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Deunionization in the US : a panel data analysis from 1973 to 1999

Barbosa Filho, Fernando de Holanda
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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There are four different hypotheses analyzed in the literature that explain deunionization, namely: the decrease in the demand for union representation by the workers; the impaet of globalization over unionization rates; teehnieal ehange and ehanges in the legal and politieal systems against unions. This paper aims to test alI ofthem. We estimate a logistie regression using panel data proeedure with 35 industries from 1973 to 1999 and eonclude that the four hypotheses ean not be rejeeted by the data. We also use a varianee analysis deeomposition to study the impaet of these variables over the drop in unionization rates. In the model with no demographic variables the results show that these economic(tested) variables can account from 10% to 12% of the drop in unionization . However, when we include demographic variables these tested variables can account from 10% to 35% in the total variation of unionization rates. In this case the four hypotheses tested can explain up to 50% ofthe total drop in unionization rates explained by the modeJ.

Transnacionalização das relações de trabalho: o caso da maquila estadunidense Johnson Controls (plantas FINSA e interiores) e o papel da Federação Internacional de Trabalhadores das Indústrias Metalúrgicas (FITIM)

Espósito, Katiuscia Moreno Galhera
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 172 f. il.
POR
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Pós-graduação em Relações Internacionais (UNESP - UNICAMP - PUC-SP) - FFC; The internationalization of the companies has been strengthened from the 1970s. Throughout this process, in the ―post-fordist‖ or ―flexible accumulation‖ era, the production chains of multinational companies have become increasingly decentralized, intensifying the international division of labor. Thus, for example, workers in Pakistan, facing low wages and an environment unfavorable to unionization, contribute, although unintentionally, to increase income inequality in the world. The labor unions, in turn, have witnessed the general fall of unionization rates and the deregulation of labor, which have affected even the rights historically won by workers in countries where the social dialogue is considered advanced, like Germany. After all, it is not interesting to the companies the use of manpower with the high costs of German social security, when Pakistani workers can do the same job at a lower cost. One strategy of unions in the face of these processes is to operate at a transnational level, through global networks of information, communication and mobilization. The objective is to apprehend these new forms of labor organization which act transnationally: the Global Union Federations (GUFs). More specifically...

Why US financial workers are unorganized : the 19th century origins of a current problem = Por que os trabalhadores do setor financeiro dos EUA não são sindicalizados? : um problema atual com raízes no século 19; Por que os trabalhadores do setor financeiro dos EUA não são sindicalizados? : um problema atual com raízes no século 19

Steven Michael Strong
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/07/2014 PT
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Trabalhadores do setor financeiro dos EUA apresentam a menor taxa de sindicalização em comparação aos trabalhadores de outras indústrias, e estão entre os menos organizados do mundo. À luz da recente crise econômica, o movimento operário dos EUA, junto com os sindicatos internacionais, tem tido grande interesse em reverter as sombrias taxas de sindicalização, devido à importância destes trabalhadores, que estão dentro de um mercado financeiro globalizado altamente dominado por empresas norte-americanas. O atual desafio em organizar estes trabalhadores está enraizado em uma história profunda de evasão, ignorância, desorientação, repressão, e derrotas para os interesses do sindicalismo dos trabalhadores de escritórios. Este trabalho explora as primeiras raízes dos obstáculos atuais que os trabalhadores do setor financeiro enfrentam na tentativa de se sindicalizar, examinando a resistência popular à formação do Setor Financeiro dos EUA no século 19. Uma visão geral do desenvolvimento inicial do setor financeiro, de suas respostas políticas e da organização do trabalho é fornecida, incluindo informações específicas sobre os trabalhadores do setor financeiro, quando disponíveis. O aumento da feminização do trabalho de colarinho branco após a Guerra Civil dos EUA também é explorado. Os fatores chave que contribuem para as baixas taxas de sindicalização incluem o impacto da liderança sindical influenciada pelo populismo...

A Sindicalização em Portugal: a sua medida, a sua distribuição e os seus determinantes

Stoleroff, Alan; Naumann, Reinhard
Fonte: CIES-ISCTE / CELTA Publicador: CIES-ISCTE / CELTA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1993 POR
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Constatando a prévia falta de uma base de dados fidedigna sobre a sindicalização e o consequente desconhecimento da evolução da densidade sindical em Portugal, apresenta-se, primeiro, uma análise crítica de algumas fontes e estudos sobre o assunto e, a seguir, um trabalho novo para calcular os números de sindicalizados, as taxas sectoriais e global da sindicalização e a sua distribuição sectorial e organizacional relativamente ao período 1988-1990. Privilegia-se o "número de inscritos nos cadernos eleitorais dos sindicatos" como indicador na base da qual se deve calcular a sindicalização. Apresenta-se, para os diversos ramos e sectores, quatro tipos de cálculo: taxas mínimas e máximas da sindicalização em função da utilização quer dos Quadros de Pessoal, quer do Inquérito ao Emprego como fonte para determinar o número de trabalhadores por conta de outrem. O total de sindicalizados situa-se entre um mínimo de 881.900 e um máximo de 1.041.500 para o período em causa e uma taxa de sindicalização global de entre 34% e 41 % em função dos Quadros de Pessoal e entre 27% e 32% em função do Inquérito ao Emprego. Dos trabalhadores sindicalizados em Portugal calculamos que 71 % são associados em organizações filiadas na...

Cost implications of hospital unionization: a behavioral analysis.

Salkever, D S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1984 EN
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The growth of unionization among hospital workers was sharply accelerated by the 1974 amendments to the National Labor Relations Act covering voluntary hospital workers. With continuing inflationary pressures in the hospital sector, the cost implications of the recent and projected growth of hospital unions is of some concern to policymakers. This article presents estimates of union cost impacts based on data from hospitals in Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania. Cross-sectional regressions with data for 1975 yield positive union impacts of 3.3 percent on total costs, 4.1-5.9 percent on cost per case, and 6.1 percent on cost per day. Reestimation of the model with data on changes over the 1971-1975 period yields similar results. We also find that the cost impact of unionization varies with the pattern of coverage (being lower for service employees and RNs) and with the extent of cost-based reimbursement. This suggests that future cost impacts of union growth may be moderated as prospective payment systems for hospitals become more widespread.

Occupational Closure and Wage Inequality in Germany and the United Kingdom

Bol, Thijs; Weeden, Kim A.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
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Rent-based accounts of inequality argue that institutionalized barriers to the access to labour market positions create artificial restrictions on the supply of labour and, in turn, generate wages for workers in protected positions in excess of the wages they would receive in a competitive labour market. In this article, we extend this argument to the comparative context, and elaborate a rent-based explanation of between-occupation wage inequality in Germany and the United Kingdom. We test it with new and unique data on four institutionalized sources of closure (educational credentialing, licensure, unionization, and apprenticeships), matched to newly constructed measures of occupational skills and to national labour force survey data. We show that in both countries, between-occupation wage inequality is substantial, and much of it can be traced to variations across occupations in closure and to the positive association between closure and wages. We also show that the prevalence and the payoff to each of the four closure institutions differ across the two countries: Specifically, vocational credentialing and unionization have a particularly high payoff in Germany, while tertiary credentialing and licensure have a particularly high payoff in the United Kingdom. These results have important implications for understanding between-occupation wage inequality and cross-national differences in aggregate levels of wage inequality.

Enabling Employee Choice: A Structural Approach to the Rules of Union Organizing

Sachs, Benjamin Ian
Fonte: Harvard University, Harvard Law School Publicador: Harvard University, Harvard Law School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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The proposed Employee Free Choice Act (EFCA) has led to fierce debate over how best to ensure employees a choice on the question of unionization. The debate goes to the core of our federal system of labor law. Each of the potential legislative designs under consideration - including both “card check” and “rapid elections” - aims to enhance employee choice by minimizing or eliminating managerial involvement in the unionization process. The central question raised by EFCA, therefore, is whether enabling employees to limit or avoid managerial intervention in union campaigns is an appropriate goal for federal law. This Article answers this foundational question in the affirmative. It reaches this conclusion by conceptualizing federal labor law in terms of legal default rules, drawing in particular on the preference-eliciting default theory of statutory interpretation and the reversible default theory from corporate law. Doing so leads to the argument that card check, rapid elections, and similar mechanisms are best understood as “asymmetry-correcting altering rules” - means of mitigating the impediments that block departure from the nonunion default. Understanding EFCA in this way also requires that we ask how such an altering rule should be constructed. This Article addresses this institutional design question by arguing that card check’s open decision-making process is flawed and that rapid elections...

Essays on the real and financial allocation of capital

Ramírez Verdugo, Arturo
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 126 p.; 6874942 bytes; 6881285 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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This dissertation consists of three papers studying how firms allocate real and financial capital, and how taxes, the labor market and asymmetric information affect these allocation decisions. The first paper studies the response of business investment to taxes. I use the variation provided by recent reforms to the Mexican tax system, including the elimination of accelerated depreciation for investment outside the main metropolitan areas. I show that investment is very sensitive to tax changes (an elasticity of investment with respect to the user cost around -2.0), mainly due to the small open economy nature of Mexico: large responses of multinationals and large elasticity of imported assets. I also show that investment behavior is consistent with nonconvexities and irreversibilities. The results are robust to different specifications and instrumental variables approaches, and are not an artifact of tax evasion. The second paper studies the link between payout and unionization. Signaling models suggest that dividends are used to convey information about future earnings to investors. However, if unions also receive these signals, managers will be less inclined to send the signal, preventing unions from using this information when bargaining for higher salaries.; (cont.) Using data from IRS 5500 Forms to measure firm unionization...

Les impacts des stratégies patronales antisyndicales sur l’organisation des travailleurs

Bigras, Bianca
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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L’utilisation de stratégies antisyndicales est un phénomène de plus en plus préconisé par l’acteur patronal (Bronfenbrenner, 2009b). Une piste d’explication de cette croissance serait liée à l’idéologie de gestion se basant sur une amertume inhérente à l’idée de partager le pouvoir avec une tierce partie représentant des travailleurs (Dundon et al., 2006). Dans le but de faire régner cette idéologie et de conserver un environnement de travail sans présence syndicale, des multinationales se sont même positionnées ouvertement contre la syndicalisation, que l’on pense à Wal-Mart, Mc Donald’s ou Disney (Dundon et al., 2006). Avec cette puissance que les multinationales détiennent actuellement, il ne fait nul doute qu’elles exercent une influence auprès des dirigeants des plus petites entreprises (Dundon et al., 2006), ce qui pourrait expliquer ce recours accru aux stratégies antisyndicales, que ce soit avant ou après l’accréditation syndicale. Mais qu’en est-il de l’antisyndicalisme de l’acteur patronal en sol canadien? Pour certains, les employeurs canadiens pratiqueraient davantage une stratégie d’acceptation du syndicalisme comparativement à nos voisins du sud à cause notamment de la plus forte présence syndicale historique dans le système des relations industrielles canadien...

Asymmetries in the Union Wage Premium in Ghana

Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Verner, Dorte
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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The article uses a matched employer-employee data set for Ghana and adopts a quantile regression approach that allows the effects of unionization to vary across the conditional wage distribution. It is shown that if there are intrafirm differences in unionization, there does appear to be a premium among poorer paid workers in the formal sector. Although this cannot be given a causal interpretation, it suggests important issues about how unions may affect one part of the labor market.

Collective bargaining and faculty unionization: An administrative perspective

Quinn, Colleen M
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The purpose of this qualitative case study was to gain insight into the perspectives of experienced higher education administrators regarding faculty unionization, the collective bargaining process, and the interpersonal relationships between higher education faculty members and administrators. ^ The primary method of data collection was semi-structured face to face interviews with nine administrators from two community colleges and two universities in the south Florida area. All of the study participants worked with unionized faculty members and had direct experience participating in bargaining negotiations. ^ Upon the completion of each interview, the researcher listened to the taped audio recording of the interview several times and then transcribed all of the information from the audiotape into a Word file. Data collection and analysis for each participant were performed concurrently. Using a modified concept mapping approach, the research questions were written on large yellow sticky notes and placed in the middle of a wall in the researcher’s home with nine descriptive categorical themes written on smaller sticky notes placed around the study questions. The highlighted quotes and key phrases were cut from each transcript and placed under each of the descriptive categories. Over the course of a few months repeatedly reviewing the research questions that guided this study...

Collective Bargaining And Faculty Unionization: An Administrative Perspective

Quinn, Colleen M.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.74%
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to gain insight into the perspectives of experienced higher education administrators regarding faculty unionization, the collective bargaining process, and the interpersonal relationships between higher education faculty members and administrators. The primary method of data collection was semi-structured face to face interviews with nine administrators from two community colleges and two universities in the south Florida area. All of the study participants worked with unionized faculty members and had direct experience participating in bargaining negotiations. Upon the completion of each interview, the researcher listened to the taped audio recording of the interview several times and then transcribed all of the information from the audiotape into a Word file. Data collection and analysis for each participant were performed concurrently. Using a modified concept mapping approach, the research questions were written on large yellow sticky notes and placed in the middle of a wall in the researcher’s home with nine descriptive categorical themes written on smaller sticky notes placed around the study questions. The highlighted quotes and key phrases were cut from each transcript and placed under each of the descriptive categories. Over the course of a few months repeatedly reviewing the research questions that guided this study...

Threat of unionization and nonunion employment

Ruiz-Verdú, Pablo
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2007 ENG
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If nonunion employers set both wages and employment strategically to forestall unionization, the threat of unionization, despite raising wages, increases employment above competitive levels, in contrast with the prediction of standard models.

Employer behavior when workers can unionize

Ruiz-Verdú, Pablo
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2002 ENG
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Unionization imposes substantial costs on employers. This paper develops a model that recognizes that, as a result, employers will set wages and employment taking into account the effect of their decisions on workers' incentives to organize. This model of employer behavior allows us to address two questions jointly: What determines which firms become unionized? And what are the consequences of unionization for employment and wages in nonunion firms? The implications of the model depart significantly from those of previous work, which either ignored employers' strategic behavior, or treated these questions in isolation.

The economics of union organization : efficiency, information and profitability

Ruiz-Verdú, Pablo
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2007 ENG
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This article presents a game theoretical model of union organization that highlights the role played by efficiency and asymmetric information as determinants of unionization and questions commonly held assumptions about the effect of firm profitability on unionization decisions. In the model, employers set wages taking into account the effect of their choices on workers' incentives to unionize. As a result of employers' strategic wage setting, collective bargaining emerges in equilibrium only if it increases surplus or if there is asymmetric information about the consequences of unionization. While unionization is usually assumed to be more likely in more profitable firms, the model shows that the probability of unionization will be higher in firms with lower rents. It also shows that the union wage premium and unionization will tend to be negatively correlated.; The financial support of Spain's Ministry of Education and Science (SEJ2005-06655/ECON) is gratefully acknowledged.

L'impact de la densité syndicale et du salaire minimum sur l'inégalité des revenus dans les provinces canadiennes, 1981-2008

Merizzi, Bruno
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Bien qu'il soit désormais établi que les institutions du travail (tel que la syndicalisation et le salaire minimum) aient eu pour effet de réduire l'inégalité des salaires entre les travailleurs au Canada et dans d'autres pays industrialisés, leur impact sur l'inégalité des revenus entre les familles ou les ménages reste incertain. Cette étude a pour but d'estimer l'impact de la densité syndicale et du salaire minimum réel sur l'évolution de l'inégalité des revenus de marché entre les ménages canadiens durant les années 1981 à 2008. À partir d'une base de données qui intègre des données annuelles agrégées par province, et en maintenant constant un ensemble de facteurs, les estimations par effets fixes indiquent que la densité syndicale a réduit l'inégalité des revenus mesurée au moyen du coefficient de Gini, alors que le salaire minimum réel a plutôt eu pour effet d'accroître celle-ci. Les résultats d'estimation indiquent également que le taux d'activité et la scolarité moyenne sont les principaux facteurs à avoir réduit l'inégalité des revenus, alors que le taux de chômage, le changement technologique (mesuré de différentes façons) et l'immigration récente ont contribué à l'accroître.; While some consensus exists that labor institutions (such as unionization and minimum wage) narrowed wages inequality among workers in Canada...

O sindicalismo brasileiro e as práticas anti-sindicais; The Brazilian unionism and the anti-union practices

Oliveira, Olga Maria Boschi Aguiar de; UFSC
Fonte: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux Publicador: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2005 POR
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27.55%
A influência do anarco-sindicalismo é bastante visível na estrutura sindicalbrasileira, no período de Getúlio Vargas,durante a vigência do Estado Novo (1938-1945). Entretanto, as idéias do anarco-sindicalismo e do socialismo não conseguiram prevalecer sobre o sindicalismo brasileiro, que começava a se desenvolver apoiado pela Igreja e pelo Estado, os quais viam com medo uma organização sindical autônoma e revolucionária. A sistematização conferida pela Consolidação das Leis do Trabalho – CLT, de 1943, dotou o Brasil de uma estrutura sindical com raízes corporativas de concepção italiana. Os resultados pretendidos com a estrutura sindical a partir da CLT eram o de proporcionar controle estatal por meio da tutela legal de todas as relações entre trabalhadores e patrões. Toda a estrutura sindical brasileira foi baseada no critério da unicidade. O fundamento conceitual da liberdade sindical encontra-se inserido nas regras e orientações da Organização Internacional do Trabalho – OIT. Com a promulgação da Constituição Federal de 1988...

Union free-riding in Britain and New Zealand

Bryson, Alex
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2006 EN; EN
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The percentage of workers who choose not to join the union available to them at their workplace has been rising in Britain and New Zealand. Social custom, union instrumentality, the fixed costs of joining, employee perceptions of management attitudes to unionization and employee problems at work all influence the propensity to free-ride. Ideological convictions regarding the role of unions also play some role, as do private excludable goods. There is little indication of employer-inspired policies substituting for unionization where unions are already present. Having accounted for all these factors, free-riding remains more common in New Zealand than in Britain.

Union decline in Britain

Machin, Stephen
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2000 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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n this paper I consider the rapid decline in the unionization rate that has occurred in Britain since the late 1970s. An establishment based analysis reports that the overwhelming factor in explaining falling unionization was a failure to organise the new sorts of establishments that were set up in the last twenty years or so. Patterns showing low rates of union recognition and density in new establishments set up in the 1980s and 1990s are seen to be very similar for new workplaces in both decades, reflecting that the developments since 1990 represent a continuation of the pattern revealed in earlier work for the 1980-90 period. The sharpest falls in unionization occurred in private manufacturing establishments set up post-1980, with significant falls also occurring, but from a lower initial level, in private sector services. In the public sector there is no establishment age based decline in recognition. Finally, there is some evidence that age of workplace, rather than age of worker, is the critical age based factor. This seems to be the case as the negative association between unionization and the post-1980 set up of the establishment is found to hold for workers of all ages.

Segmentation, switching costs and the demand for unionization in Britain

Bryson, Alex; Gomez, Rafael
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2003 EN; EN
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This paper explains why some employees who favor unionization fail to join, and why others who wish to abandon union membership continue paying dues. Our explanation is based on a model where employees incur switching (search) costs when attempting to abandon (acquire) union membership. Empirical analysis for Britain confirms one of the main predictions from the switching-cost- model that segmentation in the market for unionization persists even when mandatory membership provisions are eliminated and economy-wide density falls. The importance of these and other empirical findings for both theory and policy are discussed.