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Resíduos sólidos urbanos: impactos socioambientais e perspectiva de manejo sustentável com inclusão social; Solid urban waste: socio-environmental impacts and prospects for sustainable management with social inclusion

Gouveia, Nelson da Cruz
Fonte: ABRASCO; RIO DE JANEIRO Publicador: ABRASCO; RIO DE JANEIRO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.28%
Com a Rio+20 retoma-se a discussão de estratégias para conciliar desenvolvimento com proteção dos ecossistemas. Um tema apenas tangenciado nessas discussões é o gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos. Diante da institucionalização da Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos, busca-se contribuir para esse debate, bem como apontar caminhos para o enfrentamento dessa questão, privilegiando a inclusão social. Para isso, foram utilizados documentos e informações sobre a gestão de resíduos sólidos, e a literatura científica especializada. Observa-se que o inadequado gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos gera impactos imediatos no ambiente e na saúde, assim como contribui para mudanças climáticas. Considerando as limitações das opções de destinação final para os resíduos, é imprescindível minimizar as quantidades produzidas por meio da redução, reutilização e reciclagem. Nesse contexto, destaca-se o papel dos catadores, que vêm realizando um trabalho de grande importância ambiental. Dadas as fragilidades desse segmento populacional, é preciso delinear políticas públicas que tornem a atividade de catação mais digna e com menos riscos e que, ao mesmo tempo, garantam renda, para assim caminhar rumo a um desenvolvimento mais saudável...

"Impacto ambiental na área do aterro sanitário e incinerador de resíduos sólidos de Ribeirão Preto, SP: avaliação dos níveis de metais pesados" ; Environmental impact in the Municipal Landfill Site and Medical Waste Incinerator area in Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo: Evaluation of heavy metals levels.

Muñoz, Susana Inés Segura
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/12/2002 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
Os resíduos sólidos podem conter substâncias químicas com características tóxicas, dentre elas os metais pesados presentes em diversos materiais provenientes de indústrias, funilarias, atividades agrícolas, laboratórios, hospitais e residências. A contaminação por metais pesados apresenta um amplo espectro de toxicidade que inclui efeitos neurotóxicos, hepatotóxicos, nefrotóxicos, teratogênicos, carcinogênicos ou mutagênicos. Em Ribeirão Preto – SP há em funcionamento desde 1989, um aterro sanitário (AS) para resíduos domiciliares e um incinerador de resíduos de serviços de saúde (IRSS). Este estudo teve como objetivo fazer um diagnóstico dos níveis de metais pesados na área do AS e IRSS de Ribeirão Preto, entre 2000 e 2001. Foram realizadas análises de amostras de solo, água, chorume e vegetais, em pontos previamente demarcados na área, tendo sido avaliada a presença de mercúrio (Hg), cobre (Cu), chumbo (Pb), cádmio (Cd), manganês (Mn), zinco (Zn) e cromo (Cr) por Espectrofotometria de Absorção Atômica. Visando a obtenção de parâmetros locais, foram também analisadas amostras coletadas na Estação Ecológica na mata Santa Teresa, zona de preservação permanente do município, para comparação de valores. Pela análise dos resultados verificou-se...

Investigação geoambiental em áreas de disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos utilizando a tecnologia do piezocone.; Geoenvironmental site investigation in waste disposal sites using the piezocone technology.

Mondelli, Giulliana
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/04/2004 PT
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56.14%
O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a aplicabilidade da tecnologia do piezocone na investigação geoambiental de solos tropicais a partir da realização de ensaios nas áreas onde se encontram o aterro de resíduos sólidos urbanos de Bauru e o antigo lixão de Ribeirão Preto, ambos no Estado de São Paulo. Dentro deste contexto, outros ensaios de campo e de laboratório foram analisados para um melhor entendimento do caminhamento da pluma de contaminação e dos próprios resultados dos ensaios com piezocone realizados nestas áreas de disposição de resíduos. A tecnologia do piezocone apresentou limitações quando empregada na área do antigo lixão de Ribeirão Preto, uma vez que o impenetrável do cone foi atingido antes do nível d’água, impossibilitando assim a identificação da posição deste, a estimativa da permeabilidade do solo e a coleta de amostras de água. Os ensaios de eletrorresistividade de superfície permitiram a detecção do formato e do sentido do caminhamento da pluma de contaminação e foram fundamentais para a orientação dos locais onde foram realizados os ensaios de piezocone e amostragem de solo e água nas duas áreas estudadas. Os resultados dos ensaios com o piezocone de resistividade (RCPTU) realizados no aterro de resíduos sólidos urbanos de Bauru mostraram que os valores de resistividade são fortemente afetados pelo grau de saturação...

Implicações ambientais dos processos de atenuação de lixiviado em locais de disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos; Environmental implications from leachate's attenuation processes in places of solid urban waste's disposal

Almeida, Tania Leme de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/04/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
Estudos recentes constataram a existência de processos que permitem a atenuação natural dos contaminantes presentes nos lixiviados. O adequado entendimento destes processos pode originar benefícios possíveis de serem aplicados em aterros antigos, novos ou naqueles que ainda serão concebidos. O presente estudo avaliou o comportamento e a atenuação de contaminantes dos líxiviados no solo, por meio de experimento desenvolvido em colunas de percolação e, para a avaliação da atenuação este teste é indicado por refletir as condições naturais e as características adsortivas do solo, propiciando uma melhor simulação da atenuação. O lixiviado e o solo utilizados neste experimento são provenientes do aterro sanitário de São Carlos - SP. O solo utilizado foi caracterizado quanto à composição física, química, biológica e mineralógica para verificar o transporte do percolado nas colunas e a interação solo-contaminante. Na área do aterro foram feitas perfurações, ensaios de condutividade hidráulica e avaliação da geologia local, para conhecimento das características físicas, químicas, biológicas, mineralógicas e geológicas do solo in situ. Este foi classificado como arenoso, apresentando características físicas e químicas que não se enquadram nos parâmetros adequados para sua utilização em áreas de disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos...

Analysis of hybrid waste-to-energy for medium-sized cities

Balcazar, Juan Galvarino Cerda; Dias, Rubens Alves; Balestieri, José Antônio Perrella
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 728-741
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.42%
Urban centers have a huge demand for electricity and the growing problem of the solid waste management generated by their population, a relevant social and administrative problem. The correct disposal of the municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in cities is one of the most complex engineering problems that involves logistics, safety, environmental and energetic aspects for its adequate management. Due to a national policy of solid wastes recently promulgated, Brazilian cities are evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of incinerating the non-recyclable waste. São José dos Campos, a São Paulo State industrialized city, is considering the composting of organic waste for biogas production and mass incineration of non-recyclable waste. This paper presents a waste-to-energy system based on the integration of gas turbines to a MSW incinerator for producing thermal and electric energy as an alternative solution for the solid waste disposal in São José dos Campos, SP. A technical and economic feasibility study for the hybrid combined cycle plant is presented and revealed to be attractive when carbon credit and waste tax are included in the project income. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Municipal Solid Waste Management in Small Towns : An Economic Analysis Conducted in Yunnan, China

Wang, Hua; He, Jie; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.73%
Municipal solid waste management continues to be a major challenge for local governments in both urban and rural areas across the world, and one of the key issues is their financial constraints. Recently an economic analysis was conducted in Eryuan, a poor county located in Yunnan Province of China, where willingness to pay for an improved solid waste collection and treatment service was estimated and compared with the project cost. This study finds that the mean willingness to pay is about 1 percent of household income and the total willingness to pay can basically cover the total cost of the project. The analysis also shows that the poorest households in Eryuan are not only willing to pay more than the rich households in terms of income percentage in general, but also are willing to pay no less than the rich in absolute terms where no solid waste services are available; the poorest households have stronger demand for public solid waste management services while the rich have the capability to take private measures when public services are not available.

Improving Municipal Solid Waste Management in India : A Sourcebook for Policy Makers and Practitioners

Zhu, Da; Asnani, P. U.; Zurbrügg, Chris; Anapolsky, Sebastian; Mani, Shyamala
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.78%
Human activities create waste, and the ways that waste is handled, stored, collected, and disposed of can pose risks to the environment and to public health. Solid waste management (SWM) includes all activities that seek to minimize health, environmental, and aesthetic impacts of solid waste. In urban areas, especially in the rapidly urbanizing cities of the developing world, problems and issues of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) are of immediate importance. This book addresses the problem by focusing on India. A country such as India, with its high economic growth and rapid urbanization, requires immediate solutions to the problems related to mismanagement of urban waste. City managers are actively trying to understand the problem and are seeking effective ways of intervening. They realize that such interventions are essential to improving the quality of their cities and to reducing adverse health and environmental impacts. For cities to be sustainable and to continue their economic development, they must be clean and healthy. They need to improve their SWM systems by adopting good collection coverage...

Establishing Integrated Solid Waste Management in the Large Cities of Pakistan Multan : Comprehensive Scope Evaluation Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.66%
Solid waste management (SWM) is a major environment and health hazard in the urban areas of Pakistan. The World Bank is of the opinion that as cities economies are fast growing, business activity and consumption patterns are driving up solid waste quantities. In Pakistan the collection of waste is sporadic and the disposal is poor. Despite the fact that solid waste services represent the single largest expenditure item, less than 50 percent of the waste generated is collected; and even then it is disposed at dumpsites or roadsides since there is hardly any single sanitary landfill in Pakistan. The World Bank has been supporting the SWM agenda by financing analytical studies and formulating policies in Punjab, replicable to other provinces. The studies also pointed out needs and opportunities for the reduction and reuse of the waste by recycling and composting; and presented replicable local practices and opportunities for involving the private sector in various stages and segments of the SWM system. The report follows on from the inception report in September 2009 that summarized preliminary findings from the initial data gathering...

Urban Environment and Infrastructure : Toward Livable Cities

Bigio, Anthony G.; Dahiya, Bharat
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
This review of the active portfolio of World Bank projects aimed at improving urban environmental quality was carried out during 2002-03 in order to assess the level of commitment of the institution to urban sustainability. The review focuses on the contributions of key sectors to urban environmental improvements, in particular on those belonging to the Infrastructure Vice-Presidency, and on how projects are contributing to achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. It also highlights some of the apparent gaps in current Bank lending in regional, spatial, and thematic terms and argues for a more comprehensive and holistic approach to urban environmental priorities, which could lead to better-integrated investments. The Bank corporate strategy on urban development (World Bank 2000a) addresses the urban environment as part of enhancing urban livability. The corporate environment strategy (World Bank 2001b) states its importance through its goals of improving the quality of life, improving the quality of growth...

Morocco : Cost Assessment of Environmental Degradation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.66%
This report is the first step in a process toward using environmental damage cost assessments for priority setting and as an instrument for integrating environmental issues into economic and social development. The report provides estimates of damage cost for several areas of the environment: air, water, land and forests, and waste disposal. The estimates should be considered as orders of magnitude and a range is provided to indicate the level of uncertainty. As areas of priority are identified, further analysis will be required for more accurate estimates. Due to data limitations, the damage cost of environmental degradation has not been estimated in several areas: industrial, hazardous, and hospital waste disposal; unsanitary landfills; degradation of natural ecosystems and biodiversity; and groundwater resource degradation and over-extraction. In addition and due to the complexity of the problem, the report only partially captures damage resulting from soil degradation. The report points t the need to further assess and quantify current and potential future damage costs related to those impacts.

What a Waste : A Global Review of Solid Waste Management

Hoornweg, Daniel; Bhada-Tata, Perinaz
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
Solid waste management is the one thing just about every city government provides for its residents. While service levels, environmental impacts and costs vary dramatically, solid waste management is arguably the most important municipal service and serves as a prerequisite for other municipal action. As the world hurtles toward its urban future, the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW), one of the most important by-products of an urban lifestyle, is growing even faster than the rate of urbanization. Ten years ago there were 2.9 billion urban residents who generated about 0.64 kg of MSW per person per day (0.68 billion tonnes per year). This report estimates that today these amounts have increased to about 3 billion residents generating 1.2 kg per person per day (1.3 billion tonnes per year). By 2025 this will likely increase to 4.3 billion urban residents generating about 1.42 kg/capita/day of municipal solid waste (2.2 billion tonnes per year).

Global Expeiences on Expanding Water and Sanitation Services to the Urban Poor : Accompanying Volume

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.71%
In 2006-07, the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) initiated research to identify barriers to service delivery for the urban poor. The findings of the research have been presented in the Guidance Notes on Improving Water Supply and Sanitation Services to the Urban Poor in India. The Urban Global Practice Team of WSP decided to expand the ambit of this research to a global context as the learnings were relevant to experiences across Africa, Latin America, and East Asia and the Pacific. The Guidance Notes are based on an in-depth research of various initiatives from across the world (including South Asian, African, Latin American, and East Asian and the Pacific countries) and consultations with urban poor communities. The present volume is a documentation of this research and supports the Guidance Notes on Services for the Urban Poor. Section 1 of this report consists of 19 case studies. Section 2 describes consultations with urban poor communities. The main aim of the consultations was to record the issues they confronted related to water supply and sanitation.

Improving Management of Municipal Solid Waste in India : Overview and Challenges

Hanrahan, David; Srivastava, Sanjay; Ramakrishna, A. Sita
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.73%
This study summarizes the findings of a non-lending analytical activity carried out by the World Bank in 2004 and 2005. The work was driven by concern over the quality of the urban environment, and undertaken in a context of uncertainty on the suitability and effectiveness of Bank investment in this area, particularly in regard to components that generate little or no direct revenue, like waste disposal and sewage treatment. The immediate objectives involved addressing specific problems established in consultation with clients, and identifying obstacles and challenges to the improved management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Indian cities. The broader long-term objective of this work is to support municipal authorities in improving the quality of the urban environment within their jurisdictions, with the aim of achieving related public health and economic benefits.

Support to Government of India for Implementation of National Urban Sanitation Policy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
This synthesis report details the process, outputs and intermediate outcomes of the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) Technical Assistance (TA) to Support Government of India for implementation of the National Urban Sanitation Policy (P131963). The objective of this TA was to (i) strengthen urban sanitation services and target the urban poor by development of strategies for regulation, funds allocation, improved accountability mechanisms and implementation of inclusive sanitation policies at national level and in at least five states, with two of these low-income states (LIS). This was to be supplemented with (ii) enabling design and use of improved performance monitoring systems by Government of India, 3 states and 300 urban local bodies by 2015, and (iii) strengthen capacity of local urban government institutions to provide improved – inclusive and sustainable – sanitation services for all. This TA provides the building blocks for sustainable sanitation improvements which are being adopted and implemented as part of another TA (P131967) in Madhya Pradesh and Tripura to pilot and operationalize City Sanitation Plans (CSPs) towards outcome oriented sector improvements. The areas addressed in this TA include the following specific goals of the NUSP: open defecation free cities...

A review of issues relating to the disposal of urban waste in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide : an environmental history / by Philip H. Nicholls.

Nicholls, Philip Herschel
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 344751 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
This thesis takes an overview of urban waste disposal practices in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide since the time of their respective settlement by Europeans through to the year 2000. The narrative identifies how such factors as the growth of representative government, the emergence of a bureaucracy, the visitation of bubonic plague, changed perceptions of risk, and the rise of the environmental movement, have directly influenced urban waste disposal outcomes.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Geographical and Environmental Studies, 2002; Bibliography: p. 367-392.; xv, 392 p. : ill. (some col.), maps (some col.) ; 30 cm.; Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library.

Brazil Low Carbon Case Study : Waste; Estudo de Baixo Carbono para o Brasil : Relatório de Síntese Técnica - Resíduos

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy-Environment Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.68%
This report synthesis the findings for the waste sector of a broader study, the Brazil low carbon study, which was undertaken by the World Bank in its initiative to support Brazil's integrated effort towards reducing national and global emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) while promoting long term development. The purpose of the present report is to assist in the preparation of public policy proposals regarding GHG emissions and the additional financial resources necessary. The main purpose of the scenarios is to provide an evaluation of the GHG emissions arising from the different approaches and methods for treating waste and to ensure that important environmental aspects are taken into account when key decisions are being made on the waste treatment technologies to be applied in Brazil. The World Bank and covers four key areas with large potential for low-carbon options: 1) Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (LULUCF), including deforestation; 2) transport systems; 3) energy production and use, particularly electricity...

Managing Municipal Solid Waste in Latin America and the Caribbean : Integrating the Private Sector, Harnessing Incentives

Hoornweg, Daniel; Giannelli, Natalie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.67%
This note states that Latin America's urban population has grown, and its solid waste has increased at an even faster pace. Today the region's urban areas generate about 369,000 tons a day of solid waste. Ensuring that the waste is collected and disposed of properly will require strengthening the strategic role of municipalities. The private sector already plays a big part in waste collection. But private providers could do more in waste disposal and management, helping to improve service in close coordination with local authorities. Given the methane gas currently released from landfills, carbon finance is another potential driver of management improvements.

The Republic of Yemen : Comprehensive Development Review, Environment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.72%
The review focuses on development and the environment in Yemen, particularly analyzing the environment resource base, where renewable fresh water is scarce, mainly ground water, and its over exploitation is one of the country's major environmental problems. Fisheries resources are also important, while oil and gas are significant resources contributing to some eighty five percent of Yemen's export revenues. Environmental problems are caused fundamentally due to: population growth; poverty; and institutional weaknesses. Main issues discussed include water depletion, pollution and supply; land, and habitat degradation, in addition to soil erosion; and, loss of biodiversity, mostly resulting from poor management of water and eco-tourism. Waste water and solid waste management, including hazardous waste and pesticide management, are outlined as serious environmental problems, requiring immediate appropriate disposal. Priority actions of the national environment action plan identify the need for institutional capacity building regarding environmental management...

Groundwater in Urban Development : Assessing Management Needs & Formulating Policy Strategies

Foster, Stephen; Lawrence, Adrian; Morris, Brian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.56%
People have clustered at the water's edge throughout civilization for the most fundamental of reasons: without water there is no life. Every major city in the world has a body of water or aquifer nearby, since rivers and lakes predetermined where people would gather and dwell, groundwater constitutes about 98 percent of the fresh water on our planet (excepting that captured in the polar ice caps). This makes it fundamentally important to human life and to all economic activity. Groundwater resources in and around the urban centers of the developing world are exceptionally important as a source of relatively low-cost and generally high-quality municipal and domestic water supply. At the same time, the subsurface has come to serve as the receptor for much urban and industrial wastewater and for solid waste disposal. There are increasingly widespread indications of degradation in the quality and quantity of groundwater, serious or incipient, caused by excessive exploitation and/or inadequate pollution control. The scale and degree of degradation varies significantly with the susceptibility of local aquifers to exploitation-related deterioration and their vulnerability to pollution. Management strategies need to recognize and to address the complex linkages that exist between groundwater supplies...

Restoring Urban Infrastructure and Services in Nigeria; Restauration de l'infrastructure et des services urbains au Nigeria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.48%
Nigeria's urban infrastructure is crumbling. Water supply, sewerage, sanitation, drainage, roads, electricity, and waste disposal-all suffer from years of serious neglect. Periodic and routine maintenance, by far the most cost-effective infrastructure spending, is almost zero. It has become the norm in Nigeria to wait for a capital infusion to rehabilitate, replacing instead of maintaining the infrastructure. But declining financial resources are making this less feasible, and the deterioration is accelerating. Compounding the situation is the rapid urbanization, mostly migration from rural areas. The number of people living in Nigeria's towns and cities is expected to double to 80 million in the next 13 years and reach 100 million by 2010.