Página 1 dos resultados de 32351 itens digitais encontrados em 0.024 segundos

Household survey of hepatitis B vaccine coverage among Brazilian children

LUNA, Expedito J. A.; VERAS, Maria Amelia S. M.; FLANNERY, Brendan; MORAES, Jose Cassio de; Vaccine Coverage Survey 2007 Grp
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
We conducted a multi-stage household cluster survey to calculate hepatitis B vaccine coverage among children 18-30 months of age in 27 Brazilian cities. Hepatitis B vaccine is administered at birth, 1 month and 6 months of age by Brazil`s national immunization program. Among 17,749 children surveyed, 40.2% received a birth dose within one day of birth, 94.8% received at least one dose of hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.7% completed the three-dose series by 12 months of age. Increased coverage with the birth dose and administration of hepatitis B in combination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens could improve protection against hepatitis B. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; staff of the Brazilian National immunization Program; staff of the Brazilian National immunization Program

Avaliação da cobertura vacinal em menores de cinco anos em Bom Jesus, Província do Bengo, Angola; Evaluation of the vaccine covering in Minors of five years in Bom Jesus, Province of the Bengo Angola

Oliveira, Manuel Falcão Saturnino de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/06/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
RESUMO OLIVEIRA, M. F. S. Avaliação da cobertura vacinal em Menores de cinco anos em Bom Jesus, Província do Bengo Angola, 2010. 111f. 2011. (Dissertação) Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto-USP, Ribeirão Preto, 2011. Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a cobertura vacinal em crianças menores de cinco anos na comuna de Bom Jesus, Bengo, Angola e descrever as relações entre esse indicador com algumas características do contexto sócio econômico e demográfico local, do saneamento do meio, dos agregados familiares, das crianças e das mães ou responsáveis das mesmas. Material e Métodos: trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, transversal e censitária, com 1205 crianças menores de cinco anos residentes em Bom Jesus no 1° semestre de 2010, razão pela qual não estabelecemos relações de associação entre as variáveis em estudo. As fontes de dados foram: 1) O inquérito domiciliar por entrevistas as mães ou responsáveis das crianças e aos chefes de família. 2) Cartão de saúde infantil e de saúde materna para os dados referentes ao estado vacinal das crianças e a vacinação antitetânica das mães ou responsáveis, respectivamente. 3) Registros sobre vacinações dos serviços de saúde de Bom Jesus e da província do Bengo. Para o processamento...

Reversion to virulence evaluation of a 9R vaccine strain of Salmonella enterica serovar gallinarum in commercial brown layers

Okamoto, AS; Menconi, A; Gonçalves, GAM; Rocha, TS; Andreatti Filho, RF; Savano, EN; Sesti, L
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 47-52
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
The live vaccine Cevac S. Gallinarum, made from a rough strain of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Gallinarum is used for preventing fowl typhoid, a disease that still causes considerable economic losses in countries with a developing poultry industry. The objective of this paper was to evaluate a possible reversion to virulence of the strain used in a vaccine in commercial brown layers. Only Salmonella-free chicks were utilized. One hundred twenty (120) 12-day-old Dekalb brown layers divided in two trials were used. The first trial had six groups of 15 birds each. Birds of group 1 were vaccinated with 10 doses of Cevac S. Gallinarum subcutaneously and 10 doses orally, in a total of 20 doses of vaccine. Then the birds of groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 received inocula that contained feces and a pool of organs with fragments of liver, heart, spleen, and cecal tonsils obtained from the immediately previous group. The second trial had three groups with 10 birds each. Birds in group 7 received inocula containing a pool of organs from birds of group 5 from trial 1, whilst the birds in group 8 were vaccinated subcutaneously with one dose of vaccine. Both trials included negative control groups (6 and 9). Throughout the experimental period...

Avaliação da taxa de cobertura vacinal no Centro de Saúde de Braga, nas coortes de nascimento de 1990 a 2005; Assessment of vaccine coverage of 1990 to 2005 birth cohorts, in Braga Health Centre

Silva, Cristina Nogueira; Gonçalves, Jean Pierre
Fonte: Associação Portuguesa dos Médicos de Clinica Geral Publicador: Associação Portuguesa dos Médicos de Clinica Geral
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
Objectivo: Determinar a taxa de cobertura vacinal de cada uma das vacinas incluídas no Programa Nacional de Vacinação (PNV), nas coortes de nascimento de 1990 a 2005, no Centro de Saúde Braga (CSB) e nas suas Extensões de Saúde (ES). Tipo de estudo: Estudo observacional, descritivo e transversal. Local: Centro de Saúde de Braga. População: Utentes inscritos em cada uma das ES e US do CSB, nascidos entre o ano de 1990 e 2005. Métodos: Como fonte de informação utilizou-se o módulo Estatísticas – Vacinas do programa informático SINUS. Resultados: Foram alcançadas taxas de cobertura vacinal superiores a 95% em 2002 na vacina atenuada contra a poliomielite (VAP) e vacina contra a hepatite B (VHB), em 2004 na vacina contra o bacilo Calmette-Guérin (BCG) e vacina contra o sarampo-parotidite epidémica-rubéola (VASPR), e em 2005 na vacina contra a difteria-tétano-tosse convulsa (DTP) e vacina contra o Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib). Relativamente à vacina contra o tétano e a difteria (Td), de imunidade individual, a taxa de cobertura vacinal é sempre inferior a 100% (varia de 84 a 94%). Algumas ES mantêm taxas de cobertura vacinal muitíssimo inferiores ao recomendado. Verifica-se, também, que as taxas de cobertura vacinal são mais baixas para as vacinas cujo PNV prevê um maior número de inoculações...

Polio inactivated vaccine costs into routine childhood immunization in Brazil

Sartori,Ana Marli Christovam; Vicentine,Margarete Paganotti; Gryninger,Lígia Castelloni Figueiredo; Soárez,Patricia Coelho de; Novaes,Hillegonda Maria Dutilh
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
OBJECTIVE To analyze the costs of vaccination regimens for introducing inactivated polio vaccine in routine immunization in Brazil. METHODS A cost analysis was conducted for vaccines in five vaccination regimens, including inactivated polio vaccine, compared with the oral polio vaccine-only regimen. The costs of the vaccines were estimated for routine use and for the “National Immunization Days”, during when the oral polio vaccine is administered to children aged less than five years, independent of their vaccine status, and the strategic stock of inactivated polio vaccine. The presented estimated costs are of 2011. RESULTS The annual costs of the oral vaccine-only program (routine and two National Immunization Days) were estimated at US$19,873,170. The incremental costs of inclusion of the inactivated vaccine depended on the number of vaccine doses, presentation of the vaccine (bottles with single dose or ten doses), and number of “National Immunization Days” carried out. The cost of the regimen adopted with two doses of inactivated vaccine followed by three doses of oral vaccine and one “National Immunization Day” was estimated at US$29,653,539. The concomitant replacement of the DTPw/Hib and HepB vaccines with the pentavalent vaccine enabled the introduction of the inactivated polio without increasing the number of injections or number of visits needed to complete the vaccination. CONCLUSIONS The introduction of the inactivated vaccine increased the annual costs of the polio vaccines by 49.2% compared with the oral vaccine-only regimen. This increase represented 1.13% of the expenditure of the National Immunization Program on the purchase of vaccines in 2011.

Reversion to virulence evaluation of a 9R vaccine strain of Salmonella enterica serovar gallinarum in commercial brown layers

Okamoto,AS; Menconi,A; Gonçalves,GAM; Rocha,TS; Andreatti Filho,RF; Savano,EN; Sesti,L
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
The live vaccine Cevac S. Gallinarum, made from a rough strain of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Gallinarum is used for preventing fowl typhoid, a disease that still causes considerable economic losses in countries with a developing poultry industry. The objective of this paper was to evaluate a possible reversion to virulence of the strain used in a vaccine in commercial brown layers. Only Salmonella-free chicks were utilized. One hundred twenty (120) 12-day-old Dekalb brown layers divided in two trials were used. The first trial had six groups of 15 birds each. Birds of group 1 were vaccinated with 10 doses of Cevac S. Gallinarum subcutaneously and 10 doses orally, in a total of 20 doses of vaccine. Then the birds of groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 received inocula that contained feces and a pool of organs with fragments of liver, heart, spleen, and cecal tonsils obtained from the immediately previous group. The second trial had three groups with 10 birds each. Birds in group 7 received inocula containing a pool of organs from birds of group 5 from trial 1, whilst the birds in group 8 were vaccinated subcutaneously with one dose of vaccine. Both trials included negative control groups (6 and 9). Throughout the experimental period...

Immunogenicity and Safety of Three Doses of a Bivalent (B:4:P1.19,15 and B:4:P1.7-2,4) Meningococcal Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine in Healthy Adolescents▿

Boutriau, Dominique; Poolman, Jan; Borrow, Ray; Findlow, Jamie; Domingo, Javier Diez; Puig-Barbera, Joan; Baldó, José María; Planelles, Victoria; Jubert, Angels; Colomer, Julia; Gil, Angel; Levie, Karin; Kervyn, Anne-Diane; Weynants, Vincent; Dominguez
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
An experimental bivalent meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine (B:4:P1.19,15 and B:4:P1.7-2,4) has been developed to provide wide vaccine coverage particularly of the circulating strains in Europe. A randomized, controlled phase II study (study identification number, 710158/002; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier number, NCT00137917) to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of three doses of the OMV vaccine when given to healthy 12- to 18-year-olds on a 0-2-4 month (n = 162) or 0-1-6 month schedule (n = 159). A control group received two doses of hepatitis A and one of conjugated meningococcal serogroup C vaccine on a 0-1-6 month schedule (n = 157). Immune response, defined as a fourfold increase in serum bactericidal titer using a range of vaccine-homologous or PorA-related and heterologous strains, was determined for samples taken before and 1 month after vaccination; assays were performed at two laboratories. As measured at the GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) laboratory, the OMV vaccine induced an immune response against homologous or PorA-related strains (in at least 51% of subjects against strains of serosubtype P1.19,15 and at least 66% against strains of serosubtype P1.7-2,4) and against a set of three heterologous strains (in 28% to 46% of subjects). Both laboratories showed consistent results for immune response rates. The OMV vaccine had a similar reactogenicity profile for each schedule. Pain preventing normal activities occurred in approximately one-fifth of the subjects; this was significantly higher than in the control group. The immune responses induced by the bivalent OMV vaccine demonstrated the induction of bactericidal antibodies against the vaccine-homologous/PorA-related strains but also against heterologous strains...

Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, Pertactin, Pertussis Toxin S1 Subunit Polymorphisms, and Surfaceome Analysis of Vaccine and Clinical Bordetella pertussis Strains▿

Bottero, Daniela; Gaillard, María Emilia; Fingermann, Matías; Weltman, Gabriela; Fernández, Julieta; Sisti, Federico; Graieb, Augusto; Roberts, Roy; Rico, Osvaldo; Ríos, Gustavo; Regueira, Mabel; Binsztein, Norma; Hozbor, Daniela
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
To add new insight to our previous work on the molecular epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis in Argentina, the prn and ptxS1 gene sequences and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles of 57 clinical isolates obtained during two periods, 1969 to 1989 and 1997 to 2006, were analyzed. Non-vaccine-type ptxS1A was detected in isolates obtained since 1969. From 1989 on, a shift of predominance from the vaccine prn1 type to the nonvaccine prn2 type was observed. This was also reflected in a transition of PFGE group IV to group VI. These results show that nonvaccine B. pertussis strains are currently circulating. To analyze whether the observed genomic divergences between vaccine strains and clinical isolates have functional implications, protection assays using the intranasal mouse challenge model were performed. For such experiments, the clinical isolate B. pertussis 106 was selected as representative of circulating bacteria, since it came from the major group of the PFGE dendrogram (PFGE group VI). Groups of mice were immunized either with diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine (ptxS1B prn1) or a vaccine prepared by us containing B. pertussis 106. Immunized mice were then challenged with a B. pertussis vaccine strain (Tohama...

Phase I Study of a Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) DNA Vaccine Administered to Healthy, HSV-2-Seronegative Adults by a Needle-Free Injection System ▿ †

Cattamanchi, Ashok; Posavad, Christine M.; Wald, Anna; Baine, Yaela; Moses, Jennifer; Higgins, Terry J.; Ginsberg, Richard; Ciccarelli, Richard; Corey, Lawrence; Koelle, David M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
We conducted a double-blind, vehicle-controlled, dose escalation safety and immunogenicity trial of a candidate herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) surface glycoprotein D2 (gD2) DNA vaccine administered by use of a needle-free device. Sixty-two healthy adults were randomized using a 4:1 vaccine-to-placebo ratio. Half of the participants were HSV-1 seronegative, and all were HSV-2 seronegative. Vaccine doses included 100 μg, 300 μg, 1,000 μg or 3,000 μg of a plasmid expressing the gD2 protein. Subjects received vaccine at 0, 4, 8, and 24 weeks. Some subjects received an additional 1,000-μg boost at 52 weeks. We found that the vaccine was safe and well tolerated, with most adverse events being local site reactions. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. gD2-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and lymphoproliferation responses were detected 2 weeks after the third vaccine injection in one of four HSV-1-seronegative, HSV-2-seronegative participants who received 3,000 μg of vaccine. A DNA-based vaccination strategy against HSV-2 appears to be safe and may generate a vaccine-specific cellular immune response, but high vaccine doses are likely needed to elicit an immune response in most vaccinees.

Immunogenicity and Safety of the Influenza A/H1N1 2009 Inactivated Split-Virus Vaccine in Young and Older Adults: MF59-Adjuvanted Vaccine versus Nonadjuvanted Vaccine▿†

Cheong, Hee Jin; Song, Joon Young; Heo, Jung Yeon; Noh, Ji Yun; Choi, Won Suk; Park, Dae Won; Wie, Seong-Heon; Kim, Woo Joo
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
Since initial reports in April 2009, the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus has spread globally. Influenza vaccines are the primary method for the control of influenza and its complications. We conducted a multicenter clinical trial to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of H1N1 vaccine (Green Cross Co.) in young adults (18 to 64 years) and the elderly (≥65 years) using a two-dose regimen, with the doses administered 21 days apart. Three different regimens of hemagglutinin antigen were comparatively analyzed: 3.75 μg (MF59 adjuvanted) versus 7.5 μg (MF59 adjuvanted) versus 15 μg (nonadjuvanted) in young adults and 3.75 μg (MF59 adjuvanted) versus 7.5 μg (MF59 adjuvanted) in the elderly. In young adults, all three vaccine regimens met the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMA) criteria after the first dose. In the elderly, on day 21 after the first dose, the rates of seroprotection and seroconversion were significantly higher for the 7.5-μg dose of MF59 adjuvanted vaccine than for the 3.75-μg dose (58.0% versus 44.3% [P = 0.03] and 53.7% versus 37.2% [P < 0.01], respectively). After the second dose, the geometric mean titer (GMT) increment was blunted with a 15-μg dose of nonadjuvanted vaccine, whereas the GMT increased about 2-fold with MF59 adjuvanted vaccines. In conclusion...

Randomized Trial of the Immunogenicity and Safety of the Hepatitis B Vaccine Given in an Accelerated Schedule Coadministered with the Human Papillomavirus Type 16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Cervical Cancer Vaccine▿†

Leroux-Roels, Geert; Haelterman, Edwige; Maes, Cathy; Levy, Jack; De Boever, Fien; Licini, Laurent; David, Marie-Pierre; Dobbelaere, Kurt; Descamps, Dominique
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
The human papillomavirus type 16/18 (HPV-16/18) AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine is licensed for females aged 10 years and above and is therefore likely to be coadministered with other licensed vaccines, such as hepatitis B. In this randomized, open-label study, we compared the immunogenicity of the hepatitis B vaccine administered alone (HepB group) or with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (HepB+HPV group) in healthy women aged 20 to 25 years (clinical trial NCT00637195). The hepatitis B vaccine was given at 0, 1, 2, and 12 months (an accelerated schedule which may be required by women at high risk), and the HPV-16/18 vaccine was given at 0, 1, and 6 months. One month after the third dose of hepatitis B vaccine, in the according-to-protocol cohort (n = 72 HepB+HPV; n = 76 HepB), hepatitis B seroprotection rates (titer of ≥10 mIU/ml) were 96.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87.5 to 99.6) and 96.9% (CI, 89.2 to 99.6) in the HepB+HPV and HepB groups, respectively, in women initially seronegative for anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs) and anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc). Corresponding geometric mean titers of anti-HBs antibodies were 60.2 mIU/ml (CI, 40.0 to 90.5) and 71.3 mIU/ml (CI, 53.9 to 94.3). Anti-HBs antibody titers rose substantially after the fourth dose of hepatitis B vaccine. All women initially seronegative for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies seroconverted after the second HPV-16/18 vaccine dose and remained seropositive up to 1 month after the third dose. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated...

Ensaio clínica controlado e randomizado para avaliar a imunogenicidade e reatogenicidade da vacina contra hepatite B (butang(R)) aplicada em recém-nascidos na região glútea ou vasto lateral da cocha; Randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the vaccine against hepatitis B (Butang (R)) applied to newborns in the buttock or the vastus lateralis cocha

JUNQUEIRA, Ana Luiza Neto
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Ciencias da Saude; Ciencias da Saude Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Ciencias da Saude; Ciencias da Saude
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
This study is the first randomized controlled clinical trial for assessing the immunogenicity and reatogenicity of the Butang® vaccine in full term newborns, who were given the first vaccine dose within the first 12 hours of life, comparing two regions of application for the vaccine: anterolateral thigh (ALT) and ventrogluteal (VG). Butang® response was assessed in 224 newborns who were given the vaccine in the VG region and 250 in the ALT one. Both groups were similar regarding gender, weight, timing interval between doses of the vaccine and maternal characteristics. When comparing Butang® immunogenicity, we verified that the proportion of babies who developed anti-HBs protecting titres after three vaccine doses in the VG region was of 97.8% (IC 95%: 94.8 99.3) with geometric mean titer (GMT) of 427.5 mUI/mL (IC 95%: 344.9 530.0), similar to those who were given in the ALT region (97.6%; IC 95%: 94.8 99.1; GMT: 572.0 mUI/mL; IC 95%: 471.1 694.6), which provides evidence that this place is appropriate for hepatitis B vaccination. Eleven newborns did not respond to Butang®, being six of them vaccinated in the VG region and five in the ALT. The most of them were male, one factor which seems to interfere with hepatitis B vaccine response. We verified an increasing proportion of local reactions and fever according to the number of doses given. In addition...

Ensaio clínica controlado e randomizado para avaliar a imunogenicidade e reatogenicidade da vacina contra hepatite B (butang(R)) aplicada em recém-nascidos na região glútea ou vasto lateral da cocha; Randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the vaccine against hepatitis B (Butang (R)) applied to newborns in the buttock or the vastus lateralis cocha

JUNQUEIRA, Ana Luiza Neto
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Ciencias da Saude; Ciencias da Saude Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Ciencias da Saude; Ciencias da Saude
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
This study is the first randomized controlled clinical trial for assessing the immunogenicity and reatogenicity of the Butang® vaccine in full term newborns, who were given the first vaccine dose within the first 12 hours of life, comparing two regions of application for the vaccine: anterolateral thigh (ALT) and ventrogluteal (VG). Butang® response was assessed in 224 newborns who were given the vaccine in the VG region and 250 in the ALT one. Both groups were similar regarding gender, weight, timing interval between doses of the vaccine and maternal characteristics. When comparing Butang® immunogenicity, we verified that the proportion of babies who developed anti-HBs protecting titres after three vaccine doses in the VG region was of 97.8% (IC 95%: 94.8 99.3) with geometric mean titer (GMT) of 427.5 mUI/mL (IC 95%: 344.9 530.0), similar to those who were given in the ALT region (97.6%; IC 95%: 94.8 99.1; GMT: 572.0 mUI/mL; IC 95%: 471.1 694.6), which provides evidence that this place is appropriate for hepatitis B vaccination. Eleven newborns did not respond to Butang®, being six of them vaccinated in the VG region and five in the ALT. The most of them were male, one factor which seems to interfere with hepatitis B vaccine response. We verified an increasing proportion of local reactions and fever according to the number of doses given. In addition...

The Potential Demand for and Strategic Use of an HIV-1 Vaccine in Southern India

Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Subramaniyam, P.; Jha, Prabhat
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
Even a modestly effective HIV-1 vaccine would be highly useful in India and could avoid millions of deaths. How should such a vaccine be introduced? Based on evidence of adoption of other vaccines in India, current levels of spending on them and coverage of prevention programs targeting both high- and low-risk groups, Seshadri, Subramaniyam, and Jha assess the potential demand for and strategic use of an HIV-1 vaccine in the four southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu. The authors also discuss potential strategies for delivery of the vaccine, prioritization for vaccination, and the political economy of such a vaccine in India. Assuming a vaccine cost of $10 a dose and including estimated delivery costs, the total cost of vaccinating 21.6 million adolescents 11-14 years of age and 1 percent of adults would be Rs. 12.25 billion (US$ 245 million). To maintain the vaccination rate in the 11-14 year old cohort, an additional 6.77 million in that age range would have to be vaccinated each year...

Safety and immunogenicity of concurrent administration of live attenuated influenza vaccine with Measles-Mumps-Rubella and varicella vaccines to infants 12 to 15 months of age

Nolan, T.; Bernstein, D.; Block, S.; Hilty, M.; Keyserling, H.; Marchant, C.; Marshall, H.; Richmond, P.; Yogev, R.; Cordova, J.; Cho, I.; Mendelman, P.
Fonte: Amer Acad Pediatrics Publicador: Amer Acad Pediatrics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.65%
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of live attenuated influenza vaccine administered concurrently with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and varicella vaccine to healthy children 12 to 15 months of age. METHODS: Children were assigned randomly to receive (1) measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, varicella vaccine, and intranasal placebo on day 0, followed by 1 dose of live attenuated influenza vaccine on days 42 and 72; (2) measles-mumps-rubella, varicella, and live attenuated influenza vaccines on day 0, followed by a second dose of live attenuated influenza vaccine on day 42 and intranasally administered placebo on day 72; or (3) 1 dose of live attenuated influenza vaccine on days 0 and 42, followed by measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines on day 72. Serum samples were collected before vaccination on days 0, 42, and 72. Reactogenicity events and adverse events were collected through day 41 after concurrent vaccinations and through day 10 after administration of live attenuated influenza vaccine or placebo alone. RESULTS: Among 1245 (99.5%) evaluable children, seroresponse rates and geometric mean titers for measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and varicella vaccine were similar with concurrent administration of live attenuated influenza vaccine or placebo (seroresponse rates of > or = 96% for measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and > or = 82% for varicella vaccine in both groups). Hemagglutinin-inhibiting antibody geometric mean titers and seroconversion rates to influenza strains in live attenuated influenza virus vaccine were similar after the vaccine was administered alone (seroconversion rates of 98%...

Case control study for measuring influenza vaccine effectiveness in Portugal - Season 2010-11- Final report

Nunes, Baltazar; Pechirra, Pedro; Machado, Ausenda; Falcão, Isabel; Gonçalves, Paulo; Conde, Patricia; Batista, Inês; Guiomar, Raquel; Marinho Falcão, José
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, IP Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, IP
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em 01/06/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
Every year, influenza virus is responsible for epidemics that affect human health causing respiratory infections that could lead to serious health complications of individuals belonging to risk groups, as well as on the functioning of health services. In order to mitigate influenza impacts, vaccination has been one of the main measures, being recognized its role in reducing the risk of developing the disease and the occurrence of their complications. Thus, since the vaccine is reformulated every season estimating the influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) every season and in an early stage is of major importance to support public health decisions. Since 2008-2009, Portugal has been participating in I-MOVE project that aims to estimate seasonal and pandemic vaccine effectiveness during and after the influenza season. Last season, 2010-2011, Portugal once again joined the I-MOVE multi-center case control study (with the national VE study- Euroeva) together with Spain, Ireland, France, Italy, Romania, Hungary and Poland, using a common protocol and with the objective of estimate the 2010-11 seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness respectively in the elderly (65+) and in all age groups. Additionally, using information on 2010-11 seasonal vaccine coverage in the population...

The Potential Demand for an HIV/AIDS Vaccine in Brazil

Dutilh Novaes, Hillegonda Maria; Luna, Expedito J.A.; Goldbaum, Moises; Kilsztajn, Samuel; Rossbach, Anaclaudia; de la Roca Carvalheiro, Jose
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
This study assesses the potential demand by the public sector for a preventive HIV/AIDS vaccine in Brazil and the costs of alternative strategies for a vaccination program. Brazil has a mature AIDS epidemic: the percent of the population living with HIV or AIDS (about 0.6 percent of adults) is not as high as in other severely affected developing countries, but infection rates in specific risk groups in the population are very high and HIV has spread beyond these groups into the general population of low-risk individuals. Preventive HIV/AIDS vaccines are still in the testing stage. The characteristics of the first vaccines developed, in terms of their efficacy, duration of effectiveness, ease of administration, and price, are still unknown. But the potential benefits of such a vaccine in Brazil would be high. The study reviews the cost and impact of HIV/AIDS in Brazil, in terms of disease and economic burden, as a proxy for the benefits of an HIV/AIDS vaccine. The epidemiology of AIDS and Brazil's experience with immunization coverage with other vaccines are used to assess the number of vaccines...

Vaccines and The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program

Davenport, Katherine
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
The federal government plays a leading role in vaccination by funding vaccine administration and by integrating the immunization efforts of the public and private sectors on national, state and local levels. Congress repeatedly reaffirms this role of the federal government in order to ensure that the United States maintains a consistent national policy on childhood vaccination. In 1986, Congress passed the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act ("Vaccine Act"). This legislation establishes a National Vaccine Program "to achieve optimal prevention of human infectious diseases through immunization and to achieve optimal prevention against adverse reactions to vaccines." The Vaccine Act also institutes the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program ("NVICP"), a federal, no-fault compensation system which awards money to the victims of vaccine-related injuries and death. This paper describes the FDA's role in ensuring the safety of vaccines, the civil litigation alternative to compensation, and the events leading up to the passage of the Vaccine Act. The paper, however, focuses on the NVICP, the actual operation of this compensation program, and the program's effects on the compensation and prevention of adverse reactions to mandatory vaccinations. The paper also examines whether Congress's goals in passing the Vaccine Act have been achieved and what reforms may be necessary in order to further these goals.

Primary and booster vaccination with DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent vaccine in Costa Rican children who had received a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine

Faingezicht,Idis; Avila-Aguerro,Maria Luisa; Cervantes,Yolanda; Fourneau,Marc; Clemens,Sue Ann Costa
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.63%
Objective. The DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine has been developed following recommendations of the World Health Organization for the introduction of hepatitis B (HB) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines into routine childhood vaccination programs. The objectives of this study were to: 1) analyze the immunogenicity and the reactogenicity of the DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine in comparison to separate injections of DTPw-HB and Hib vaccines as primary vaccination in a group of children who had received a dose of HB vaccine at birth and 2) in the second year of life to assess the antibody persistence as well as the response to a DTPw-HB/Hib or DTPw/Hib booster. Methods. In the first part of the study (primary-vaccination stage), conducted in 1998-1999, we analyzed the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the DTPw-HB/Hib combination vaccine in comparison to separate injections of DTPw-HB and Hib vaccines as primary vaccination at 2, 4, and 6 months of age in 207 Costa Rican children who had received a dose of HB vaccine at birth. Later, in the booster-vaccination stage of the study, in 1999-2000, in a subset of the children (69 toddlers, now 15-18 months old), antibody persistence was measured, and response to a DTPw-HB/Hib or DTPw/Hib booster was also assessed. Results. In both primary-vaccination groups...

Polio inactivated vaccine costs into routine childhood immunization in Brazil

Sartori,Ana Marli Christovam; Vicentine,Margarete Paganotti; Gryninger,Lígia Castelloni Figueiredo; Soárez,Patricia Coelho de; Novaes,Hillegonda Maria Dutilh
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
OBJECTIVE To analyze the costs of vaccination regimens for introducing inactivated polio vaccine in routine immunization in Brazil.METHODS A cost analysis was conducted for vaccines in five vaccination regimens, including inactivated polio vaccine, compared with the oral polio vaccine-only regimen. The costs of the vaccines were estimated for routine use and for the “National Immunization Days”, during when the oral polio vaccine is administered to children aged less than five years, independent of their vaccine status, and the strategic stock of inactivated polio vaccine. The presented estimated costs are of 2011.RESULTS The annual costs of the oral vaccine-only program (routine and two National Immunization Days) were estimated at US$19,873,170. The incremental costs of inclusion of the inactivated vaccine depended on the number of vaccine doses, presentation of the vaccine (bottles with single dose or ten doses), and number of “National Immunization Days” carried out. The cost of the regimen adopted with two doses of inactivated vaccine followed by three doses of oral vaccine and one “National Immunization Day” was estimated at US$29,653,539. The concomitant replacement of the DTPw/Hib and HepB vaccines with the pentavalent vaccine enabled the introduction of the inactivated polio without increasing the number of injections or number of visits needed to complete the vaccination.CONCLUSIONS The introduction of the inactivated vaccine increased the annual costs of the polio vaccines by 49.2% compared with the oral vaccine-only regimen. This increase represented 1.13% of the expenditure of the National Immunization Program on the purchase of vaccines in 2011.