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Um partido, duas táticas: uma história organizativa e política do Partido Comunista Brasileiro (PCB), de 1922 a 1935; A party, two tactics: an organizational and political history of the Brazilian Communist Party (PCB), from 1922 to 1935

Cosenza, Apoena Canuto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/03/2013 PT
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Nessa dissertação, realizou-se um estudo sobre a história organizativa e política do Partido Comunista Brasileiro (PCB), de 1922 a 1935. Durante o período analisado, o Partido passou por duas mudanças no conjunto tático adotado. No entanto, passou por quatro linhas estratégicas diferentes. De 1922 a 1929, adotou um conjunto tático de estilo subcultural. Buscou se tornar o representante máximo do proletariado e das massas trabalhadoras, adotando formas de lutas pacíficas. De 1930 a 1934, o PCB passou por um período de luta interna acirrado, abandonando o estilo subcultural. Ao final de 1934 e até o início de 1936, foi adotado pela organização o estilo da luta direta pelo poder. No entanto, de 1922 a 1925, o PCB teve como linha estratégica a autoconstrução como ferramenta de luta. Era mais importante organizar o Partido do que combater um inimigo específico. De 1926 a 1929, foi adotada a linha estratégica de Frente Única, mas negando-se a realização de coalisões. De 1930 a 1933, foi adotada a linha denominada classe contra classe, que negava a possibilidade de qualquer aliança com a pequena burguesia radicalizada. De 1934 a 1935, foi adotada a linha da Frente Popular, que significou a atuação através da Aliança Nacional Libertadora (ANL). Durante os treze anos que vão de 1922 a 1935...

A Choice, Not an Echo: Polarization and the Transformation of the American Party System

Rosenfeld, Sam Hoffmann
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
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This dissertation offers an intellectual and institutional history of party polarization and ideological realignment in the postwar United States. It treats the construction of an ideologically sorted party system as a political project carried out by conscious actors within and around the Democratic and Republican parties. The work of these activists, interest groups, and political elites helped to produce, by the last decades of the twentieth century, an unpredicted and still-continuing era of strong, polarized partisanship in American politics. In tracking their work, the dissertation also account for changing ideas about the party system over time, starting with an influential postwar scholarly doctrine that cast bipartisanship as a problem for which polarization would provide the solution.; History

Le mouvement Tea Party aux États-Unis : une mobilisation expliquée par le cadre des opportunités politiques.

Chéreau, Jean-Reno
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Ce mémoire étudie les conditions d’émergence du mouvement Tea Party. Nous cherchons à savoir si la mobilisation a été facilitée par la présence d’opportunités politiques, telles que proposées dans la littérature sur les mouvements sociaux. À l’aide d’une analyse de contenu, il a été possible d’observer trois opportunités dans une période comprise entre février 2009 et octobre 2010. Dans cette même période, il a été aussi possible d’identifier la fréquence et la nature de la mobilisation, qui prend la forme de protestations et de réunions informelles. Nous en arrivons à la conclusion que ces opportunités étaient présentes lors de l’émergence du mouvement social. En effet, la présence d’enjeux spécifiques, d’une division partisane ainsi que d’alliés coïncide avec une augmentation substantielle de la mobilisation. Les élections de mi-mandat semblent avoir transformé un mouvement axé sur les protestations vers une action politique conventionnelle.; This thesis looks at the emerging conditions of the Tea Party movement. Our main effort was to know if the mobilization has been facilitated by political opportunities, as theorized by the social movement framework. By using a content analysis method...

THINGS FALL APART: The End of the United Australia Party 1939-1943

Marchant, Sylvia
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (Masters sub-thesis); Published Version Formato: 79 pages
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In the Federal Elections of August 1943 the United Australia Party(UAP), which had been in office for nearly ten consecutive years suffered a resounding defeat and the result was a landslide for Labor, giving it an absolute majority in both Houses. This thesis traces the course of the disintegration of the United Australia Party to try to fill a gap in the historiography by explaining how and why an apparently popular political party was so categorically rejected by the electorate in 1943 that it subsequently vanished from the political scene as if it had never existed.; Supervisor - Ian Hancock

The Forgotten Side of Partisanship: Negative Party Identification in Four Anglo-American Democracies

Medeiros, Mike; Noël, Alain
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Early studies of electoral behavior proposed that party identification could be negative as well as positive. Over time, though, the concept became mostly understood as a positive construct. The few studies that took negative identification into account tended to portray it as a marginal factor that went “hand-in-hand” with positive preferences. Recent scholarship in psychology reaffirms, however, that negative evaluations are not simply the bipolar opposite of positive ones. This article considers negative party identification from this standpoint, and evaluates its impact in recent national elections in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. Our findings highlight the autonomous power of negative partisanship. They indicate as well that ideology has an influence on both positive and negative partisan identification.

The Ba'th Party in Iraq: from its beginning through today

Cabana, Joel L.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 121 p.
EN_US
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; The conventional wisdom concerning the future of Iraq after the Gulf War of 1990-1991 centers on the prospect of Saddam Hussein and the Bath Party being ousted from power. Should this happen, critics argue, peace, security, and predictability will return to Iraq in particular and the Middle East in general. This view of the situation is wrong. This thesis examines the political history of Iraq since the end of World War One, the formation of the Bath Party, and the Bath Party since its ascent to power in Iraq. Leadership, Institutionalization, Policies, and Legitimacy form the core of the Bathist hold on power in Iraq. In its 25 years of power the Bath Party has improved the standard of living in Iraq and penetrated society such that any change of regime will result in only marginal and superficial change. The resulting leadership may call itself by other names, but the majority of people in positions of power will be holdovers from the Bath regime.; Lieutenant, United States Navy

The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and its security implications for the United Kingdom and the United States

Sironi, Luke
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 70 p.;28 cm.
EN_US
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The United Kingdom has signed and ratified the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The United States signed the treaty in September 1996, and currently the decision on whether to ratify it is pending in the Senate. Key differences reside in the political and objective strategic situations of the United States and the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom's parliamentary system a single party (or a coalition) makes decisions. The United States, however, was designed to have a separation of powers, and this insures that the legislative and executive branches have opportunities for discord as well as cooperation. Currently the United Kingdom has operational weapons production facilities, whereas the United States does not. The United Kingdom has only one nuclear weapons program (the Trident missile) to maintain, whereas the United States has multiple delivery systems and warhead types to maintain. The United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent provides for the country's security needs, yet the United Kingdom is also covered by U.S. nuclear commitments. Indeed, the United States provides xtended deterrence protection for allies and security partners around the world. These responsibilities imply that the implications of the CTBT could be more momentous for the United States than for the United Kingdom; http://www.archive.org/details/comprehensivetes00siro; Lieutenant...

Decentralization and Local Democracy in the World : First Global Report by United Cities and Local Governments 2008

United Cities and Local Government; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: United Cities and Local Government and the World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: United Cities and Local Government and the World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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This overall picture of decentralization and local democracy in African countries shows significant progress at the strictly institutional level. No country now publicly opposes the implementation of decentralization policies. Local governments exist in all countries, and elections are held to elect local authorities. The extent of such progress must, however, be set against a number of persistent obstacles that continue to hinder a real progression of decentralization in Africa. Difficulties remain within states concerning the transfer of financial resources needed to match the devolved responsibilities. Local governments also face difficulties in increasing their own resources (aside from state-transfers and grants) at a faster pace. Ensuring the availability of qualified human resources at the local level and improving public access to local services are also fundamental issues of concern.

The Paradox of Adversity: New Left Party Survival and Collapse in Latin America

Van Dyck, Brandon Philip
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
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Political parties are the basic building blocks of representative democracy. They reduce information costs for voters, enhance executive accountability, and contribute to democratic governability by facilitating legislative organization and aggregating the interests of powerful societal groups. Yet we continue to know relatively little about the conditions under which strong parties form. The dominant theories of party-building are mostly based on historical studies of the United States and Western European countries, almost all of which developed stable party systems. Drawing on this literature, a segment of the early scholarship on party-building in third-wave democracies optimistically took "party development" for granted, assuming that parties would follow from democracy, cleavages, or certain electoral rules. Yet party-building outcomes in third-wave democracies fell short of scholars' initial, optimistic expectations. In many third-wave polities, social cleavages, attempts at electoral engineering, and decades of democratic competition did not produce durable parties. On the other hand, in numerous third-wave democracies, new political parties did take root. What accounts for the variation in party-building outcomes observed across the developing world? More generally...

Premier must stand firm

Macleod, L.R.
Fonte: Rand Daily Mail Publicador: Rand Daily Mail
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 388944 bytes; application/pdf
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The statement that there is a movement afoot among English-speaking members of the United Party to "assist General Hertzog" in his rapidly developing difficulty in connection with the Voortrekker Memorial ceremony is interesting, but it would be more impressive if we knew the names of these members and how many they number.

Third Party Nuclear Liability: The Case of a Supplier in the United Kingdom

Thomas, Anthony; Heffron, Raphael J.
Fonte: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK Publicador: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
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The law surrounding third party nuclear liability is important to all parties in the nuclear supply chain whether they are providing decommissioning services, project management expertise or a new reactor. This paper examines third party nuclear liability, and in particular, in relation to a Supplier in the nuclear energy sector in the United Kingdom (UK). The term "Supplier" is used in this paper and, depending on the context, is intended to cover all parties in the supply chain providing services, equipment or technology (e.g. the EPC contractor, the reactor vender, the owner engineer, architect engineer, or the Parent Body Organisation responsible for decommissioning one the UK legacy nuclear installations). With a return to nuclear new build expected in the UK, the clarification of the position of a Supplier and their potential to be liable for nuclear damage is of vital importance for a functioning nuclear supply chain. The research explores the nuclear liability legislation in the UK and identifies the gaps and limitations in existence. The latter problems pose a risk for the Suppliers to operators in the nuclear energy industry, and consequently some approaches that can mitigate those risks are advanced and assessed. The nuclear liability regime in the UK is largely based on international conventions and hence...

Brief for the United States as Amicus Curiae in Support of Neither Party

West, Tony; Brinkmann, Beth S.; McIntosh, Scott R.; Freeman, Mark R.
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em 29/10/2010 EN_US
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Amicus ("friend of the court") brief written by the United States in support of neither party in AMP v. Myriad Genetics (No. 2010-1406).

The Westminster Model strikes back, both in Britain and in Canada … but pressures for multi-party politics are still increasing

Dunleavy, Patrick
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/05/2011 EN; EN
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Last week saw majority government restored at the fourth time of asking in Canada, while UK voters rejected a switch away from first-past-the-post, and punished the third party Liberal Democrats severely for their behaviour in the coalition government. So the ‘Westminster Model’ approach to politics clearly has some life left in it. Yet Patrick Dunleavy finds that in both countries, the turbulent swirl of political alignments shows no signs of returning to two party politics. In Canada the previous third party has leapt into the main opposition slot, and in the UK the Scottish National Party swept to an overall majority of Scottish votes. Voters in both countries still show continued disenchantment with their top two parties and an increasing pluralization of political alignments

Book review: America’s Right: anti-establishment Conservatism from Goldwater to the Tea Party

Krupa, Joel
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/07/2013 EN; EN
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"America’s Right: Anti-Establishment Conservatism from Goldwater to the Tea Party." Robert B. Horwitz. Polity Press. May 2013. --- 21st century American conservatism has moved far beyond the Reagan Revolution of small government, lower taxes and a respect for tradition. The alliance of libertarians, neoconservatives, and the Christian right has launched anxious and angry attacks on the purported homosexual agenda, the “hoax” of climate change, the rule by experts and elites, and the banishment of religion from the public realm. This book examines the nature of anti–establishment conservatism, traces its development from the 1950s to the Tea Party, and explains its political ascendance. This book will not disappoint students of US politics, writes Joel Krupa.

Members of Congress are less loyal to their party closer to an election, making a vote to authorize force against ISIL unlikely before November

Lindstädt , Rene; Vander Wielen, Ryan J.
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/10/2014 EN; EN
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Many commentators have expressed concern that Congress has not yet taken a formal vote to authorize the use of military force against the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIL). In new research, René Lindstädt and Ryan J. Vander Wielen explore why Congress is so reluctant to put issues such as this to a vote around election time. By analyzing party votes, where one party votes in opposition to the other, they find that members are more likely to vote with their party when elections are distant, but as they become nearer, this likelihood falls, as members become concerned about electoral reprisals from their constituents. This means that party leaders are far less likely to schedule highly partisan votes close to an election, for fear of losing votes and seats

Ku Klux Klan activism in the 1960s is linked to the South’s swing to the Republican Party

McVeigh, Rory
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/2014 EN; EN
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After the midterm elections, the Democratic Party is now very nearly unrepresented in the Southern states of the U.S., the culmination of a political realignment that began in the 1960s. In new research, Rory McVeigh finds that those counties that experienced greater levels of activism by the racist Ku Klux Klan experienced a five percent greater swing to the Republican Party. He argues that these results show that social movement activism can be effective in bringing about change, as people’s votes changed because of racial interests as opposed to party loyalties.

Including party labels on ballots increases voting in local elections, especially among minorities

Garlick, Alex
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/05/2015 EN; EN
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Most people would agree that political parties are one of the most important components of national politics. But this is not the case in local politics, where candidates tend to run as individuals without party affiliation in races that many voters fail to participate in. Alex Garlick argues that adding party labels to candidates may be beneficial for these down-ticket races, as knowing candidates’ party affiliations will help inform voters’ decisions, and increase their likelihood of voting.

Syria has exposed the fault lines in the Republican Party over foreign policy

Hazelgrove, Sam
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/09/2013 EN; EN
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While the Republican Party is largely united against President Obama’s domestic policies, recent moves in Washington to intervene militarily in Syria have exposed the lack of consensus in the party on foreign policy issues. Sam Hazelgrove argues that the GOP’s past opposition to Obama has masked the division of the party on foreign policy into hawkish hardliners and neo-isolationists. Given Republicans’ historic tendency to support interventions of this sort, it remains to be seen if this isolationist view will endure.

The fork in the road? British reactions to the election of an apartheid government in South Africa, May 1948

Waddy,Nicholas L.
Fonte: Historia Publicador: Historia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2010 EN
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This article examines in depth the reaction of the British government and the British press to the election of a National Party, apartheid government in South Africa in May 1948. The conventional view -that the 1948 election represented a "turning point" in South African history and Anglo-South African relations -is repudiated. On the contrary, it appears that the British, although they almost uniformly admired Field Marshal Smuts and distrusted Afrikaner Nationalists, felt that the results of the 1948 election were not indicative of a fundamental shift. The view was widespread in Britain and South Africa that Smuts and the United Party would soon be returned to power, and apartheid would prove to be impractical and politically embarrassing to the Nationalists. Only after Smuts's death in 1950, and after the further consolidation of National Party political control in South Africa, did the British begin to accept that the re-establishment of a mildly progressive, anglophile regime in South Africa was unlikely to occur.

"The sacred tie": Sir Thomas Smartt, the Unionist Party and the British Empire, 1912-1920

Mouton,F.A.
Fonte: Historia Publicador: Historia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
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The Irish born Thomas Smartt loved South Africa, and fervently believed that that his adopted country's highest destiny could only be achieved by being in the British Empire. For him the imperial connection with Britain was a "sacred tie", and he saw it as his duty as the leader of the pro-imperial Unionist Party, the official parliamentary opposition between 1912 and 1920, to protect and strengthen it. He was, however, a disastrous leader of the Unionist Party, and did much to harm the "sacred tie". His lack of self-restraint when it came to imperial interests meant that instead of controlling and guiding the attachment of South African English-speakers to Britain, he fuelled a destructive jingoism. In the process he harmed the efforts of Louis Botha and J.C. Smuts to reconcile the two white groups after the trauma of the South African War, and to create a united and loyal South Africa within the Empire.