OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine whether early postoperative enteral feeding with an immune-enhancing formula (IEF) decreases morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay in patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Early enteral feeding with an IEF has been associated with improved outcome in trauma and critical care patients. Evaluable data documenting reduced complications after major upper GI surgery for malignancy with early enteral feeding are limited. METHODS: Between March 1994 and August 1996, 195 patients with a preoperative diagnosis of esophageal (n = 23), gastric (n = 75), peripancreatic (n = 86), or bile duct (n = 11) cancer underwent resection and were randomized to IEF via jejunostomy tube or control (CNTL). Tube feedings were supplemented with arginine, RNA, and omega-3 fatty acids, begun on postoperative 1, and advanced to a goal of 25 kcal/kg per day. The CNTL involved intravenous crystalloid solutions. Statistical analysis was by t test, chi square, or logistic regression. RESULTS: Patient demographics, nutritional status, and operative factors were similar between the groups. Caloric intake was 61% and 22% of goal for the IEF and CNTL groups, respectively. The IEF group received significantly more protein...
We describe a case of an acute paraoesophageal hernia in the early post-operative period following a laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. Patient developed intraoperative tension pneumothorax requiring an immediate chest drain and subsequently needed respiratory support of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) ventilation. A short discussion of this rare but deleterious complication and the difficulty of making a prompt diagnosis are included as delayed revision surgery can be technically challenging with a poor outcome.
Diaphragmatic injuries due to thoraco-abdominal penetrating trauma may often go unnoticed at the initial admission, especially in patients who are asymptomatic, with stable hemodynamic and respiratory parameters. Such occult diaphragmatic perforations can result in latent morbidity and mortality due to delayed trans-diaphragmatic herniation of the abdominal viscera leading to incarceration, strangulation and perforation. Here we report a case of an initially asymptomatic patient who had sustained multiple truncal stab injuries and presented two months later with a trans-thoracic incarceration of the stomach which was accurately diagnosed and successfully repaired at the time of surgery. This case report highlights the importance of exploring thoraco-abdominal penetrating injuries even in the absence initial clinical and radiological signs, so as to promptly identify occult and isolated diaphragmatic perforations and prevent delayed catastrophes. The clinical features, radiological findings, diagnostic difficulties and surgical options are discussed along with review of relevant literature.
A sixty-one year old man was referred with a history of progressive dysphagia, vomiting and weight loss with some back pain. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsies revealed a gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Despite the absence of metastatic disease on computed tomography, positron emission tomography demonstrated multiple vertebral and sternal deposits. He was reviewed in an ENT clinic with a sudden onset of hearing loss accompanied by dizziness, but no focal neurology. Magnetic resonance imaging identified bilateral 2cm lesions at the internal auditory meatus, consistent with a diagnosis of bilateral acoustic neuromas. The patient subsequently died of carcinomatosis and, because of the potential familial significance of bilateral acoustic neuromas, a limited post-mortem examination was carried out. Unexpectedly, this revealed bilateral adenocarcinoma metastases infiltrating the internal auditory meatus affecting the acoustic nerves. The authors believe this a very rare presentation of metastatic gastric disease.
Inverted intraduodenal diverticulum is a rare congenital abnormality usually arising near the ampulla of Vater. We describe a case of an inverted duodenal diverticulum in a patient that presented with an upper recurrent intestinal obstruction that required surgery. Recognition of the entity and its anatomic relationships to the ampulla of Vater is essential to the prevention of iatrogenic complications. The inverted intraduodenal diverticulum must be considered in the management of upper intestinal obstruction of unclear origin.
Brunner’s gland hyperplasia is a very rare lesion of the duodenum, which is usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. It can cause gastrointestinal bleeding but hemorrhagic shock is a rare clinical presentation of Brunner’s gland hyperplasia. The authors present a case of a patient with hemorrhagic shock due to a bleeding Brunner’s gland hyperplasia, treated by urgent laparotomy and polypectomy.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours often present with insidious upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Initial definitive diagnosis can be difficult and therefore misdiagnosis is not infrequent. Here we report a case of upper GI bleeding caused by a splenic artery aneurysm that was misdiagnosed as a gastric GIST. This rare presentation of splenic artery aneurysm highlights the potential pitfalls of investigation in upper gastrointestinal disease.
A 51 year old man presented with a short history of severe upper abdominal pain and vomiting. An initial chest radiograph demonstrated gas in the right subphrenic space and a subsequent CT scan demonstrated a hernia through the mid-part of the right hemi-diaphragm, containing small bowel and omentum. A detailed history revealed that there had been trauma to the right side of the chest approximately 12 years previously. An emergency laparoscopy revealed a right sided diaphragmatic hernia containing non-viable small bowel and omentum. After converting to a small midline laparotomy, a small bowel resection and primary anastomosis was performed. The patient was discharged from hospital 12 days later. In any patient presenting with symptoms of upper abdominal pain, with a prior history of trauma, the diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia should therefore be considered.
A patient with ulcerated gastric cancer causing mild anaemia and simultaneous three-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent “off pump” coronary artery bypass grafting (OP-CABG) and total D2 gastrectomy.
Management of upper gastrointestinal anastomotic leaks is an inter-disciplinary challenge. We present a case of late pyloroplasty leak following 3-stage oesophagectomy. We describe a novel, combined endoscopic and fluroscopic procedure to introduce a T-tube into the anastomotic leak proving an ideal plug at the site of leak which enabled the patient to consume a normal diet and return home safely.
Gallstone ileus is an uncommon complication of cholelithiasis, usually associated with an internal biliary fistula. Management of gallstone ileus is surgical with enterolithotomy the procedure of choice, followed by fistula closure either as a one or two stage procedure. In this case a 66 year old female presented with colicky abdominal pain, computed tomography (CT) clearly showing a gallstone ileus and cholecystoduodenal fistula. Despite this the patient refused surgery and went on to have spontaneous resolution of the obstruction and passage of gallstones.
A 73-year-old lady presented with clinical features of gastric outlet obstruction. It was found to be secondary to a spontaneous haematoma in duodenal wall as a complication of warfarin therapy given for atrial fibrillation. The diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal CT scan and upper G I endoscopy. Warfarin was stopped and blood transfusions given. She recovered completely after three weeks of conservative treatment. Repeat CT scan and upper G I endoscopy done after two months showed complete resolution.
Thrombolysis is the gold standard of treatment for acute myocardial infarction (MI), however can be associated with haemorrhagic complications. To date, splenic rupture following thrombolysis has only been reported in those with an associated history of major trauma or splenomegaly. We report a case of a 47-year old female who developed splenic rupture following thrombolysis treatment with no history of trauma or splenomegaly. She received Tenecteplase therapy for an inferior MI, and six hours later she developed upper abdominal pain and hypotension. CT showed large haemoperitoneum with a large peri-splenic haematoma. She subsequently underwent a laparotomy and splenectomy. Patient remained well and was discharged home eight days postoperatively.
This study was performed to confirm the antibiotic regimen during a severe invasive surgery, such as esophagectomy, with a long procedure and a large amount of normal volumes of infusion. Ten patients with esophageal cancer were enrolled in this study, and cefmetazole sodium concentrations in serum were measured during esophagectomy. The ranges of minimum inhibitory concentrations for 90% of isolates of cefmetazole sodium for microorganisms in our institutions for 8 years were investigated. The maximum concentration was 83.9 μg/mL just after the completion of infusion, and its half-life was 1.5 hours. Serum concentration of cefmetazole sodium was kept above 16 μg/mL for 4 hours during esophagectomy. It was kept above 32 μg/mL for 2.5 hours after injection. There are almost no differences in the pharmacokinetics of cefmetazole sodium between common use and during esophagectomy. In addition, additive infusion of antibiotics 4 hours after the first infusion was recommended during esophagectomy.
A major decline in pulmonary function is observed on the first day after upper abdominal surgery. This decline can reduce vital and inspiratory capacity and can culminate in restrictive lung diseases that cause atelectasis, reduced diaphragm movement, and respiratory insufficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative ambulatory respiratory muscle training in patients undergoing esophagectomy. The sample consisted of 20 adult patients (14 men [70%] and 6 women [30%]) with a diagnosis of advanced chagasic megaesophagus. A significant increase in maximum inspiratory pressure was observed after inspiratory muscle training when compared with baseline values (from −55.059 ± 18.359 to −76.286 ± 16.786). Preoperative ambulatory inspiratory muscle training was effective in increasing respiratory muscle strength in patients undergoing esophagectomy and contributed to the prevention of postoperative complications.
Fonte: The International College of Surgeons, World Federation of General Surgeons and Surgical Specialists, Inc.Publicador: The International College of Surgeons, World Federation of General Surgeons and Surgical Specialists, Inc.
Esophageal submucosal tumors are less common than other gastrointestinal tract tumors. Leiomyoma is the most common benign esophageal SMT, accounting for more than 70% of these tumors. We report on a case of a 56-year-old woman with a 3-cm diameter midthoracic esophageal submucosal tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested leiomyoma or neurofibroma. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed to enucleate the tumor from the esophageal wall by splitting the muscle layers. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 8. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the diagnosis of esophageal neurofibroma. Gastrointestinal tract involvement of neurofibromatous lesions is rare and occurs most frequently as a systemic manifestation of von Recklinghausen disease. Cases of localized esophageal neurofibroma with prior or subsequent evidence of generalized neurofibromatosis have rarely been documented. This is a rare case of isolated esophageal neurofibroma without classic systemic manifestations of generalized neurofibromatosis, and it is the first reported case treated by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.
Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is one of the most common reasons for hospitalization and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently developed endoscopic devices and supporting apparatuses can achieve endoscopic hemostasis with greater safety and efficiency. With these advancements in technology and technique, gastroenterologists should have no concerns regarding the management of acute upper GI bleeding, provided that they are well prepared and trained. However, when endoscopic hemostasis fails, endoscopy should not be continued. Rather, endoscopists should refer patients to radiologists and surgeons without any delay for evaluation regarding the appropriateness of emergency interventional radiology or surgery.
BACKGROUND: Data regarding the utility of the Glasgow-Blatchford bleeding score (GBS) in hospitalized patients with upper GI hemorrhage are limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the GBS in predicting clinical outcomes and the need for interventions in patients with upper GI hemorrhage. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Single, tertiary-care endoscopic center. PATIENTS: Between July 2010 and July 2012, 888 consecutive hospitalized patients managed for upper GI hemorrhage were entered into the study. INTERVENTION: GBS and Rockall scores. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: GBS and Rockall scores were prospectively calculated. The performance of these scores to predict the need for interventions and outcomes was assessed by using a receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: Endoscopy was performed in 708 patients (80%). A total of 286 patients (40.3%) required endoscopic therapy, and 29 patients (3.8%) underwent surgery. GBS and post-endoscopy Rockall scores (post-E RS) were superior to pre-endoscopy Rockall scores in predicting the need for endoscopic therapy (area under the curve [AUC] 0.76 vs 0.76 vs 0.66, respectively) and rebleeding (AUC 0.71 vs 0.64 vs 0.57). The GBS was superior to Rockall scores in predicting the need for blood transfusion (AUC 0.81 vs 0.70 vs 0.68) and surgery (AUC 0.71 vs 0.64 vs 0.51). Patients with GBS scores ≤ 3 did not require intervention. LIMITATIONS: Subjective decision making as to need for endoscopic therapy and blood transfusion. CONCLUSION: Compared with post-E RS...
Transcatheter arterial embolization is a valuable, minimally invasive method, used as treatment for upper gastrointestinal bleeding, after failed primary endoscopic approach. It is a safe and effective procedure, but it's use is limited because of relatively high rates of rebleeding and mortality.
We present what maybe the only case of splenic infarction causing hyperamylasaemia in a patient with bacterial endocarditis. A 49-year-old gentleman presented a 24 hour history of vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. Clinical examination showed diffuse upper abdominal tenderness, a mild tachycardia and a low grade pyrexia. Blood investigations showed a hyperamylasaemia. His failure to improve on treatment for a provisional diagnosis of alcohol induced pancreatitis lead to a CT abdomen, which showed a splenic infarct and an echo showing aortic valve vegetation's as a source of emboli. He underwent urgent aortic valve replacement with a tissue valve following which he made an uncomplicated recovery.