arenavirus glycoprotein (GP) precursor GPC is processed by the cellular site 1 protease (S1P) to generate the peripheral virion attachment protein GP1 and the fusion-active transmembrane protein GP2, which is critical for production of infectious progeny and virus propagation. Therefore, S1P-mediated processing of arenavirus GPC is a promising target for therapeutic intervention. To this end, we have evaluated the antiarenaviral activity of PF-429242, a recently described small-molecule inhibitor of S1P. PF-429242 efficiently prevented the processing of GPC from the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and LASV, which correlated with the compound's potent antiviral activity against LCMV and LASV in cultured cells. In contrast, a recombinant LCMV expressing a GPC whose processing into GP1 and GP2 was mediated by furin, instead of S1P, was highly resistant to PF-429242 treatment. PF-429242 did not affect virus RNA replication or budding but had a modest effect on virus cell entry...