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Sociodemographic Correlates of Transitions from Alcohol Use to Disorders and Remission in the Sao Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, Brazil

SILVEIRA, Camila Magalhaes; VIANA, Maria Carmen; SIU, Erica Rosanna; ANDRADE, Arthur Guerra de; ANTHONY, James C.; ANDRADE, Laura Helena
Fonte: OXFORD UNIV PRESS Publicador: OXFORD UNIV PRESS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
Aims: To evaluate sociodemographic correlates associated with transitions from alcohol use to disorders and remission in a Brazilian population. Methods: Data are from a probabilistic, multi-stage clustered sample of adult household residents in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. Alcohol use, regular use (at least 12 drinks/year), DSM-IV abuse and dependence and remission from alcohol use disorders (AUDs) were assessed with the World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Age of onset (AOO) distributions of the cumulative lifetime probability of each alcohol use stage were prepared with data obtained from 5037 subjects. Correlates of transitions were obtained from a subsample of 2942 respondents, whose time-dependent sociodemographic data were available. Results: Lifetime prevalences were 85.8% for alcohol use, 56.2% for regular use, 10.6% for abuse and 3.6% for dependence; 73.4 and 58.8% of respondents with lifetime abuse and dependence, respectively, had remitted. The number of sociodemographic correlates decreased from alcohol use to disorders. All transitions across alcohol use stages up to abuse were consistently associated with male gender, younger cohorts and lower education. Importantly, low education was a correlate for developing AUD and not remitting from dependence. Early AOO of first alcohol use was associated with the transition of regular use to abuse. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that specific correlates differently contribute throughout alcohol use trajectory in a Brazilian population. It also reinforces the need of preventive programs focused on early initiation of alcohol use and high-risk individuals...

Responsible use of resources for sustainable aquaculture

Costa-Pierce, B.A.; Bartley, D.M.; Hasan, M.; Yusoff, F.; Kaushik, S.J.; Rana, K.; Lemos, Daniel Eduardo Lavanholi de; Bueno, P.; Yakupitiyage, A.
Fonte: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; Phuket Publicador: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; Phuket
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
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35.81%
Comparisons of production, water and energy efficiencies of aquaculture versus an array of fisheries and terrestrial agriculture systems show that nonfed aquaculture (e.g. shellfish, seaweeds) is among the world’s most efficient mass producer of plant and animal proteins. Various fed aquaculture systems also match the most efficient forms of terrestrial animal husbandry, and trends suggest that carnivores in the wild have been transformed in aquaculture to omnivores, with impacts on resource use comparable to conventional, terrestrial agriculture systems, but are more efficient. Production efficiencies of edible mass for a variety of aquaculture systems are 2.5–4.5 kg dry feed/kg edible mass, compared with 3.0–17.4 for a range of conventional terrestrial animal production systems. Beef cattle require over 10 kg of feed to add 1 kg of edibleweight, whereas tilapia and catfish use less than 3 kg to add a kg of edible weight. Energy use in unfed and low-trophic-level aquaculture systems (e.g. seaweeds, mussels, carps, tilapias) is comparable to energy use in vegetable, sheep and rangeland beef agriculture. Highest energy use is in fish cage and shrimp aquaculture, comparable to intensive animal agriculture feedlots...

SAPUVET and SAPUVETNET projects: a contribution to the understanding of the prudent use of antimicrobials

Ortega, Carmelo; Gorniak, Silvana; Vilhena, Manuela
Fonte: Proceedings of Responsible Use of Antibiotics in Animals Publicador: Proceedings of Responsible Use of Antibiotics in Animals
Tipo: Aula
ENG
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The objectives of the projects is working are the development of strategies to improve learning and teaching VPH. The main results of the project can be summarized in: the proposal of a common VPH curriculum, to design teaching material as case studies or a manual on VPH, the coordination of some e-conferences and a journal “One Health”. All the materials can be freely distributed or used for distance learning by the way of the web site. Some activities and materials are related to the increase of antimicrobials resistant microorganisms and their role in public health. These activities are: 1- Development of the chapter “Bacterial resistance; control strategies, good practices and prudent use of antimicrobials” in the manual of Veterinary Public Health- One Health. Organization of two open electronic conferences to discuss the problem of the use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine, the associated risks to their use in public health and the alternatives to apply based on the prudent use of antimicrobials. The e-conference Local practices in production and animal health, with special reference to the use of medicines and the resistance to antibiotics: consequences in veterinary public health" took place in march 2007 and the e-conference “PRUDENT USE OF ANTIMICROBIALS IN ANIMALS: SOLUTION OR UTOPIA?” took place in september 2010...

Longitudinal patterns of methamphetamine, popper (amyl nitrite), and cocaine use and high-risk sexual behavior among a cohort of San Francisco men who have sex with men

Colfax, Grant; Coates, Thomas J.; Husnik, Marla J.; Huang, Yijian; Buchbinder, Susan; Koblin, Beryl; Chesney, Margaret; Vittinghoff, Eric;
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
Most prior studies examining drug use among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been cross-sectional or retrospective and have not determined whether periods of increased drug use are associated with high-risk sexual behavior at the individual level. In this article, we describe patterns of use of methamphetamines, poppers, and sniffed cocaine and sexual risk behavior among 736 San Francisco MSM enrolled in the EXPLORE study and followed for up to 48 months. In longitudinal analysis, use of methamphetamines, poppers, and sniffed cocaine declined during follow-up. However, compared with older participants, younger participants were more likely to increase their drug use over time. Results of conditional logistic regression demonstrated that high-risk sexual behavior was more common during reporting periods characterized by increased methamphetamine, poppers, or sniffed cocaine use. This within-person analysis found that compared with periods of no drug use, periods of both light drug use (less than weekly use of drugs) and heavier drug use (at least weekly use of at least one drug) were significantly associated with increased risk of engaging in uprotected anal sex with an HIV-positive or unknown-status partner. These results suggest that even intermittent...

Developmental trajectories of marijuana use and psychological distress : exploring the co-occurrence of these phenomena in early adolescence

Ziba-Tanguay, Kali
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
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Le début de l’adolescence est une période de changements rapides où la détresse psychologique et l’expérimentation de la marijuana sont choses fréquentes. Certaines études longitudinales ont démontré que ces deux phénomènes ont tendance à se manifester conjointement tandis que d’autres n’ont pu observer de tel lien. Ces résultats divergents suggèrent que plusieurs questions persistent concernant la nature de cette relation. Cette thèse a pour objectif d’explorer la consommation de marijuana et la détresse psychologique en début d’adolescence afin de mieux saisir les changements à travers le temps, ainsi que d’examiner si ces deux problématiques évoluent conjointement et s’influencent réciproquement. Un échantillon de 448 adolescents garçons et filles fréquentant deux écoles secondaires de Montréal, ont été suivi de secondaire I à secondaire III. De 1999 à 2001, les participants ont complété un questionnaire à chaque année de l’étude incluant des mesures portant sur la consommation de marijuana et la détresse psychologique (IDPESQ-14). Un modèle de mixture semi-paramétrique (Nagin, 2005) a été utilisé afin d’identifier les trajectoires développementales de la consommation de marijuana et de détresse psychologique. Des analyses ont également été effectuées afin d’établir les liens d’appartenance entre chacune des trajectoires de consommation identifiées et la détresse psychologique lors de la première année de l`étude...

Uso di strumenti in una popolazione di Cebus libidinosus allo stato selvatico in Piauí, Brasile; Tool use in wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) in Piauí, Brazil

SPAGNOLETTI, NOEMI
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
IT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
This study investigates the tool use behaviour in two wild groups of bearded capuchin monkeys Cebus libidinosus) living in the Fazenda Boa Vista (Piauí, Brazil) by determining the frequency of tool use in relation to seasonal changes in food availability and by investigating the use of stone-hammers and anvils to crack palm nuts and other encased fruits in relation to the age and sex of the individuals. Our first goal, was to test two alternative hypotheses which have been proposed to explain tool use in primate populations: the necessity and the opportunity hypotheses. According to the first hypothesis (Fox et al., 2004), since tool use allows the access to food otherwise not available, it should be more frequent when food resources are scarce (Boesch & Boesch-Achermann, 2000; Fox et al., 2004; Moura e Lee, 2004). In contrast, the second hypothesis (Beck, 1980; Fox et al., 2004) predicts that favorable local conditions enhance the emergence and the maintenance of innovative behaviours, including tool use. Our second goal was to determine the frequencies of tool use in the different sex-age classes in order to verify whether, as we predict on the basis of the high sexual dimorphism and the energetic effort required to crack open nuts...

Energy Sector Reform and the Pattern of the Poor : Energy Use and Supply, A Four Country Study - Botswana, Ghana, Honduras and Senegal

Prasad, Gisela
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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35.78%
This project had the following objectives: to undertake a detailed assessment for four countries of the steps taken to reform the energy sector and their impact (or not) on various groups of poor households; to identify patterns of energy use by poor households in various situations; to identify patterns of supply of energy to poor households; and to identify links between the supply and the use of energy by poor households, which are capable of being directly impacted by sector reform. Such links include: the actual use of various sources of energy (e.g. electricity); the form in which the source is used (e.g. battery or grid connection); its associated cost (capital costs and fuel costs); and the nature of the delivery form (state utility or local off-grid company, retailer of batteries or of LPG). The design of a template for future assessment of the impact of sector reform on the poor in other countries. Through the use of local consultants, wherever possible, the engagement in capacity building for economic and policy analysis of the energy sector.

Evaluation of the Impact of Payments for Environmental Services on Land Use Change in Quindío, Colombia

Pagiola, Stefano; Rios, Ana R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
The growing use of Payments for Environmental Services (PES) for conservation has fostered a debate on its effectiveness, but the few efforts to date to assess the impact of PES programs have been hampered by lack of data, leading to very divergent results. This paper uses data from a PES mechanism implemented in Quindío, Colombia, to examine the impact of PES on land use change. Alone among all early PES initiatives, the Silvopastoral Project included a control group of nonparticipants, whose land use changes were monitored throughout the project period, as well as detailed baseline data on both PES recipients and control group members. By comparing the land use changes undertaken by PES recipients to those undertaken by control group members, we can distinguish the impact of PES from that of other factors. The results show that payments had a positive and highly significant impact on land use change, under a variety of model formulations. PES recipients converted over 40 percent of their farms to environmentally-friendly land uses over 4 years...

Social Capital, HIV Risk Behavior and Substance Use among Recent Latino Immigrants in South Florida

Cyrus, Elena
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.79%
Social capital, or social cohesion or group connectedness, can influence both HIV risk behavior and substance use. Because recent immigrants undergo a change in environment, one of the consequences can be a change in social capital. There may be an association among changes in social capital, and HIV risk behavior and substance use post immigration. The dissertation focused on the interface of these three variables among recent Latino immigrants (RLIs) in South Florida. The first manuscript is a systematic review of social capital and HIV risk behavior, and served as a partial background for the second and third manuscripts. Twelve papers with a measure of social capital as an independent variable and HIV risk as the dependent variable were included in the analysis. Eleven studies measured social capital at the individual level, and one study measured social capital at the group level. HIV risk was influenced by social capital, but the type of influence was dependent on the type of social capital and on the study population. Cognitive social capital, or levels of collective action, was protective against HIV in both men and women. The role of structural social capital, or levels of civic engagement/group participation, on HIV risk was dependent on the type of structural social capital and varied by gender. Microfinance programs and functional group participation were protective for women...

Land use change: implications for Australian Capital Territory Water use

Newham, L T H; Buller, C D; Barnett, P; Field, J B
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 26855 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
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Managing water resources to ensure environmental values are maintained, whilst allowing for continued economic development is a major challenge facing many areas including the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). This paper reports on a GIS based investigation of the implications of land use change on ACT water use. The paper describes a suite of tools that are collectively termed PLUCA (Platform for Land use Change Assessment).

Areas with the potential for land use change were identified through land capability assessment and by investigation of the suitability of land for development of alternate industries. Spatial data including slope, aspect, a wetness index, climatic surfaces, geology and consideration of the minimum viable scale of industry were analysed in the study.

A coarse land use class – water use relationship estimated for the ACT was used to determine the maximum potential water use resulting from land use change. Three scenarios, based on different levels of land use change were constructed to simulate high, medium and low levels of potential landuse change in the ACT. The estimated reduction in streamflow for the maximum development scenario, was around 6.8% of the average annual runoff from the ACT. This scenario represented modification of only 3.9% of the total land area.

This study demonstrates the potential for the use of GIS in the optimisation of landuse from biophysical characteristics. The implications of such changes should they occur were calculated through investigation of the annual average reduction in streamflow. The study demonstrates the use of GIS techniques in quantifying interactions at appropriate scales for decision making. The development of improved decision support tools is also outlined.

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A comparison of combinatory methods and GIS based MOLA (IDRISI®) for solving multi-objective land use assessment and allocation problems

Sharma, Sunil Kumar
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
The aim of this study was to provide an informed choice among two combinatory methods and GIS based MOLA module in IDRISI® by comparing their performance in solving a hypothetical Multi-Objective Land use Assessment and Allocation (MOLAA)problem. Among the combinatory methods, Simulated Annealing and Tabu Search algorithms were chosen for study. The application of Simulated Annealing has already been demonstrated in solving a MOLAA problem but Tabu Search has not been used to a MOLAA problem before. The Kioloa Region of New South Wales, Australia was chosen for designing a hypothetical MOLAA problem due to availability and access to the digital datasets at the Australian National University. The MOLAA problem was formulated for accomplishing six land use objectives by allocating the area to four land use types, that is, conservation, agriculture, forestry and development, using altogether 1 7 criteria, including 16 factors and one constraint. The criteria maps were classified in ordinal, continuous and fuzzy scale and combined by using Weighted Linear Combination to produce land use suitability models for each land use type. The ordinal and continuous land use suitability models were used in solving the problem by applying the MOLA module. In order to apply the combinatory methods...

Bridging evidence-practice gaps: improving use of medicines in elderly Australian veterans

Roughead, E.; Kalisch Ellett, L.; Ramsay, E.; Pratt, N.; Barratt, J.; LeBlanc, V.; Ryan, P.; Peck, R.; Killer, G.; Gilbert, A.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
BACKGROUND The Australian Government Department of Veterans’ Affairs (DVA) funds an ongoing health promotion based program to improve use of medicines and related health services, which implements interventions that include audit and feedback in the form of patient-specific feedback generated from administrative claims records. We aimed to determine changes in medicine use as a result of the program. METHODS The program provides targeted patient-specific feedback to medical practitioners. The feedback is supported with educational material developed by a clinical panel, subject to peer review and overseen by a national editorial committee. Veterans who meet target criteria also receive educational brochures. The program is supported by a national call centre and ongoing national consultation. Segmented regression analyses (interrupted time series) were undertaken to assess changes in medication use in targeted veterans pre and post each intervention. RESULTS 12 interventions were included; three to increase medicine use, seven which aimed to reduce use, and two which had combination of messages to change use. All programs that aimed to increase medicine use were effective, with relative effect sizes at the time of the intervention ranging from 1% to 8%. Mixed results were seen with programs aiming to reduce inappropriate medicine use. Highly specific programs were effective...

Religiosity, Alcohol Use Attitudes, and Alcohol Use in a National Sample of Adolescents

Kratz, Lisa M.; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Dios, Marcel A.; Vaughn, Ellen L.
Fonte: American Psychological Association Publicador: American Psychological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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35.78%
The purpose of this study was to investigate alcohol use attitudes as a mediator of the relationship between religiosity and the frequency of past month alcohol use in a national sample of adolescents. Data were drawn from 18,314 adolescents who participated in the 2006 and 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Variables included religiosity, alcohol use attitudes, and past month frequency of alcohol use. Structural equation modeling was used to test alcohol use attitudes as a mediator of the relationship between religiosity and frequency of alcohol use and to test model invariance across 4 racial/ethnic groups. Results suggest that alcohol use attitudes partially mediate the relationship between religiosity and frequency of alcohol use. Furthermore, while the pattern of these relationships is similar across racial/ethnic groups, the magnitude of alcohol use attitudes on frequency of alcohol use differed. Implications for prevention programs include targeting alcohol use attitudes in a variety of settings.

Khat use in people living with HIV: a facility-based cross-sectional survey from South West Ethiopia

Soboka, M.; Tesfaye, M.; Feyissa, G.T.; Hanlon, C.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
Background: Khat is an evergreen plant with leaves containing the amphetamine-like compounds cathinone and cathine. Many people in the Horn of Africa use khat on a regular basis. Adverse health and social consequences of khat use have been described but little is known about the use of khat in people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV) in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of khat use and factors associated with khat use among PLHIV who are in contact with HIV services in a hospital in south-west Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 389 PLHIV who attended HIV services at Jimma University Specialized Hospital in September 2012. A structured questionnaire, translated into the local languages, was used to ask about the frequency of khat use and potential risk factors and consequences of khat use in this patient group. Logistic regression analysis was used for bivariate and multivariable analysis. Results: The overall prevalence of current khat use among people living with HIV was 23.0%. The prevalence was 18.3% in females and 33.6% in males. Christians were less likely to use khat when compared to Muslims (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 0.26, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.55). There was a positive association between khat use and mental distress (aOR 1.84...

Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Adolescent Detainees

Rojas, Patria
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.79%
During the past two decades there has been much research conducted on the relationship between the risky sexual behavior practices and substance use among U.S. adolescents. This body of research has documented the fact that substance use and not using condoms are the most important indicators associated with the risk of becoming infected with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) both among adolescents and adults (Florida Department of Public Health, 2004; Malow, Devieux, Jennings, & Lucenko, 2001; McCoy & Inciardi, 1995). Data from those reports and studies indicate that adolescents and adults who use a condom regularly and appropriately are 20 times less likely to contract an STD than those who do not (Pinkerton & Abramson, 1997). However, less empirical evidence exists about the factors that influence adolescent use of condoms, particularly among adolescents who are detained due to their criminal lifestyle. Researchers have found both a high prevalence of STD in addition to early onset of sexual activity without protection among some adolescent groups such as the detainees (D'angelo & DiClemente, 1996) and that adolescents tend to underestimate their risks of acquiring the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Magura, Shapiro, & Kang...

The Effect of Climate and Technological Uncertainty in Crop Yields on the Optimal Path of global land use

Cai, Yongyang; Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Elliott, Joshua; Hertel, Thomas W.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
The pattern of global land use has important implications for the world's food and timber supplies, bioenergy, biodiversity and other eco-system services. However, the productivity of this resource is critically dependent on the world's climate, as well as investments in, and dissemination of improved technology. This creates massive uncertainty about future land use requirements which compound the challenge faced by individual investors and governments seeking to make long term, sometimes irreversible investments in land conversion and land use. This study assesses how uncertainties associated with underlying biophysical processes and technological change in agriculture affect the optimal profile of land use over the next century, taking into account the potential irreversibility in these decisions. A novel dynamic stochastic model of global land use is developed, in which the societal objective function being maximized places value on food production, liquid fuels (including bio-fuels), timber production...

Confronting the Food-Energy-Environment Trilemma : Global Land Use in the Long Run

Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Hertel, Thomas W.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
Economic, agronomic, and biophysical drivers affect global land use, so all three influences need to be considered in evaluating economically optimal allocations of the world's land resources. A dynamic, forward-looking optimization framework applied over the course of the coming century shows that although some deforestation is optimal in the near term, in the absence of climate change regulation, the desirability of further deforestation is eliminated by mid-century. Although adverse productivity shocks from climate change have a modest effect on global land use, such shocks combined with rapid growth in energy prices lead to significant deforestation and higher greenhouse gas emissions than in the baseline. Imposition of a global greenhouse gas emissions constraint further heightens the competition for land, as fertilizer use declines and land-based mitigation strategies expand. However, anticipation of the constraint largely dilutes its environmental effectiveness, as deforestation accelerates prior to imposition of the target.

The sustainability potential of (W)EEE re-use in Ireland; evaluation, implementation, auto-identification and the internet of things

O'Connell, Maurice
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
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35.78%
peer-reviewed; In this thesis, re-use is considered as a potential building block towards achieving more sustainable consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). A sustainability analysis demonstrates that EEE re-use, when adapted as part of national policy, can potentially benefit all sectors of society. For white goods re-use, a quantitative model permitted a comparative analysis of re-use and non-re-use scenarios to determine the environmental impacts. The model demonstrates the importance of considering user consumption profiles and the changing national electricity generation portfolio in determining the best end of life strategy; whether it should be re-use or recycling. The outcome of the model suggests that re-use of white goods whose energy rating is one below the cheapest available new product is environmentally preferable. Using domestic and international data, the thesis also argues that the development of a re-use sector provides an opportunity to make a significant contribution to social and economic growth by creating employment and enabling sustainable economic growth. The thesis concludes that re-use of electrical and electronic equipment is as an activity that must be regulated in order to develop in a sustainable fashion...

Adolescentes em conflito com a Lei: relações entre o comportamento delituoso e o de uso de substâncias psicoativas; Juvenile Offenders: relationship between criminal behavior and the use of psychoactive substances

Bono, Elvio Luciano
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/09/2015 PT
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A maioria dos jovens emite alguns comportamentos antissociais; uma minoria, porém, irá manifestar tais procedimentos de modo mais frequente, o que pode representar um risco à persistência e ao agravamento dos mesmos, ao longo do tempo. Dentre os comportamentos antissociais encontram-se as condutas delituosas e o uso de sustâncias. Estudos apontam que o uso de substâncias em meio aos adolescentes infratores é maior do que na população em geral de adolescentes e acontece de forma mais preocupante. O presente estudo, ao utilizar dados de uma amostra de 120 adolescentes em conflito com a lei, objetivou caracterizar os comportamentos delituosos bem como os de uso de substâncias, buscando verificar as associações existentes entre eles. Os adolescentes foram recrutados no contexto da custódia inicial, após a elaboração do Boletim de Ocorrência, e convidados a participar do estudo. Seus pais/responsáveis foram contatados e solicitados a autorizarem a participação dos filhos na pesquisa, seguindo as normativas éticas. Para a coleta de dados, foram empregados: Roteiro de Entrevista Sociodemográfica; a Entrevista Estruturada de Delinquência Autorrevelada; DUSI-R (Drug Use Screening Inventory). Análises descritivas e, posteriormente...

Unmet needs for treatment of alcohol and drug use in four cities in Mexico

Borges,Guilherme; Medina-Mora,María Elena; Orozco,Ricardo; Fleiz,Clara; Villatoro,Jorge; Rojas,Estela; Zemore,Sarah
Fonte: Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Publicador: Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2009 EN
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35.79%
Introduction Even though heavy alcohol consumption is frequent, alcohol-related consequences are common, and drug use has become more common in this country, we know very little about public health response and the types of treatments available for persons with substance use disorders in Mexico. Current national estimates show that about one in every five persons with alcohol and substance use disorders received treatment in the last 12 months, but to date the rates of treatment for local communities are unknown; these data are needed for policy planning at community level. This study presents data on the treatment for substance use and substance use disorders in three urban areas of Northern Mexico and one state capital in Central Mexico. The Northern region is of particular interest in Mexico because of its proximity to the United States and previous evidence that alcohol and drug use is about twice as common in this region compared with other regions. The city of Queretaro provides a more appropriate comparison for the cities in Northern Mexico than a place as Mexico City, or the national means, due to its level of development, population size, and basic epidemiologic data on drug use. Material and methods The Local Surveys on Addictions 2005 (Encuestas Locales de Adicciones 2005) are part of the Mexican National Survey on Addictions (ENA) series...