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Positioning of Ontario University Business Programs - Guelph-Humber

Dantas, Stephanie
Fonte: NSBE - UNL Publicador: NSBE - UNL
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /01/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics; Universities need a unique and differentiated positioning to stand out and continue to grow in the Ontario Higher Education marketplace. The University of Guelph-Humber’s business program does not currently have a clear positioning strategy, which is necessary to increase enrolment and ultimately profits. In essence, it has yet to find the one unique word that is synonymous with the University of Guelph-Humber. With the use of qualitative and quantitative research, this thesis will present a better understanding of the decision-making process when applying to a business program and to propose a positioning strategy for Guelph-Humber that is credible, compelling and distinctive.

Proposta de modelo de interação da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte e empresas do setor de petróleo; Proposal of Interaction Model for Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte and Oil Industry

Perales, Wattson José Saenz
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia do Petróleo; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Engenharia de Petróleo Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia do Petróleo; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Engenharia de Petróleo
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Operational procedures may negatively interfere in negotiation and execution regarding universities and business companies. In some cases it may even derail business interaction. Thus, aiming to overcome this and other barriers a university-industry interaction model was structured. The model enhances the appropriation of technological solutions on behalf of enterprises, as well as aim to improve the quality of teaching and research done at the university. In order to conduct a case study, sampling considering the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN) was made as well as the Oil and Gas sector. For data collection questionnaires, classroom observation, document analysis, semi-structured interviews were used. The study describes the companies as well as the internal organization of UFRN in their interaction context. The diagnosis related to past interactions as well as the expectations of the companies and the university s internal subjects regarding the university-industry relationship were also studied. Thus, specific questionnaires were applied for the three types of groups: researchers, managers and business companies. These subjects pointed out that the great deal of barriers they identified were related to issues regarding the university internal management. Given these barriers...

Business leadership in the classroom

MacRae, John Donald.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.98%
This action research assesses a framework that assists business educators in promoting leadership within a classroom. It is designed to better prepare students to assume leadership and fill the "leadership gap" in business. Two classes of 2nd-year community college business students participated in running and managing their own business community as teams of sales professionals by developing and practicing their own individual leadership for 28 weeks during their sales courses. The intent was to assess the development of leadership resulting from the implementation of the "Business Leadership in the Classroom" framework. This framework balances leadership principles to simulate a business environment with the practical elements of a learning community under the facilitation of an experienced business educator. The action research approach was used to assess and adjust approaches to business leadership on a continuous basis throughout the research. Data were collected from 61 students based on journals, surveys, peer group reviews, and my (facilitator) reflective journal.The findings reveal that both individual and collective business leadership views and practical skills developed over time. A business leadership mind-set evolved that ranged from a general awareness of the importance of leadership...

Solúbtha : a model for designing flexible business transactions of purchase order management processes

Haque, Rafiqul
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
peer-reviewed; With the advent of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), organizations tend to use service-based applications (SBAs) that are dynamic, distributed, and ubiquitous. In recent years, SBAs have become the state of the art technologies for building large-scale and cost-effective applications on the web. SBAs that automate end-to-end business processes typically involve well–defined standard composite activities that are hosted at the sites of business partners. These activities encapsulate one to many operations. A business transaction is the successful execution of these operations that must satisfy the trading partners agreements which contain the clauses agreed upon by the business partners. In order to ensure the agreement is satisfied during operations, business transactions have to be designed by correlating agreements. Furthermore, business transactions are collaborative, distributed, and long-running and thus they are prone to failure. Therefore, flexibility is a paramount importance for business transactions. A business transaction model should provide design-elements and techniques to design highly flexible business transactions by correlating the trading partner agreements. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of a model that enables designing flexible business transactions by correlating the business perspective elements with the functional perspective elements. Existing business transaction models provide a limited number of design–elements and techniques. None of the existing business transaction models are able to provide the necessary and sufficient design-elements and techniques. Accordingly...

Evaluating business networks : the case of Ireland

Lynch, Nicola
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: Doctoral thesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations; none; none
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
peer-reviewed; Business networks are used by firms as a tool for organising interdependent business activities, where such networks are defined as a cooperative arrangement between independent business organisations that can vary from informal to formal exchanges of resources and information. Although the benefits and costs associated with business network membership have been highlighted in the literature, there is a distinct lack of discussion regarding appropriate evaluation frameworks to estimate the impact of business network membership on firm performance. This thesis addresses this specific issue through the development of an ex-post evaluation framework to estimate the impact of business network membership on firm performance. This research therefore makes a key methodological contribution through the development of an evaluation framework, while it also fills a gap in the international business network and evaluation literatures. The Irish case is used as a laboratory where data is gathered from a telephone survey of 169 firms in formal business networks and 100 non-formal business network firms (a control group profiled on the business network respondents). The responses provided by the business network firms show that business network membership benefited the participants firms in a number of ways. Almost three-quarters of the business network firms attributed some part of their overall business success to network membership. In considering the potential ‘dark-side’ of business network membership...

Business Culture Issues in Vietnam: Case Studies

Do, Thien; Quilty, Mary; Milner, Anthony; Longstaff, Simon
Fonte: School of Management, Marketing, and International Business, ANU Publicador: School of Management, Marketing, and International Business, ANU
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.01%
What practical issues can arise when doing business in Vietnam? How is Vietnam adapting to the demands of the market economy? In particular, how does a knowledge of Vietnamese business culture, and history, help to clear up misunderstandings – especially involving relations between foreign business people and representatives from Vietnamese business and government? Does the Vietnamese experience have a broader value in the Asian region, where numerous different societies have been seeking a way to engage vigorously in international commerce – yet without losing touch with their own ethical foundations? ... ¶ This volume presents case study material relating to business in Vietnam. It outlines real issues and problems that have arisen – and then seeks to provide a cultural and historical context in which to understand them, and perhaps even solve them.; The research was undertaken in a cooperative project between Australian National University researchers and the St. James Ethics Centre, and received funding from the Australian Research Council. The St. James Ethics Centre helped to establish both the directions of the Project and a most valuable cooperative arrangement with the Vietnamese Ministry of Trade in Hanoi.; no

Engaging business in curriculum design and delivery: a higher education institution perspective

Plewa, C.; Galán-Muros, V.; Davey, T.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
University-business cooperation has risen to one of the top priorities for many higher education institutions, with its importance mirroring attention from scholars and policy makers worldwide. Despite prolific research in this area, however, few have investigated curriculum-related university-business cooperation or its facilitators. Hence, this study investigates five mechanisms as drivers of business engagement in the design and delivery of the curriculum and the alignment of the curriculum with business needs. Results of a European-wide survey of higher education institution managers show the positive impact of senior management engagement, alumni networks and external com- munication of university-business cooperation, particularly on business engagement in curriculum design and the curriculum meeting industry needs. The higher education institution’s dedication of resources emerged as irrelevant in this context. The conceptual model is validated across higher education institutions with different levels of curriculum- related cooperation with business and across three countries, leading to implications for management and future research directions.; Carolin Plewa, Victoria Galan-Muros, Todd Davey

Marketing the joint Naval Postgraduate School of Business and Public Policy and University of Maryland, Robert H. Smith School of Business, defense focused Masters in Business Administration to active duty military officers; Marketing the joint Naval Postgraduate School of Business and Public Policy and University of Maryland, Robert H. Smith School of Business, defense focused Masters in Business Administration to active duty military officers

McGowan, Dennis M.; McGowan, Dennis M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Thesis; Thesis Formato: xiv, 69 p. : col. ill., col. maps; xiv, 69 p. : col. ill., col. maps
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
MBA Professional Report; Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; MBA Professional Report; Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; In April 2001, the Naval Postgraduate School's Graduate School of Business and Public Policy (NPS GSBPP), and the University of Maryland (UMD), Robert H. Smith School of Business embarked on a joint venture to provide a defense focused Masters in Business Administration (MBA) to military service members and Department of Defense (DoD) civilians living in the metropolitan Washington, D.C., area. This program is commonly called the Joint MBA (JMBA). Through market research; Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat Analysis; analysis of consumer buying; behavior and consideration of product life cycle; this marketing plan establishes an overarching marketing strategy for the JMBA. The strategy includes a product mission, marketing objectives, positioning, communication channels, the JMBA message and a description of managing the JMBA marketing process.; In April 2001, the Naval Postgraduate School's Graduate School of Business and Public Policy (NPS GSBPP), and the University of Maryland (UMD), Robert H. Smith School of Business embarked on a joint venture to provide a defense focused Masters in Business Administration (MBA) to military service members and Department of Defense (DoD) civilians living in the metropolitan Washington...

National and International Business Cycles : the Role of Financial Frictions and Shocks

Rouillard, JEAN-FRANCOIS
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
This dissertation investigates the effects of frictions that emerge from financial markets on business-cycle fluctuations. The purpose of Chapter 1 is to situate my work in the literature and to stress its contributions. In Chapter 2, I reassess the role of financial frictions in amplifying the impacts of productivity shocks using a framework in which a fraction of firms are borrowing-constrained and land is a collateral asset. A first finding is that amplification effects are much lower when land is supplied elastically. However, financial shocks that affect the maximum allowable ratio of loans to collateral have greater effects on output. Another result pertains to the role of the elasticity of substitution between land and capital in responses to financial shocks: lower values generate greater output responses. While Chapter 2's environment is set up to be in a closed-economy, the last two chapters involve two-country settings. Chapter 3 still intersects with Chapter 2 on some dimensions, in particular, land dynamics and financial frictions that feature borrowing-constrained firms. The borrowing mechanism brings about a distortion in labour markets that interacts with a class of preferences that are non-separable between consumption and leisure. Technology shocks contribute to explain international co-movements...

The Monetary Transmission Mechanism and Business Cycles: The Role of Multi-stage Production with Inventories

Dai, Tiantian
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
This thesis studies the role of multi-stage production for the monetary transmission mechanism. I employ a monetary search model to show how multi-stage production influences both the long run and the short run effects of money growth. Multi-stage production provides an additional channel for money growth having effects through intermediate goods between different production stages. Extending Shi's (1998) model from a single-stage to a multi-stage production model, I show that money growth rate has an unconventional long run effect on quantities per match, and the long run response of input inventory investment is different from that of output inventory investment. Contrary to classic search models, the steady state effect of money growth on the quantity of finished goods per match is not monotonic and depends on the money growth rate. Furthermore, in steady state the quantities per match first increase with the growth rate of money, before falling for large growth rates. Input inventories arise due to search frictions. Money growth also has hump-shaped real effects on steady state input inventory investment. The intermediate goods build a bridge between the labor market and the finished goods market. Intuitively, households hire more labor with higher future revenue and produce more intermediate goods in order to match the employment level. With more labor and more intermediate goods...

BUSINESS PROCESS RECOVERY USING UI DESIGN PATTERNS AND CLONE DETECTION IN BUSINESS PROCESSES

Guo, JIN
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1597320 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
A business application automates a collection of business processes. A business process describes how a set of logically related tasks are executed, ordered and managed by following business rules to achieve business objectives. An “online book purchase” business process contains several tasks such as buying a book, ordering a book, and sending out promotions. In this ever changing business environment, both of business applications and business processes are modified to accommodate changed business requirements and improve the performance of the organization. These continuous modifications introduce problems in the following two aspects: 1) Business process definitions are rarely updated to reflect the current business processes deployed in business applications. 2) Business processes may be cloned (e.g., copied and slightly modified) to handle special circumstances or promotions. Identifying these clones and removing them help improve the efficiency of an organization. However, business processes are defined with textual languages that cannot be automatically understood. To maintain business process definitions up to date, we present our techniques that automatically recover business processes from UIs of business applications and identify clones in the recovered business processes. We leverage UI design patterns...

An Economic and Financial Deconstruction of the Commodity Streaming Business Model

DiFilippo, Daniel
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
The objective of this thesis is to evaluate the viability of the commodity streaming business model, both as a standalone enterprise and as a financing service for exploration and mining companies. A silver streaming company, Silver Wheaton, was chosen as the subject of a case study to accomplish this and nine silver streams that it acquired in its first eight years from 2004-2012 were analysed and evaluated. Using publicly available technical data, cash flow models were developed for all of the mines and development projects with which Silver Wheaton made agreements during this time period. Subsets of these cash flows were isolated to represent the positions of both Silver Wheaton and its operating partners in each transaction. The Capital Asset Pricing Model and its associated economic metrics were employed and calculated for all of the isolated stream cash flow models to evaluate the expected financial gain or loss to each party for every deal. Cash flow models were developed using two silver price series; one conservative and one bullish price series. These were compiled through the aggregation of price forecasting data from mining equity research reports published in the months leading up to each transaction. It was found that the business model resulted in poor financial outcomes for Silver Wheaton and excellent financial outcomes for its operating partners in over 50% of the transactions it concluded...

Markets, Games, and Lobbying

Robinson, DENYS
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
Contemporary business ethics asks the question: what moral responsibilities do actors in a market economy have? Specifically, what obligations do corporate managers have? In this paper I consider a new method for answering these questions, Joseph Heath’s market failure model of business ethics. On this view, the market is a staged competition that is normatively justifiable through its tendency to promote Pareto efficiency. Since the market is justified by Pareto efficiency, competitive behaviour in the market should be constrained by a set of rules that is consistent with the pursuit of Pareto efficiency. Treating business as a competition is philosophically justified, I argue, both in the sense that it satisfies the conditions of a game, or at least a game­like activity, and in the sense that the deontic weakening that competition brings with it is justified in the market. I consider one case in more detail, to demonstrate the value of the approach. Within the business competition, I argue, lobbying is an impermissible, though conditionally excusable strategy. This is because lobbying routinely produces market failures, and indeed is often pursued precisely with that goal.; Thesis (Master, Philosophy) -- Queen's University, 2015-10-08 16:12:45.001

A BUSINESS PROCESS DRIVEN APPROACH FOR AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF BUSINESS APPLICATIONS

ZHAO, XULIN
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
Business processes describe a set of tasks for accomplishing business objectives of an organization. Business applications automate business processes to improve the productivity of business users. Nowadays, the business environment changes fast due to rapid market growth and technological innovations. Business processes are continuously updated to reflect new business initiatives. Business applications are frequently evolved to add features to meet new requirements and fix defects. Quite often, business processes and business applications evolve independently without direct reference to each other. Over time, it becomes more and more challenging to maintain the consistency between a business application and the corresponding business processes. Moreover, the existing development approaches rely on software developers’ craftsmanship to design and implement business applications. Such a development paradigm is inefficient and leads to inconsistency between business processes and business applications. To facilitate the alignment between business applications and business processes, we present an approach that automatically generates software architecture and code skeletons of business applications from business processes. We identify architectural components from business processes by analyzing dependencies among tasks. To verify the achievement of quality requirements...

Free Spirit Affirmative Business: Employment for offenders with serious mental illness

Davidson, Tracy
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.09%
This case study evaluates the process of affirmative business development within a federal correctional psychiatric facility for federal offenders with mental illness serving long or indeterminate sentences. It examines how the business associates (i.e., offenders with mental illness who are self-employed in the affirmative business) change through working in the affirmative business, and what challenges and benefits they experience. The aim is to disseminate knowledge that will assist in developing supported employment opportunities for offenders with serious mental illness. Qualitative and participatory research methods are used to give a descriptive account of the experience of 14 business associates within a critical paradigm. The framework that guided this study included the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement (CMOP-E); the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB); and a Community Economic Development (CED) approach. Strategies were incorporated to maintain rigor and ensure trustworthiness and quality of the findings. The data outlined the first 6 years of the affirmative business. Interviews and observations were conducted during year 7 and 8 of the affirmative business. Reviews of documents and artifacts were current and historical in nature. Three overlapping phases of business development...

Pursuing Tikkun Olam in Business Pedagogy: An Investigation of Business Faculty Perspectives of Social Justice in Business and Education

SCOTT, MADELINE
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1142245 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
Starting with the Jewish concept of Tikkun Olam and framed by Critical Theory, this paper investigates business faculty perspectives of social justice in Israel and Canada. Eight purposefully-selected participants were interviewed. Their narratives form the basis of this qualitative study. The research participants revealed that there were ideological and structural forces present in the business programmes investigated that appeared to prevent social justice motives from being realized in the culture of business schools. The participants suggested that the hegemonic forces driving business programs were: profit-driven business ideologies, the particular character of MBA programs, and business programs’ quantitative research bias. These forces were found to be affecting the way in which the participants made-meaning of social justice, and the way in which they could teach and research within their respective business schools. The results of this study illuminate the types of cultural and asymmetrical relations that are affecting business pedagogical constructs and the future for social justice within them. This is important as how university faculty make meaning of social justice within business paradigms will not only shape how curricula and ideological changes evolve in business schools...

The Meaning and Impact of Respect in the Context of Business-to-Business Marketing Relationships

Bourassa, MAUREEN
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1148633 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.04%
In the field of marketing, there is anecdotal evidence that “respect” is an important determinant of marketing relationship success (e.g., Berry 1996; Bitran and Hoech 1990; Costley, Friend, and Babis 2005). The current relational paradigm that guides much of marketing research, thinking, and practice implies that marketing involves not only exchange between organizations and customers, but also relationships between people. Given this context, individual-level relationship variables such as respect become important to our understanding of relationship marketing as a whole. Yet, in marketing and in other relevant fields (e.g., social and organizational psychology, ethics, education), there is no agreement as to how respect should be defined, and there is no measure that captures the complexity of this construct. In order to gain a more complete understanding of the reasons why certain marketing relationships succeed or fail, it is important to investigate the role of respect. The purpose of this research is to gain an understanding of (1) what respect means in the context of business-to-business marketing relationships, and (2) how respect impacts on the outcomes of those relationships. Following an extensive review of literature from a number of fields...

Unificación de la relación existente entre universidad – empresa y estado dentro del contexto innovador y tecnológico del proceso educativo de la UMNG; Unification of the relationship between university - business and state within the context and technological innovative educational process UMNG

Avendaño Delgado, Sandra Paola; Ramírez López, Leonardo Juan
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ingeniería; Especialización en Gerencia de la Calidad Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ingeniería; Especialización en Gerencia de la Calidad
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.87%
El modelo de alianza estratégica entre Universidad, Empresa, Estado, permite visualizar la integración del establecimiento de un marco de actuación que conjugue las directrices institucionales a través de una red de procesos que interrelacione el estado, con las empresas y que promueva la competitividad entre la comunidad estudiantil e impacte en el desarrollo económico y social del país mediante una cultura de emprendimiento, innovación y vinculación de la competitividad y el desarrollo del país. Mediante este artículo se pretende dar a conocer por un lado los modelos de interacción que se están dando a nivel nacional, los mecanismos empleados para esto, la normatividad aplicable a este modelo y los avances que se han dado dentro de la Universidad que permita vislumbrar la interrelación de las políticas de la UMNG con el Estado y la Empresa, para el fomento del desarrollo de los tres agentes, base de la productividad y competitividad de las empresas, mediante el uso de mecanismos, como la Investigación, el Desarrollo y la Innovación, que permitan garantizar la competitividad de esta interrelación en el país en el largo plazo y asegurar que el crecimiento económico sea sostenible. El método empleado fue Descriptivo – Documental...

Analyzing a successful incubator business model: The case of Barcelona Activa

Perdomo G.; Alvarez C.; Urbano D.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: bookPart; info:eu-repo/semantics/bookPart
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
Successful business incubators have a critical role in the development of local, regional, and national economies through the creation of jobs and the generation of profits, technology development, and innovations. Business incubators are recent and popular organizational forms that are created, often with the help of economic development agencies, to support and accelerate the development and success of affiliated ventures. The chapter examines Barcelona Activa as a successful business incubator in Catalonia (Spain), analyzing the incubator's supply and demand for products and services from the resource-based view approach. Empirically, the chapter is based on qualitative methodology analyzing in depth the case of Barcelona Activa. The findings of the study show that the incubator model's adjustments between the supply and demand of products and services generated are the main reason for the low mortality rate of new firms and the substantial increase in incubators' turnover. This research has important implications for both researchers and government agencies. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. All rights are reserved.

The impact of e-conferencing applications on business travel decision making: a qualitative enquiry

Lin, Kunwei
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
Beldona, Shrikanth; Business travel has been steadily decreasing for several years in the United States. Meanwhile, the adoption of e-conferencing technology has dramatically increased since 2007. Although the decline in travel has been largely attributed to economic factors, the role and impact of e-conferencing on business travel has never been investigated in either the trade press or academic literature. Based on a literature review, four major econferencing formats were identified—audio conferencing, web conferencing, video conferencing, and total virtual conferencing. This study explored the impact of econferencing on business travel decision-making. A qualitative, multiple-case study approach using a set of six interviewees from different sectors of industry was deployed. One managerial level person from each firm was interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Interviews were transcribed and subsequently analyzed using Atlas.ti. Grounded theory and the narrative research method were applied in the data analysis process. In terms of the use of e-conferencing, three major themes were identified from the transcripts, namely Usage, Cost, and Interaction. Both positive and negative attributes under each theme were discussed. The findings illustrated that the positive attributes of econferencing...