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Uma reflexão crítica sobre o modelo tarifário para o transporte coletivo urbano por ônibus no Brasil: uma abordagem de gestão econômica ; A critical reflection on princing model that urban transportation by bus from Brazil: of the economic management approach

Santos, Nalbia de Araujo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2002 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
RESUMO O transporte urbano é importante para a sociedade porque promove as relações econômicas e sociais mediante o deslocamento das pessoas. Contudo, o setor está passando por uma mudança de cenário, em virtude da expansão da concorrência do transporte informal e aumento do uso de carros particulares. Tal mudança tem causado queda no número de usuários do serviço e aumentos nos custos do setor. Essa situação induz as empresas a solicitar em aumentos nas tarifas. Entretanto, tais aumentos não solucionaram o problema. Por isso, este estudo faz uma reflexão crítica sobre a tomada de decisões relativa à tarifa no transporte coletivo urbano por ônibus, utilizando-se da abordagem conceitual de gestão econômica. A reflexão tem o objetivo de contribuir com a aplicação dos conceitos de gestão econômica na elaboração de um modelo tarifário que colabore no processo de tomada de decisão da tarifa e no planejamento de resultado. Para tanto, fez-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica e documental para descrever as características do setor e as variáveis que afetam a decisão a respeito da tarifa. Dessa forma, analisaram-se e evidenciaram-se aspectos relevantes do setor a respeito das relações institucionais, do planejamento e o processo de tomada de decisão...

Externalidades da substituição do diesel pelo etanol no transporte público urbano da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo; Externalities of ethanol replacing diesel oil in the Public Urban Transport of São Paulos Metropolitan Region

Lascala, Thelma Lopes da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/05/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.43%
A Matriz Energética Brasileira é plenamente sustentável tendo em vista as emissões de gases de efeito estufa (GEEs), devido ao fato da eletricidade de origem hídrica, bem como do uso do etanol da cana-de-açúcar utilizado em veículos automotivos leves. A maioria das emissões dos GEEs no Brasil vem do desmatamento da Amazônia. Contudo, o uso do óleo diesel especialmente para o transporte (caminhão e ônibus) ainda é um problema a ser resolvido, não apenas devido à emissão de carbono, mas também, porque o óleo diesel no Brasil ainda apresenta emissões altamente poluentes: material particulado (MP), óxidos de nitrogênio (NOx) e óxidos de enxofre (SOx) - as emissões mais importantes, além dos gases de efeito estufa (GEEs). O uso do biodiesel está contribuindo para a redução de tais emissões, mas medidas completares ainda são necessárias. A introdução da Lei Federal de Mudanças Climáticas (nº 12.187) é um destes instrumentos. No Município de São Paulo a Lei de Mudanças Climáticas (Lei Municipal nº 14.933) de 9 de novembro de 2009 estabelece uma redução dos GEEs em torno de 20% até 2020. Para atingir este objetivo, além da necessária redução das emissões locais (GELs) na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo (RMSP)...

General Report TC202 Transportation Geotechnics; Rapport général du TC202 Géotechnique pour les infrastructures de transport

Indraratna, B.; Correia, A. Gomes
Fonte: Presses des Ponts Publicador: Presses des Ponts
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /09/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
Today’s needs of urban transportation including roads, railways, airports and harbours demand significant resources for infrastructure development in view of rapid and efficient public and commercial (freight) services. In most cases, authorities have had difficulties in meeting these service demands due to the rapidly growing public, industrial, mining and agricultural sectors in many parts of the world. In order to maximise efficiency and to reduce the costs of maintenance, sound technical knowledge is required. This general report presents major technical advancements around the globe encompassing 33 articles from 19 countries and it is classified into 6 key categories, namely: compaction and subgrade improvement, laboratory testing, theoretical advancements and contributions to design, applications of geosynthetics, numerical modelling and field performance evaluation.; De nos jours, les besoins en transports urbains (routes, chemins de fer, aéroports aériens et maritimes) nécessitent d’importantes ressources pour le développement des infrastructures en vue d’assurer des services commerciaux rapides et efficaces. Dans la plupart des cas, en raison de la croissance rapide des secteurs public, industriel, minier et agricole...

Measuring the transportation needs of seniors

Wasfi,Rania; Levinson,David; El-Geneidy,Ahmed
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Planejamento dos Transportes Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Planejamento dos Transportes
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.45%
Transportation systems are built with the intention to serve communities by providing accessibility and mobility. Yet seniors residing in these communities face different challenges compared to regular commuters. Seniors have special needs in terms of desired destinations and challenges faced due to limitations in mobility and decline of accessibility levels where they reside. In this research paper we discuss major findings from a mail-out mail-in survey conducted in Hennepin County, Minnesota to measuring met and unmet urban transportation needs of seniors. Compared to previous research this study uses primary collected data rather than relying on travel surveys, which does not measure the unmet urban transportation needs of seniors. The findings from this survey is consistent in term of measuring the existing travel behavior of seniors, which raises our confidence in the information being collected related to the unmet transportation needs of seniors. Seniors are found to be generally independent and rely mainly on auto usage to reach desired destinations at higher rates compared to the rest of the population. The majority of seniors reported although they are currently independent they do know that such independency is not permanent and they have to learn more about alternatives available to them. This study helps transportation engineers and planners in better understanding the current and future challenges that they will face with an aging population.

A new behavioral principle for urban transportation networks

Fonte: Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 59 p.; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
by Stanley B. Gershwin, David M. Orlicki.; Bibliography: p. 58-59.; "March 1982."; U. S. Department of Transportation Contract DOT-TSC-RSPA-81-9

A new behavioral principle for travelers in an urban network : final report

Fonte: Dept. of Transportation, Office of Systems Engineering ; National Technical Information Service Publicador: Dept. of Transportation, Office of Systems Engineering ; National Technical Information Service
Formato: ix/x, 94 p.; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.36%
Stanley B. Gershwin, David M. Orlicki, Yacov Zahavi.; Cover title. "October 1981." Contract no. DTRS-57-80-C-00012. Performing organizations: Mobility Systems, Inc. and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems. Under contract to the Transportation Systems Center.; Includes bibliographical references.

The spatial and temporal dynamics of commuting : examining the impacts of urban growth patterns, 1980-2000

Yang, Jiawen, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 218 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.45%
The dissertation is broadly concerned with the issues of urban transportation and urban spatial structure change. The focus of the research is to interpret the increase in commuting time and distance in the last two decades. The major hypothesis is that a significant proportion of commuting length increase can be explained by land development patterns, particularly the spatial relationship between workplace and residence. The biggest challenge to address the above problem is to design a method that characterizes job-housing proximity and correlates commuting with job-housing proximity consistently across space, over time and among different regions. A thorough evaluation of existing measures, including ratios of jobs to employed residents, gravity type accessibility and minimum required commuting, shows that all have serious problems. The dissertation presents a new approach - the commuting spectrum - for measuring and interpreting the commuting impacts of metropolitan changes in terms of job-housing distribution. This method is then used to explain commuting in two sizable but contrasting regions, Boston and Atlanta. Journey-to-work data from Census Transportation Planning Packages (CTPP) over three decades (1980, 1990 and 1990) are utilized.; (cont.) Results indicate that the configuration of commuting spectrums mirror the changes in urban spatial structure in terms of job-housing proximity. In addition...

O Prêmio Nacional de Qualidade e as políticas e práticas de recursos humanos :um estudo em empresas do setor de transporte público por ônibus da região metropolitana de Natal/RN; The acceptance of politics by human resources in the service: the marries enterprises of urban transportation sector, by bus, in the metropolitan region of Natal

Araújo, Luis Antônio Soares de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção; Estratégia; Qualidade; Gestão Ambiental; Gestão da Produção e Operações Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção; Estratégia; Qualidade; Gestão Ambiental; Gestão da Produção e Operações
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
This work has goal of analyzing the practices of Human Resources in the per missionary enterprises of urban transportation, by bus, in the metropolitan region of de Natal, based on the standard person of the National Program of Quality 2004 and points if they are able to take part as prize-winning in this standard. Also this work aims, through a theoretical evolution of people management and its current practices, the history of the National prize Quality and its main standards, the importance of the urban transportation, its characteristics and the system itself in the metropolitan region of Natal. The research was carried out in 11 enterprises that operated in the area, with several dimensions and forms of management. The research variations were based on the standard person of the 2004 NPQ that deals with the system of work, preparation and development and life quality. In the statistical treatment, discriminated and exploiting analyses were applied. The main obtained results through the research, we can verify an administrative centralization in managers and owners hands; that 45% of the enterprises don t have a Human Resources Department, however, on the other hand, they practice some human Resources politics, indicated by the variations; as to the items system of work...

Um Estudo de Politicas e Práticas do uso do GNV no transporte público urbano do Brasil; A study on policies and practices concerning the use of natural gas vehicle for the urban public transport in Brazil

Cortez, Breno Peixoto
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção; Estratégia; Qualidade; Gestão Ambiental; Gestão da Produção e Operações Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção; Estratégia; Qualidade; Gestão Ambiental; Gestão da Produção e Operações
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
The use of Natural Gas Vehicle has had a fast increase lately. However, in order to have a continuous success this Program needs to develop converting devices of Otto-cycle engines, gasoline or alcohol, to the use of NGV (Natural Gas Vehicle) that presents low cost, maintaining the same original development of the vehicle and low level of emissions, considering the PROCONVE rules. Due to the need to diversify the matrix in order to avoid energetic dependence and due to strict pollution control, it has increased in the Brazilian market the number of vehicles converted to the use of NGV. The recent regulation of the PROCONVE, determining that the converted engines with kits should be submitted to emission testing, comes to reinforce the necessity of the proposed development. Therefore, if we can obtain kits with the characteristics already described, we can reach a major trust in the market and obtain an increase acceptance of the vehicle conversion for NGV. The use of natural gas as vehicle fuel presents several advantages in relation to liquid fuels. It is a vehicle fuel with fewer indexes of emissions when compared to diesel; their combustion gases are less harmful, with a major level of safety than liquid fuels and the market price is quite competitive. The preoccupation that emerges...

Private Sector Participation in Urban Rail : Getting the Structure Right

Menzies, Iain; Mandri-Perrott, Cledan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.55%
There is growing interest in using rail transit, trams, metros, light rail, to solve urban transportation problems, particularly road congestion and air pollution. In developing urban rail projects, a range of major cities around the world have turned to public-private partnership models, to leverage both public and private resources and expertise. Dissecting the successes and failures of public-private urban rail schemes, this note examines how policy makers can best deal with the main risks involved in designing, procuring, and implementing such schemes. It also draws lessons on best practice in developing and managing contractual arrangements that can help ensure their success and sustainability.

Introducing Behavioral Change in Transportation into Energy/Economy/Environment Models

Schafer, Andreas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.69%
Transportation is vital to economic and social development, but at the same time generates undesired consequences on local, regional, and global scales. One of the largest challenges is the mitigation of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, to which this sector already contributes one-quarter globally and one-third in the United States. Technology measures are the prerequisite for drastically mitigating energy use and all emission species, but they are not sufficient. The resulting need for complementing technology measures with behavioral change policies contrasts sharply with the analyses carried out by virtually all energy / economy / environment (E3) models, given their focus on pure technology-based solutions. This paper addresses the challenges for E3 models to simulate behavioral changes in transportation. A survey of 13 major models concludes that especially hybrid energy models would already be capable of simulating some behavioral change policies, most notably the imposition of the full marginal societal costs of transportation. Another survey of major macroscopic transportation models finds that key specifications required for simulating behavioral change have already been implemented and tested...

Greater Cairo : A Proposed Urban Transport Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.7%
The objective of the urban transport strategy note (UTSN) is to provide an assessment of the urban transport system in Greater Cairo (GC), identify what now appear to be the most pressing urban transport problems, and framework for urgent policy actions and investment priorities that would be the basis of a formal transport strategy to be adopted and implemented by the authorities of the metropolitan area of Cairo. This note is essentially based on a thorough review of the 2002 Urban Transportation Master Plan for GC and a rapid analysis of the current conditions and performance of the urban transport system. This note includes nine chapters. The first chapter provides a quick overview of the current situation of the UT in GC. In chapter two, present the main guiding principles and key components of the proposed strategy to prepare the ground for the following chapters. Chapter three to nine elaborate on the issues and policy recommendations for each of the components of the strategy: organization and operation of public transport systems (chapter three)...

A National Framework for Sustainable Urban Transport Systems : Proposals for Improving Urban Transportation in Russian Cities

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Moscow Publicador: World Bank, Moscow
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.7%
In many Russian cities, these growing demands for mobility are not adequately met by the existing urban transport infrastructure and services. Most municipalities have had difficulties in planning and managing the development of their urban transport systems in a coherent manner, which is a precondition for successful resolution of the existing transport problems. In addition, there is a need to develop and put in place a sound legal and regulatory framework. Thus, in order to create favorable conditions for addressing the existing transport problems, there is a need to develop a national framework that would contribute to the creation of pre-requisites for sustainable development of urban transport systems. The purpose of this work is to develop proposals for the formation of the national framework for improvement of the quality and sustainability of urban transport and road traffic safety in Russian cities.

Urban Road Transportation Externalities : Costs and Choice of Policy Instruments

Timilsina, Govinda R.; Dulal, Hari B.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
Urban transportation externalities are a key development challenge. Based on the existing literature, the authors illustrate the magnitudes of various external costs, review response policies, and measure and discuss their selection, particularly focusing on the context of developing countries. They find that regulatory policy instruments aimed at reducing local air pollution have been introduced in most countries in the world. On the other hand, fiscal policy instruments aimed at reducing congestion or greenhouse gas emissions are limited mainly to industrialized economies. Although traditional fiscal instruments, such as fuel taxes and subsidies, are normally introduced for other purposes, they can also help to reduce externalities. Land-use or urban planning, and infrastructure investment, could also contribute to reducing externalities; but they are expensive and play a small role in already developed megacities. The main factors that influence the choice of policy instruments include economic efficiency, equity, country or city specific priority, and institutional capacity for implementation. Multiple policy options need to be used simultaneously to reduce effectively the different externalities arising from urban road transportation because most policy options are not mutually exclusive.

Metropolitan Transportation Institutions : Six Case Studies - Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, and the United States

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.76%
Transportation has always played a fundamental role in the formation of cities. Ports evolved where rivers flowed into the ocean or at the confluence of major rivers; sleepy outposts at the junction of major roads became bustling trading hubs. Although this relationship between transportation and development has been evident since the creation of the earliest urban societies, all previous conceptions of the city were made obsolete by the advent of the industrial revolution. The transportation challenges raised by this new city centered on congestion. Early forms of transit provided some relief, but as motor vehicles became common place, existing urban streets were overwhelmed. As roadways were enlarged and expressways constructed, the population of new suburbs expanded and the automobile became the dominant form of transportation in many developed cities. To address issues at this scale, cities and countries around the world have developed new institutions that sit between the scale of local and higher order governments. The example of Boston...

Institutional Labyrinth : Designing a Way Out for Improving Urban Transport Services--Lessons from Current Practice

Kumar, Ajay; Agarwal, O. P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.69%
Severe congestion, poor air quality, increases in road accidents, and explosive growth in energy consumption are manifestations of rapid motorization in cities around the globe, especially in the developing world. The tendency in most developing cities has been to deal with these problems in a piecemeal fashion, largely through supply side interventions, such as widening roads, constructing flyovers, or building high-cost mass transit systems. It is becoming increasingly recognized that effective solutions lie in comprehensive and holistic approaches that integrate what would normally be patchwork efforts and, in addition, combine supply side efforts with demand side measures. In general, this means that multiple, well-integrated actions need to be taken. Integrated and comprehensive thinking and implementation is required across multiple subsystems and disciplines, such as land use planning, environmental quality, energy efficiency, and services for the poor and physically disadvantaged. The ability to undertake comprehensive planning and execution that is integrated functionally...

Urban Road Transportation Externalities : Costs and Choice of Policy Instruments

Timilsina, Govinda R.; Dulal, Hari B.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
Urban transportation externalities are a key development challenge. Based on the existing literature, the authors illustrate the magnitudes of various external costs, review response policies, and measure and discuss their selection, particularly focusing on the context of developing countries. They find that regulatory policy instruments aimed at reducing local air pollution have been introduced in most countries in the world. On the other hand, fiscal policy instruments aimed at reducing congestion or greenhouse gas emissions are limited mainly to industrialized economies. Although traditional fiscal instruments, such as fuel taxes and subsidies, are normally introduced for other purposes, they can also help to reduce externalities. Land-use or urban planning, and infrastructure investment, could also contribute to reducing externalities; but they are expensive and play a small role in already developed megacities. The main factors that influence the choice of policy instruments include economic efficiency, equity, country or city specific priority, and institutional capacity for implementation. Multiple policy options need to be used simultaneously to reduce effectively the different externalities arising from urban road transportation because most policy options are not mutually exclusive.

Planning for the Laobaixing : Public Participation in Urban Transport Project, Liaoning, China

Chen, Wenling; Mehndiratta, Shomik Raj
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.69%
International experience suggests that in the realm of urban transport, a public participation process can be a valuable complement to the technical planning process in generating good projects with widespread distributional benefits that minimize concentration of adverse impacts. If properly designed, participation processes also offer an opportunity to incorporate the interests of vulnerable groups into the planning process. This paper presents a recent case study of a World Bank financed urban infrastructure improvement project in Liaoning, China, where the successful development of a meaningful public participation process influenced project design to better address the broad needs of the project beneficiaries. Particularly, the participatory process significantly influenced the project design and raised city leaders' sensitivity to public needs. Through the process the project shifted focus from major road expansion to secondary road improvements. Additionally, the participation processes picked up latent issues to better address needs of non-auto users...

Um modelo computacional para a simulação de sistemas de transporte urbano; A computational model for urban transportation system simulation

Morais, Daniel Marques Gomes de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/09/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.48%
Atualmente as dificuldades enfrentadas no deslocamento urbano são consideradas um dos maiores problemas, especialmente nas grandes cidades. O planejamento adequado do sistema de transporte urbano é fundamental para minimizar o tempo e os custos de deslocamento, melhorando a qualidade de vida da população e o próprio funcionamento do ambiente urbano. Esta dissertação parte da premissa de que os sistemas de simulação podem ser usados para estudar diferentes alternativas para melhorar o sistema de transportes, servindo de base para a tomada de decisão de forma a otimizar o deslocamento urbano. Assim, este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de um modelo computacional para simulação do sistema de transporte urbano. O modelo proposto combina características dos modelos mesoscópicos e microscópicos, incluindo o comportamento dos usuários no planejamento da rota. Um framework para o desenvolvimento de aplicações de simulação é descrito e testado com uma implementação usando como cenário o Metropolitano de São Paulo (Metrô), considerando-se dados da pesquisa Origem-Destino para teste e validação do modelo aqui proposto.; Nowadays, the difficulties faced in urban displacement are considered a major problem, especially in big cities. Proper urban transport system planning is essential to minimize travel time and costs...

Graphic design in the urban transportation environment

Yildirim-Dessauer, Ozlem
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
This thesis focuses on various design problems facing graphic designers who design visual messages for urban transportation environments, specifically bus and subway systems. The urban transit environment poses a unique challenge for designers because it is multidimensional, and the audience is in constant motion. As David Bernstein describes the transit environment: "It's up, down, all around, in the sky, underground..." (Bernstein, 1997, p. 9). Added to this unique challenge of capturing the audience's fleeting attention span, designers also face problems of space limitations, poor lighting, chaotic placement of posters, and lack of a cohesive visual plan for a transit venue. Urban transit environments offer myriad kinds of information to its audience of pedestrians and mass transit riders. These include: informational (e.g., transit maps), instructional (e.g., signs telling passengers where and where not to stand), wayfinding (e.g., directions to the street, trains, taxis), regulatory (e.g., "no smoking" signs), and promotional advertising (e.g., commercial posters and billboards). This study focuses on promotional advertising issues in both indoor and outdoor transportation venues, the author does so for several reasons: these kinds of messages dominate the transportation environment...