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Análise de um mecanismo de compensação de reativos incorporado aos inversores de um sistema fotovoltaico conectado à rede elétrica; Analysis of a reactive power compensation mechanism incorporated into inverters of a grid-connected photovoltaic system

Benedito, Ricardo da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/11/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
No Brasil, quando uma unidade consumidora (UC) sob regime de microgeração ou de minigeração distribuída tem parte ou a totalidade da sua demanda por potência ativa suprida pela planta geradora, mas sua demanda por potência reativa é atendida exclusivamente pela rede elétrica, verifica-se uma aparente deterioração do fator de potência dessa UC, sob a ótica da concessionária. Esse efeito decorre do fato de que o fator de potência, de acordo com a regulamentação vigente, é determinado apenas a partir das medições dos fluxos de potência ativa e reativa trocados entre a UC e a rede elétrica e não também entre a planta geradora e UC. Para consumidores do Grupo A (tensão de fornecimento igual ou superior a 2,3 kV) nessa situação, de acordo com o perfil da carga, pode haver cobrança por excedentes de reativos, constituindo-se assim uma barreira. Especificamente no caso de sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados à rede, existe a possibilidade de se utilizar os próprios inversores c.c.-c.a para suprir a demanda de reativos da UC e, dessa forma, minimizar o problema apresentado. Com o objetivo de se avaliar essa alternativa no contexto brasileiro, tendo-se em vista condições reais de operação e os limites normativos de injeção de potência reativa para inversores de sistemas fotovoltaicos...

Proposta de norma de conexão de fontes de geração distribuída à rede de baixa tensão da concessionária; Proposal of standard connection for distributed generation sources on low voltage network of the utility

Antonio Roberto Donadon
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/07/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
O objetivo do trabalho foi propor uma minuta de norma de conexão de geradores ou pequenos sistemas de geração distribuída em baixa tensão (GDBT) com potência menor ou igual a 75 kW monofásico ou trifásico com conversão estática em paralelo com a rede de distribuição secundária da concessionária local. Para atingir esse objetivo realizou-se um levantamento do estado da arte em matéria de normas de conexão em países onde esse assunto já se encontra em situação mais avançada bem como da incipiente legislação brasileira sobre o assunto. Baseado nisso e nos os dados obtidos dos testes de operação das fontes estudadas no projeto de pesquisa Implantação de Geração Distribuída Junto à Rede de Distribuição relacionados aos aspectos de qualidade de energia e segurança chegou-se a um elenco de tópicos relevantes para a construção de uma norma. O trabalho concluiu também que fontes de GDBT que possuam conversores estáticos que atendam aos requisitos de segurança e qualidade de energia da norma internacional IEEE 1547 poderiam ser conectadas à rede de distribuição da concessionária; The objective was to propose a draft standard for connecting small single-phase or three phase generators with rated power lower than or equal to 75 kW with static converter in parallel with low voltage utility grid (GDBT). To reach this goal it was carried out a survey of the state of the art in connection standards in countries where this matter is already more advanced state as well as the incipient Brazilian legislation on this matter. Based on this survey and the data obtained from operation tests of power sources studied in the R&D project Implementation of Distributed Generation in the Utility Grid related to safety and power quality was possible to obtain a range of relevant topics to build a connection standard. The study also concluded that GDBT power sources equipped with static converters that meet the international standard IEEE 1547 safety and power quality requirements could be connected to the utility grid

Desenvolvimento de um microinversor monofásico para sistema fotovoltaico conectado na rede elétrica de baixa tensão; Development of a single-phase micro inverter for photovoltaic system connected to the low voltage grid

Leonardo Ruffeil de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/10/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
O objetivo deste trabalho é a construção de um conversor eletrônico de potência monofá-sico completo para conexão à rede elétrica de distribuição de baixa tensão alimentado por painel fotovoltaico Painéis fotovoltaicos comerciais geram uma tensão contínua que varia entre 20 e 50V, dependendo do tipo de painel e da ocorrência ou não de conexão entre os mesmos; sendo necessário, portanto, a adequação dos níveis de tensão gerados pelo painel com o nível de tensão da rede elétrica de distribuição, na qual ele será conectado. O conversor eletrônico de potência utilizado neste trabalho é constituído de dois estágios sendo o primeiro CC - CC e o segundo, um inversor, CC - CA. Ele será controlado de duas maneiras: a primeira será responsável pelo con-trole da tensão de entrada do conversor CC - CC e pela injeção de potência no conversor CC - CA o qual, além de ser o responsável pela transformação da tensão contínua em alternada também é responsável pelo sincronismo do conversor CC - CA com a rede elétrica. São apresentados resultados de simulação do funcionamento do conversor para geração fotovoltaica de energia elétrica, sua malha de controle e o funcionamento do sistema elétrico completo. O projeto com-pleto dos conversores e dos circuitos auxiliares bem como os resultados experimentais obtidos em laboratório são apresentados.; The objective of this work is the construction of a complete single-phase power electronic converter for grid connection of low voltage distribution powered by photovoltaic panels. Photo-voltaic panels generates a DC voltage that varies between 20 and 50V...

AN EFFICIENT DEMAND-SIDE LOAD SHEDDING ALGORITHM IN SMART GRID

Li, Yang
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Project
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
Rapid advances in the smart grid technology are making it possible to tackle a lot of problems in the aged power systems. High-speed data acquisition system, high-voltage power electronic equipment, advanced utility and customer interaction technologies, as well as distributed renewable generation are enabling the revolution in the electric power generation, delivery and distribution. Through the implementation of ubiquitous metering and communication networks, the customers would no longer be a passive receiver of the electrical energy, but instead, an active participant in the power system and electricity market. They can not only sell their own energy to the utility, but also take part in the emergency restoration in the power grid. Nonetheless, some technical barriers are encountered during this revolution, such as difficulties in integrating home automation, smart metering, customer interaction and power system operation into the whole system. This thesis proposes a customer involved load shedding algorithm for both the power system frequency control and the micro-grid islanding. This new algorithm possesses the features of centralized load control and distributed load control, which fully utilizes the advantages of hierarchical communication networks along with the home automation. The proposed algorithm considers the reliability of the power grid as well as the comfort of the electricity users. In the power distribution system...

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : Pay-as-You-Go Plans in Off-Grid Energy Services

Moreno, Alejandro; Bareisaite, Asta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.41%
Although the payment models offered by off-grid energy companies are less flexible than those implemented with great success by mobile telephone companies, they may still have an important role to play in scaling up off-grid energy services for billions of people who lack access to electricity. More research is needed to assess the importance of flexible payments in attracting reliable low-income customers.

Mapping Smart-Grid Modernization in Power Distribution Systems

Oguah, Samuel; Chattopadhyay, Debabrata
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
Smart grids are an essential element in improving efficiency that is relevant to utilities in all countries - from advanced utilities with robust grids to those whose grids barely keep up with demand. This note provides practical guidance for stakeholders in defining smart-grid goals, identifying priorities, and structuring investment plans. While most of these principles apply to any part of the electricity grid (transmission, distribution, off-grid), the note focuses on the distribution network. Modernizing the grid can help utilities address issues in service delivery such as reducing technical and commercial losses, promoting energy conservation, managing peak demand, improving reliability, integrating high levels of distributed generation (such as mini-grids and power sources with variable output), and accommodating the rising use of electric vehicles. To harness these benefits, it is essential that well-designed plans be developed for the implementation of smart-grid goals and objectives. Smart elements in a grid will differ greatly depending on the state of the power system and the country context. A smart-grid roadmap will therefore vary considerably across countries...

Efficiency and Power Density Improvement of Grid-Connected Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems utilizing High Frequency-Based Power Converters

Amin, Mahmoud
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
High efficiency of power converters placed between renewable energy sources and the utility grid is required to maximize the utilization of these sources. Power quality is another aspect that requires large passive elements (inductors, capacitors) to be placed between these sources and the grid. The main objective is to develop higher-level high frequency-based power converter system (HFPCS) that optimizes the use of hybrid renewable power injected into the power grid. The HFPCS provides high efficiency, reduced size of passive components, higher levels of power density realization, lower harmonic distortion, higher reliability, and lower cost. The dynamic modeling for each part in this system is developed, simulated and tested. The steady-state performance of the grid-connected hybrid power system with battery storage is analyzed. Various types of simulations were performed and a number of algorithms were developed and tested to verify the effectiveness of the power conversion topologies. A modified hysteresis-control strategy for the rectifier and the battery charging/discharging system was developed and implemented. A voltage oriented control (VOC) scheme was developed to control the energy injected into the grid. The developed HFPCS was compared experimentally with other currently available power converters. The developed HFPCS was employed inside a microgrid system infrastructure...

Low-cost small-scale wind power generation.

Whaley, David Michael
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.41%
This research investigates a low-cost generator and power electronics unit for smallscale (<10kW) wind turbines, for both standalone and grid-connected applications. The proposed system uses a high-inductance permanent magnet generator together with a switched-mode rectifier (SMR) to produce a variable magnitude output current. The high inductance characteristic allows the generator to operate as a current source, which has the following advantages over conventional low-inductance generator (voltage source) systems: it offers simple control, and avoids the need for bulky / costly energy storage elements, such as capacitors and inductors. The SMR duty-cycle is controlled in an open-loop manner such that 1) maximum power is obtained for wind speeds below rated, and 2) the output power and turbine speed is limited to safe values above rated wind speed. This topology also has the ability to extract power at low wind speeds, which is well suited to small-scale wind turbines, as there is often limited flexibility in their location and these commonly see low average wind speeds. The thesis is divided into two parts; the first part examines the use of the SMR as a DC-DC converter, for use in standalone applications. The duty-cycle is essentially kept constant...

Utility-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants; A Project Developer’s Guide

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
With an installed capacity greater than 137 gigawatts (GWs) worldwide and annual additions of about 40 GWs in recent years, solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has become an increasingly important energy supply option. A substantial decline in the cost of solar PV power plants (80 percent reduction since 2008) has improved solar PV’s competitiveness, reducing the needs for subsidies and enabling solar to compete with other power generation options in some markets. The World Bank Group (including the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Development Association, International Finance Corporation (IFC), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency) helps client countries secure the affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy supply needed to end extreme poverty and promote shared prosperity. The approach mirrors the objectives of the sustainable energy for all initiative - achieving universal access, accelerating improvements in energy efficiency, and doubling the global share of renewable energy by 2030. The World Bank Group recognizes that each country determines its own path for achieving its energy aspirations...

Análise da viabilidade da conexão de geração solar fotovoltaica na rede de distribuição de Palmas-TO via MATLAB/PSAT; Feasibility analysis of grid-connected photovoltaic system in distribution network of palmas, tocantins, via matlab/psat

Piccini, Anderson Rodrigo
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
O objetivo desta pesquisa é avaliar de forma preliminar, por meio de estudos de fluxo de carga, o desempenho da rede de distribuição de uma área residencial da cidade de Palmas, Tocantins, quando da conexão de fontes de Geração Distribuída (GD), mais especificamente, de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos Conectados à Rede (SFCR). Nesse sentido, com o auxilio do programa PSAT, uma ferramenta (toolbox) do MatLab, desenvolveu-se um modelo dessa rede de distribuição de forma a refletir a situação real da área residencial da Quadra 1106 Sul da cidade de Palmas – TO, considerando as informações e dados fornecidos pela concessionária local e pelos fabricantes. Assim, foi especificado um modelo de SFCR com capacidade para gerar apenas potência ativa, obedecendo o perfil de radiação e temperatura da cidade para um dia especifico eleito para os estudos, isto é, aquele com o maior consumo registrado pela concessionária local no ano de 2012. Os ensaios realizados com o modelo desenvolvido foram utilizados para avaliar o comportamento dos fluxos de potência ativa e reativa sem/com GD na rede de distribuição, as variações de tensão e o fator de potência da rede que os SFCR estão ligados. Esta pesquisa permitiu observar que a geração de energia solar fotovoltaica oferece várias vantagens tanto para as concessionárias quanto para os consumidores onde forem instaladas...

Efficiency and power density improvement of grid-connected hybrid renewable energy systems utilizing high frequency-based power converters

Amin, Mahmoud
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
High efficiency of power converters placed between renewable energy sources and the utility grid is required to maximize the utilization of these sources. Power quality is another aspect that requires large passive elements (inductors, capacitors) to be placed between these sources and the grid. The main objective is to develop higher-level high frequency-based power converter system (HFPCS) that optimizes the use of hybrid renewable power injected into the power grid. The HFPCS provides high efficiency, reduced size of passive components, higher levels of power density realization, lower harmonic distortion, higher reliability, and lower cost. ^ The dynamic modeling for each part in this system is developed, simulated and tested. The steady-state performance of the grid-connected hybrid power system with battery storage is analyzed. Various types of simulations were performed and a number of algorithms were developed and tested to verify the effectiveness of the power conversion topologies. A modified hysteresis-control strategy for the rectifier and the battery charging/discharging system was developed and implemented. A voltage oriented control (VOC) scheme was developed to control the energy injected into the grid. The developed HFPCS was compared experimentally with other currently available power converters. The developed HFPCS was employed inside a microgrid system infrastructure...

Paving the Way for a Transformational Future : Lessons from Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission Phase I

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
Renewable energy, especially solar power, has been garnering a lot of interest from governments, international development organizations, civil society, and the private sector for the last few years. There has been a huge surge in the popularity of this important energy source from various stakeholders in India as well. On the other hand, solar power presents a formidable option for addressing pertinent issues being faced in international geopolitical and national macroeconomic arenas for the Government of India (GoI). Though the World Bank, India considers all market segments of solar power to be important; this report specifically looks at the utility-scale grid-connected segment of solar power in India. As one of the eight missions under India's National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC), the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) was launched in January 2010 with the aim of accelerating India's march toward grid parity in solar power. JNNSM envisages the achievement of grid parity through long-term and predictable policy...

Policy and Governance Framework for Off-grid Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy Sources

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
The objective of the study was to develop an adequate policy and governance framework for off- grid rural electrification by: assessing the effectiveness and key socio-economic factors and governance structures in present off-grid electricity supply schemes; and exploring and testing sustainable decentralized service-delivery models for future large-scale off-grid rural electrification in Pakistan. This study has attempted to develop a policy and governance framework for implementing sustainable large-scale off-grid rural electrification in Pakistan. This was done by assessing the effectiveness of existing policy, governance, and institutional frameworks in actual implementation of off-grid supply (OS) projects in the country; examining regional and global models for off-grid supply which have worked; and exploring which combination of these experiences might work to scale-up access in Pakistan to reach the roughly 7,000 villages which are not likely to be supplied by grid electricity in the near future. Pakistan has in place...

Surge in Solar-Powered Homes : Experience in Off-Grid Rural Bangladesh

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Sadeque, Zubair K.M.; Asaduzzaman, Mohammed; Yunus, Mohammad; Haque, A.K. Enamul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in raising living standards and reducing poverty, particularly in previously lagging regions. Rapid solar home system (SHS) expansion in Bangladesh to some 3 million rural households by early 2014 has drawn the attention of donors and governments of other countries. The book s broad aim is twofold: (a) to assess the welfare impact of SHS on households, and (b) to evaluate the present institutional structure and financing mechanisms in place, noting that households want cheaper systems and good quality service while suppliers require a reasonable market-based profit to stay in business. The study entailed an intensive empirical investigation based on both primary and secondary data. The primary data consisted mainly of a large-scale, nationally representative household survey with appropriate geographic spread. Conducted in 2012 by the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS) and assisted by the World Bank, the household survey was designed to examine SHS benefits and costs. The book addresses a number of research issues...

Implementing Onshore Wind Power Projects

Elizondo Azuela, Gabriela; Ben, Rafael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
The kinetic energy in wind is converted into mechanical power in specialized propeller-driven turbines mounted on towers. A generator inside the turbine converts the mechanical power into electricity. Utility-scale wind turbines range in size from 100 kilowatts to as large as several megawatts. Turbines can be built on land or offshore and are grouped into 'wind farms' that provide bulk power to the electrical grid. Smaller turbines are used for homes, telecommunications dishes, and water pumping, sometimes in connection with diesel generators, batteries, and photovoltaic systems. Such hybrid wind systems are typically used in remote, off-grid locations, where a connection to the utility grid is not available. This note focuses on onshore wind energy, which is more widely established and has lower risks than offshore wind.

Practical Guidance for Defining a Smart Grid Modernization Strategy : The Case of Distribution

Madrigal, Marcelino; Uluski, Robert
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.67%
This report provides some practical guidance on how utilities can define their own smart grid vision, identify priorities, and structure investment plans. While most of these strategic aspects apply to any area of the electricity grid, the document focuses on the segment of distribution. The guidance includes key building blocks that are needed to modernize the distribution grid and provides examples of grid modernization projects. Potential benefits that can be achieved (in monetary terms) for a given investment range are also discussed. The concept of the smart grid is relevant to any grid regardless of its stage of development. What varies are the magnitude and type of the incremental steps toward modernization that will be required to achieve a specific smart grid vision. Importantly, a utility that is at a relatively low level of grid modernization may leap frog one or more levels of modernization to achieve some of the benefits offered by the highest levels of grid modernization. Smart grids impact electric distribution systems significantly and sometimes more than any other part of the electric power grid. In developing countries...

AN EFFICIENT DEMAND-SIDE LOAD SHEDDING ALGORITHM IN SMART GRID

LI, YANG
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
Rapid advances in the smart grid technology are making it possible to tackle a lot of problems in the aged power systems. High-speed data acquisition system, high-voltage power electronic equipment, advanced utility and customer interaction technologies, as well as distributed renewable generation are enabling the revolution in the electric power generation, delivery and distribution. Through the implementation of ubiquitous metering and communication networks, the customers would no longer be a passive receiver of the electrical energy, but instead, an active participant in the power system and electricity market. They can not only sell their own energy to the utility, but also take part in the emergency restoration in the power grid. Nonetheless, some technical barriers are encountered during this revolution, such as difficulties in integrating home automation, smart metering, customer interaction and power system operation into the whole system. This thesis proposes a customer involved load shedding algorithm for both the power system frequency control and the micro-grid islanding. This new algorithm possesses the features of centralized load control and distributed load control, which fully utilizes the advantages of hierarchical communication networks along with the home automation. The proposed algorithm considers the reliability of the power grid as well as the comfort of the electricity users. In the power distribution system...

Scaling Up Access to Electricity; Emerging Best Practices for Mini-Grid Regulation

Greacen, Chris; Nsom, Stephanie; Rysankova, Dana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
This brief will focus on enabling regulations for mini-grids, providing an overview of key issues, options, and good practices. While appropriate regulations are not all that is needed to spur mini-grid development, is usually one of the first obstacles that potential developers face and therefore the most urgent issue for governments. The authors draw on a case study of Tanzania, a pioneer in setting an enabling and light-handed regulatory framework for mini-grids. Given the urgency of leveraging private sector investments for reaching the universal access targets of the international sustainable energy for all projects, the authors also focus on regulatory issues relevant to private sector entrepreneurs and investors. Mini-grid entrepreneurs need to know that their investment of time and money will have a reasonable chance not just of being repaid but also of returning a profit. A clear and credible regulatory framework that makes and enforces fair and efficient decisions in a timely manner helps entrepreneurs make informed investment decisions. The key characteristics of such a framework...

SUSTAINABILITY CHOICES: IDENTIFY OPTIONAL TECHNOLOGY USING THE PECAN STREET SMART GRID DATABASE

Zhang, Xinxing
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 24/04/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
Effective measures for tackling climate change and the depletion of nature resources such as oil and natural gas are required, particularly in the residential sector. Varying in different countries, energy consumption of the residential sector accounts for 16–50% of that consumed by all sectors, and averages approximately 30% worldwide (Lukas G. Swan, 2009). This significant consumption level warrants leads researchers to have increasing interests in the real impact brought by renewable energy technologies and electricity pricing programs on electricity usage. A number of researches are conducted around this topic but most of them are not using real-time data to support their analysis. This report investigated the impact of solar, electric vehicles and demand response/time-of-use pricing programs on household electricity consumption using data collected by Pecan Street smart grid, which is one of the world’s largest energy database, from three different perspectives: 1) electricity savings 2) cost savings for utility 3) water savings for utility. Findings from this study suggest that all of the three approaches can lead to considerable savings for utility companies, and for consumers as well. The result of this report can be used as a strong and objective support in promoting renewable energy technologies and time-of-use pricing program.

Investigation of common-mode voltage and ground leakage current of grid-connected transformerless PV inverter topology

Raji,Atanda K; Kahn,Mohamed T E
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
The problems of increasing electricity demand by the unabated population and economy growth can be solved by employing sustainable distributed generation technologies. Convectional primary energy sources such as coal, liquid hydrocarbons' and natural gasses create environmental degradation and energy security problems. Even though the cost of solar energy is zero, the same cannot be said of a solar energy system. The system cost especially the initial capital investment has been hindering the rapid deployment of solar energy systems. One way of reducing the system cost of a solar energy system is to look into the constituent components and see where cost can be reduced without compromising the system efficiency and human safety. Eliminating the isolation transformer reduces the cost and increases the system overall efficiency. However, the galvanic connection between the PV array and the utility grid creates a safety problem for people and system equipment. We present a simplified model for the investigation of the common mode voltage and ground leakage current that can lead to electromagnetic interference. The leakage current level is used for the determination of the suitability of the investigated PV inverter topology for grid connection without isolation transformer.