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The awareness of chronic fatigue syndrome: A comparative study in Brazil and the United Kingdom

CHO, Hyong Jin; MENEZES, Paulo Rossi; BHUGRA, Dinesh; WESSELY, Simon
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
Objective: While in many Western affluent countries there is widespread awareness of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), little is known about the awareness of CFS/ME in low- and middle-income countries. We compared the awareness of CFS in Brazil and the United Kingdom. Methods: Recognition and knowledge of CFS were assessed among 120 Brazilian specialist doctors in two major university hospitals using a typical case vignette of CFS. We also surveyed 3914 and 2435 consecutive attenders in Brazilian and British primary care clinics, respectively, concerning their awareness of CFS. Results: When given a typical case vignette of CFS, only 30.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 22.7-39.9%] of Brazilian specialist doctors mentioned chronic fatigue or CFS as a possible diagnosis, a proportion substantially lower than that observed in Western affluent countries. Similarly, only 16.2% (95% CI, 15.1-17.4%) of Brazilian primary care attenders were aware of CFS, in contrast to 55.1% (95% CI, 53.1-57.1%) of their British counterparts (P <.001). This difference remained highly significant after controlling for patients` sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics (P <.001). Conclusions: The awareness of CFS was substantially lower in Brazil than the United Kingdom. The observed difference may influence patients` help-seeking behavior and both doctors` and patients` beliefs and attitudes in relation to fatigue-related syndromes. Attempts to promote the awareness of CFS should be considered in Brazil...

History and Cultivation of Parma Violets (Viola, Violaceae) in the United Kingdom and France in the Nineteenth Century

Mendonça de Carvalho, Luís; Fernandes, Francisca Maria; Nunes, Maria de Fatima; Brigola, João
Fonte: Harvard Edu Publicador: Harvard Edu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
Abstract. Scented cultivars of Parma violets were among the most important urban plants during the nineteenth century, with many references in literature, fashion, art and flower trade. Our research analyzed data related to Parma violets in France and in the United Kingdom and presents the cultivars introduced during the nineteenth century.

Rights perceived and practiced 2nd Part Results of the surveys carried out in Brazil, India, Mozambique and the United Kingdom, as part of the project “Domestic Work and Domestic Workers Interdisciplinary and Comparative Perspectives"

Guibentif, P.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em 16/01/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
The following analysis gives an account of the data collected in Brazil, India, Mozambique, and United Kingdom within the framework of the research project Domestic Work and Domestic Workers. The annexed tables on which it is based are structured exactly the same way as the ones presenting the data collected in Portugal, introduced in a former working paper (Guibentif, 2011). Financed by a Portuguese entity, and sustained mainly by a team based in Lisbon, the project was in condition to collect a considerable amount of data in Portugal, where we could interview a sample of nearly 700 people. For financial and organizational reasons, it was impossible to carry out a comparable research operation in other countries. With the efficient support of colleagues involved in the international research network set up for the project, we succeeded in applying the same questionnaire as in Portugal to more modest samples in Brazil, India, Mozambique, and United Kingdom. We want to express here our warm thanks to Maria Lígia Barbosa, from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Ramapriya Gopalakrishnan, from Chennai, India, and Nelson Chapananga, from Nampula, Mozambique, who organized these surveys. Given the more limited number of questionnaires under analysis...

Internationalization process of Science4you to the United Kingdom

Silva, Francisco Fonseca e
Fonte: NSBE - UNL Publicador: NSBE - UNL
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /01/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics; This thesis analyzes and proposes the internationalization strategy of the Portuguese company Science4you to the United Kingdom focusing on its core business, educational scientific toys development. Science4you is a profitable and recently formed company that has already established international operations and is seeking to increase its external revenue streams by reaching other countries. The study scrutinizes the internal environmental context by examining the company history, objectives, operations functioning, industry key drivers and its competitive assessment. In view of the fact that Science4you has been considering the hypothesis of expanding its operations to the United Kingdom, this country was the main target of the study research. Nevertheless, the British toy market attractiveness was analyzed and compared to other potential candidates confirming that the United Kingdom represents a prosperous expansion opportunity. Furthermore a country macro-environmental and a British toy sector analysis were performed, allowing a detailed proposal of the implementation plan regarding the mode of entry...

Internationalization strategy of Shoes Closet to the United Kingdom

Capoulas, Maria Leonor Lopes
Fonte: NSBE - UNL Publicador: NSBE - UNL
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /01/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics; This Work Project analyzes the internationalization strategy of Shoes Closet, a Portuguese footwear SME, to the United Kingdom. It was based on fundamental support information provided by the company’s founder, on desk research and on market research. It tackles the domestic market, with a comprehensive internal and market scanning. It also analyses the British market, justifying the country choice and studying the competitive environment. Subsequently, this Work Project concludes that it is necessary to consider Portugal as a tactical market, implementing a deep change to foster the sustainable development of the company, to enter in the British market afterwards.

A tale of two tax stories; Freedom of Information and determining the public interest in Australia and the United Kingdom.

Bannister, J.
Fonte: Liverpool John Moores University Publicador: Liverpool John Moores University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
In February 2005 The Times newspaper applied to the United Kingdom Treasury for access to documents prepared for Ministers on the expected loss of revenue by pension funds from the removal of the right to claim tax credits on UK dividends. More than two years earlier The Australian newspaper sought access to information from the Australian Federal Treasury on ‘bracket creep’ in taxation. In this article the author contrasts these two applications and the tribunal and court cases that ensued. She uses the case studies to critique the provisions in the Australian legislation that enable Ministers and Department Heads to issue conclusive certificates to protect their decisions to refuse access to internal working documents from independent merits review. The treasuries in both jurisdictions resisted the freedom of information applications, arguing that disclosure would not be in the public interest. The documents in the UK case were eventually disclosed to The Times. The application by The Australian took the newspaper all the way to the High Court of Australia with no tax story to publish in the end. The paper was left with only a tale of freedom of information failure. The author concludes with an overview of proposals for FoI reform in the wake of the Australian High Court decision and the recent election of a Labor Government in Australia.; Judith Bannister

Carvedilol reduces the costs of medical care in severe heart failure: An economic analysis of the COPERNICUS study applied to the United Kingdom

Stewart, S.; McMurray, J.; Hebborn, A.; Coats, A.; Packer, M.
Fonte: Elsevier Sci Ireland Ltd Publicador: Elsevier Sci Ireland Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of carvedilol on the costs related to the treatment of severe chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods: Costs for the treatment for heart failure within the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom (UK) were applied to resource utilisation data prospectively collected in all patients randomized into the Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) Study. Unit-specific, per diem (hospital bed day) costs were used to calculate expenditures due to hospitalizations. We also included costs of carvedilol treatment, general practitioner surgery/office visits, hospital out-patient clinic visits and nursing home care based on estimates derived from validated patterns of clinical practice in the UK. Results: The estimated cost of carvedilol therapy and related ambulatory care for the 1156 patients assigned to active treatment was £530,771 (£44.89 per patient/month of follow-up). However, patients assigned to carvedilol were hospitalised less often and accumulated fewer and less expensive days of admission. Consequently, the total estimated cost of hospital care was £3.49 million in the carvedilol group compared with £4.24 million for the 1133 patients in the placebo arm. The cost of post-discharge care was also less in the carvedilol than in the placebo group (£479...

The prevalence and analysis of risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: 18-year follow-up data from the Speedwell eye study, United Kingdom

Ngai, L.Y.; Stocks, N.; Sparrow, J.; Patel, R.; Rumley, A.; Lowe, G.; Davey Smith, G.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
Aims/Purpose: To determine the prevalence of age-related maculopathy (ARM) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in men aged 65–83 years living in the Speedwell region of Bristol, United Kingdom and identify modifiable risk factors. Methods: A total of 2348 men recruited to the Speedwell prospective cohort study in 1979 were followed up in 1997 with an eye questionnaire and had retinal photographs that were assessed using the International Classification System for ARM. Results: In all, 934 men (66.8% response rate) attended with a mean of 17.9 years (15.3–20.6 years) follow-up. Early ARM (grades 2–3) was found in 9.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.4%, 11.4%) and late age-related maculopathy (grade 4, AMD) in 0.5% (95% CI 0.2%, 1.2%). The risk of ARM (grades 2–4) was increased with raised C-reactive protein and consumption of lard and solid fats, whereas triglyceride levels were associated with a lower risk. The latter were confirmed in multivariable analyses and in addition, haemodynamic measures also predicted risk (eg mean arterial pressure odds ratio (OR) per z-score 1.37, 95% CI 1.04, 1.79). Conclusions: In a representative cohort of men aged 65–83 from Bristol, United Kingdom, many had macular changes that put them at higher risk of developing AMD. Various modifiable exposures were associated with an increased risk ARM/AMD. Opportunities for screening and undertaking secondary prevention interventions need to be explored to prevent progression of the disease and blindness.; L-Y Ngai...

Housing affordability, tenure and mental health in Australia and the United Kingdom: a comparative panel analysis

Bentley, R.J.; Pevalin, D.; Baker, E.; Mason, K.; Reeves, A.; Beer, A.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
This paper contributes insights into the role of tenure in modifying the relationship between housing affordability and health, using a cross-national comparison of similar post-industrial nations—Australia and the United Kingdom—with different tenure structures. The paper utilises longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey and British Household Panel Survey to examine change in the mental health of individuals associated with housing becoming unaffordable and considers modification by tenure. We present evidence that the role of tenure in the relationship between housing and health is context dependent and should not be unthinkingly generalised across nations. These findings suggest that the UK housing context offers a greater level of protection to tenants living in unaffordable housing when compared with Australia, and this finds expression in the mental health of the two populations. We conclude that Australian governments could improve the mental health of their economically vulnerable populations through more supportive housing policies.; Rebecca J. Bentley, David Pevalin, Emma Baker, Kate Mason, Aaron Reeves and Andrew Beer; Published online: 20 Aug 2015

Luces y sombras de una experiencia pionera. Políticas de Televisión Digital Terrestre en el Reino Unido; The Politics of Digital Terrestrial TV in the United Kingdom. Light and Shadows Within a Pioncering Experiment

García Leiva, María Trinidad
Fonte: Fundación Telefónica Publicador: Fundación Telefónica
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
El Reino Unido lidera en Europa el proceso definitivo de digitalización de la televisión, en cuyo seno ha asignado a la Televisión Digital Terrestre un rol central. Este artículo analiza las opciones de política adoptadas desde la introducción del servicio para dilucidar en qué medida las mismas están contribuyendo o no a su democratización.; United Kingdom is at the head of the definitive process of digitalizing tv in Europe, with digital TV lying at the center of this. This article analyzes the policy options adopted starting from the first appearance of digital TV service in the U. K. The goal is to shed light on whether or not these policies are contributing to the demcoratizing of digital TV media.

Manpower procurement policies, ground force structures, and registration systems : Demark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Norway, and the United Kingdom

Sohlberg, Ragnhild
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório Formato: x, 100 p. : ill., 28 cm.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
This report compares manpower policies, peacetime force structures, and the character and time-phased availability of reserve forces in Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Norway, and the United Kingdom. Information provided by standard comparative sources is insufficient for military balance assessments, as baselines for force reduction negotiations, and for reinforcement planning. This paper was based on national publications and documents and direct assistance from European defense authorities and experts. Differences in countries' history and conditions have led to a diversity of manpower policies and force structures--which may limit the feasibility and desirability of standardization. Universality of military conscription is at best approximated. Lengths of regular duty and reserve obligations vary within nations. The peacetime armies of Denmark, West Germany, and Norway have 30, 51, and 80 percent conscripts, respectively. Longer term volunteers and conscripts with extended obligations tend to fill complex tasks. These countries have significant mobilization potentials with relatively high readiness. (Author); Defense Resources Management Education Center Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey. California; http://archive.org/details/manpowerprocurem00sohl; NA

The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and its security implications for the United Kingdom and the United States

Sironi, Luke
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 70 p.;28 cm.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.63%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The United Kingdom has signed and ratified the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The United States signed the treaty in September 1996, and currently the decision on whether to ratify it is pending in the Senate. Key differences reside in the political and objective strategic situations of the United States and the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom's parliamentary system a single party (or a coalition) makes decisions. The United States, however, was designed to have a separation of powers, and this insures that the legislative and executive branches have opportunities for discord as well as cooperation. Currently the United Kingdom has operational weapons production facilities, whereas the United States does not. The United Kingdom has only one nuclear weapons program (the Trident missile) to maintain, whereas the United States has multiple delivery systems and warhead types to maintain. The United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent provides for the country's security needs, yet the United Kingdom is also covered by U.S. nuclear commitments. Indeed, the United States provides xtended deterrence protection for allies and security partners around the world. These responsibilities imply that the implications of the CTBT could be more momentous for the United States than for the United Kingdom; http://www.archive.org/details/comprehensivetes00siro; Lieutenant...

Still a special relationship? The significance of United States-United Kingdom relations in the twenty-first century

Silva, Marlene Z.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: 77 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.56%
The so-called Special Relationship between the United States and the United Kingdom has been a signal feature of the foreign relations of the United States and the United Kingdom, especially in the past ten years of the war against terror. As such, the topic represents an important theme of policy for U.S. officers who serve in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. The present thesis seeks to understand how leading institutions and responsible figures in Britain view the Special Relationship within the contemporary strategic and political context. Furthermore, the thesis analyzes the nature, character, and durability of this strategic idea in UK statecraft from a British perspective in three case studies: a) the Iraqi campaign of 2001--2010; b) the Afghan campaign, 2001--present, and c) the most recent Libyan episode of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) operations in 2011. In particular, this inquiry comprehends the Special Relationship as a feature of British diplomatic and strategic culture, and as an expression of shared values and institutions the character of which is vital for those charged with service in an Anglo-American context as well as NATO.; US Navy (USN) author

Relative sea-level change and postglacial isostatic adjustment along the coast of south Devon, United Kingdom

Massey, Anthony C.; Gehrels, W. Roland; Charman, Dan J.; Milne, Glenn A.; Peltier, W.R.; Lambeck, Kurt; Selby, Katherine A.
Fonte: Wiley-VCH Verlag GMBH Publicador: Wiley-VCH Verlag GMBH
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
Previous sea-level studies suggest that southwest Britain has the fastest subsiding coastline in the United Kingdom, but tide-gauge data, GPS and gravity measurements and geophysical models show little evidence of anomalous subsidence in this region. In t

Controlling Political Corruption in the United Kingdom

Andersson, Staffan; Martínez Cousinou, Gloria
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Documento de trabajo
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
Existing case studies of control of political corruption often lack a theoretical framework that can provide for systematic empirical research and comparisons between cases and countries. To remedy this, we apply principal-agent theory qualitatively to study the United Kingdom, with a particular emphasis given to an in-depth study of control measures employed to Parliament, the Executive and political parties. We give a detailed account of the approach undertaken to control political corruption in these risk areas for corruption, and discuss its implications and why some types of measures prevail over others.

Constitutional legislation, European Union Law and the nature of the United Kingdom?s contemporary constitution

Elliott, Mark
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
This is the accepted manuscript. The final version is available from CUP at http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9530594&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S1574019614001291.; United Kingdom ? UK Supreme Court ? European Union ? The orthodox view of the British constitution: lack of hierarchy of laws ? Britain's ?unwritten? constitution and the role of ?constitutional statues? in Factortame ? HS2 judgment makes up for House of Lords' omission in Factortame ? Relationship between parliamentary sovereignty and EU law more clearly articulated ? A normative-hierarchical constitutional order.

Generational justice in aged care policy in Australia and the United Kingdom

Healy, Judith; Howe, Anna
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
This paper traces the emergence of the theme of generational justice in aged care policy in Australia and the United Kingdom. Debate about the balance to be struck between inter- and intragenerational funding in the two countries took somewhat different courses before and after the crossover in the political persuasion of national governments that occurred in 1996-1997, but both continue to grapple with the question as to whether housing assets of the elderly are a resource for private, intergenerational transfers, or a source of intragenerational funding for aged care.

Net neutrality discourses: comparing advocacy and regulatory arguments in the United States and the United Kingdom

Powell, Alison; Cooper, Alissa
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
Telecommunications policy issues rarely make news, much less mobilize thousands of people. Yet this has been occurring in the United States around efforts to introduce "Net neutrality" regulation. A similar grassroots mobilization has not developed in the United Kingdom or elsewhere in Europe. We develop a comparative analysis of U.S. and UK Net neutrality debates with an eye toward identifying the arguments for and against regulation, how those arguments differ between the countries, and what the implications of those differences are for the Internet. Drawing on mass media, advocacy, and regulatory discourses, we find that local regulatory precedents as well as cultural factors contribute to both agenda setting and framing of Net neutrality. The differences between national discourses provide a way to understand both the structural differences between regulatory cultures and the substantive differences between policy interpretations, both of which must be reconciled for the Internet to continue to thrive as a global medium.

Search for poliovirus carriers among people with primary immune deficiency diseases in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, and the United Kingdom

Halsey,Neal A.; Pinto,Jorge; Espinosa-Rosales,Francisco; Faure-Fontenla,María A.; Silva,Edson da; Khan,Aamir J.; Webster,A.D.B.; Minor,Philip; Dunn,Glynis; Asturias,Edwin; Hussain,Hamidah; Pallansch,Mark A.; Kew,Olen M.; Winkelstein,Jerry; Sutter,Roland
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the rate of long-term poliovirus excretors in people known to have B-cell immune deficiency disorders. METHODS: An active search for chronic excretors was conducted among 306 persons known to have immunoglobulin G (IgG) deficiency in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, and the United Kingdom, and 40 people with IgA deficiency in the United States. Written informed consent or assent was obtained from the participants or their legal guardians, and the studies were formally approved. Stool samples were collected from participants and cultured for polioviruses. Calculation of the confidence interval for the proportion of participants with persistent poliovirus excretion was based on the binomial distribution. FINDINGS: No individuals with long-term excretion of polioviruses were identified. Most participants had received oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and almost all had been exposed to household contacts who had received OPV. Polioviruses of recent vaccine origin were transiently found in four individuals in Mexico and Brazil, where OPV is recommended for all children. CONCLUSION: Although chronic poliovirus excretion can occur in immunodeficient persons, it appears to be rare.

A national register for surveillance of inherited disorders: beta thalassaemia in the United Kingdom

Modell,Bernadette; Khan,Maren; Darlison,Matthew; King,Anita; Layton,Mark; Old,John; Petrou,Mary; Varnavides,Lysandros
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54%
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the value of a national register for surveillance of services for an inherited disorder. METHODS: Data from the United Kingdom Thalassaemia Register and the United Kingdom Register of Prenatal Diagnosis for Haemoglobin Disorders were combined in a database; these registers include all fetuses known to have been diagnosed with beta thalassaemia major, beta thalassaemia intermedia, or haemoglobin E/beta thalassaemia in the United Kingdom. Data were extracted to show outcomes (selective abortion or live birth) of all fetuses and the status of those born with a disorder (alive, dead, successful bone marrow transplant, or lost to follow-up) by parents' region of residence and ethnicity. FINDINGS: At the end of 1999 the register included 1074 patients, 807 of whom were alive and residing in the United Kingdom. A successful bone marrow transplant has been performed for 117 out of 581 (20%) patients born since 1975. Residents of Pakistani origin are now the main group at risk in the United Kingdom, replacing residents of Cypriot origin. This has led to a marked shift in the need for services from the south-east of England to the Midlands and the north of England. Despite the acceptability of prenatal diagnosis, the proportion of affected births remains 50% higher than would be expected...