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A metrópole híbrida: o papel do turismo no processo de urbanização da região metropolitana de Fortaleza; Hibrida metropolis: the role of tourism in the process of urbanization of Fortaleza metropolitan region

Paiva, Ricardo Alexandre
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/05/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
A presente pesquisa investiga o papel da atividade turística no processo de urbanização contemporâneo da Região Metropolitana de Fortaleza (RMF), com base em uma análise comparativa entre o processo de produção e o consumo do espaço atrelado à lógica industrial e ao turismo. À luz da relação dialética entre espaço e sociedade, apresenta as especificidades do processo de urbanização desigual pretérito, lastro para a compreensão dos impactos socioespacias da modalidade de turismo de "sol e mar" no território metropolitano. A relevância da pesquisa se sustenta na necessidade de questionar o papel desempenhado pelo Estado na inclusão do turismo, através de políticas públicas, ações e discursos, como uma atividade estratégica no processo de reestruturação social (econômico, político e cultural-ideológico) do Ceará, com o intuito de se inserir nos fluxos de produção e consumo globalizados, reproduzindo os interesses hegemônicos e repercutindo em novos padrões de desigualdades sócio-espaciais. O método consiste em, com base nas proposições teóricas, dados quantitativos e imagens, avaliar as especificidades da urbanização turística na RMF, analisando o processo de estruturação e expansão metropolitana...

Da noção de violência urbana à compreensão da violência do processo de urbanização: apontamentos para uma inversão analítica a partir da Geografia Urbana; From the notion of urban violence to an understanding of the violence of the urbanization process: notes towards an analytic inversion in Urban Geography

Sampaio, Renata Alves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/03/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05%
Este trabalho procura revelar um movimento do pensamento teórico. Esse pensamento parte de uma consideração ou reconhecimento: o da pertinência da noção de violência urbana para o entendimento dos conteúdos da problemática urbana que se anuncia no mundo moderno. O processo investigativo, no entanto, revelou os limites explicativos do termo violência urbana, completamente definido e confundido no âmbito das Ciências Humanas, de um modo geral - com a noção de criminalidade. Essa identidade (violência-criminalidade) coloca problemas à análise crítica do urbano, e obscurece os caminhos para o desvendamento da essência dos conteúdos da prática social que pretendem ser expressos por meio do termo violência urbana. Do reconhecimento dos limites, o pensamento se movimenta para um segundo momento da pesquisa: o do reconhecimento da insuficiência da noção de violência urbana para o desvendamento da relação entre violência e problemática urbana. A partir desse movimento, o objeto da pesquisa se mobiliza. Posto que nossas perguntas essenciais não puderam ser suficientemente respondidas a partir da noção de violência urbana, uma inversão analítica se pôs como necessidade. Para além da noção de criminalidade...

An Agenda for Research on Urbanization in Developing Countries : A Summary of Findings from a Scoping Exercise

Annez, Patricia Clarke; Linn, Johannes F.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
This paper assesses the state of research and examines priorities for future work in the area of urbanization and growth. This is done by reviewing and summarizing the findings of five scoping papers covering the following topics: urban poverty, the political economy of urban poverty, urban real estate and housing, urban infrastructure finance, and external assistance for urban development.

Is Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa Different?

Henderson, J. Vernon; Roberts, Mark; Storeygard, Adam
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05%
In the past dozen years, a literature has developed arguing that urbanization has unfolded differently in post-independence Sub-Saharan Africa than in the rest of the developing world, with implications for African economic growth overall. While African countries are more urbanized than other countries at comparable levels of income, it is well-recognized that total and sector gross domestic product data are of very low quality, especially in Africa. When instead viewed from the perspective of effective technology, as suggested in endogenous growth frameworks (and as proxied by educational attainment), the African urbanization experience overall matches global patterns. There are differences, however, at the sector level. Agricultural trade effects that improve farm prices deter African urbanization, while they promote urbanization elsewhere. Potential reasons include differences in land ownership institutions and the likelihood of agricultural surpluses being invested in urban production. Positive shocks to modern manufacturing spur urbanization in the rest of the developing world...

Urbanization and (In)Formalization

Ghani, Ejaz; Kanbur, Ravi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.14%
Inexorable urbanization and formalization have been the expectations in development discourse. Indeed, measures of urbanization and formalization have been provided and used as indicators of development. But while urbanization has proceeded apace in developing countries, formalization has slowed significantly over the past quarter century. These disconnect raises questions for development analysis and development policy. Why did one expect urbanization and formalization to go together in the first place? Is the link between urbanization and formalization more complex than what had once thought? What then explains the recent disconnect between urbanization and formalization? Is formalization a reasonable policy goal? May urbanization policies and formalization policies conflict? If so, what can be done to resolve the conflicts? These are the questions this paper addresses. The paper has three core sections. The first section asks what exactly is meant by formality and informality. The second section turns to urbanization processes and asks how they intersect with and interact with the incentives to formalize. The third section looks at policy. Each view of how urbanization feeds formalization has distinctive policy conclusions.

Urbanization and the Geography of Development

Henderson, J. Vernon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05%
This paper focuses on three interrelated questions on urbanization and the geography of development. First, although we herald cities with their industrial bases as "engines of growth," does industrialization in fact drive urbanization? While such relationships appear in the data, the process is not straightforward. Among developing countries, changes in income or industrialization correlate only weakly with changes in urbanization. This suggests that policy and institutional factors may also influence the urbanization process. In fact, the relationship between industrialization and urbanization is absent in Sub-Saharan Africa. Second, do development policies have a big-city bias and, if so, what does this imply for growth and inequality? Intelligent public infrastructure investment inevitably involves picking winners. One hopes that such choices are based on market indicators, such as where industry is starting to agglomerate and where there are clear needs. Yet governments seem to favor the biggest cities which in turn draw firms and migrants to these cities. To try to avoid excessive in-migration and oversized...

Strategies for Urbanization and Economic Competitiveness in Burundi

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.13%
This report argues that urbanization brings significant opportunities for both rural and urban areas and that Burundi needs to prioritize issues of economic growth and job creation. Based on a diagnostic evaluation of the current urbanization and spatial growth, GDP, and job potential, the report highlights the importance of prioritizing policies and investments to address deficiencies in Burundi urbanization. These remedial actions will help prepare Burundi for coming urban growth and help leverage agglomeration effects, minimize negative externalities associated with rapid urbanization, and potentially reap the demographic dividend of this transition. Getting urbanization right will need to be associated with targeted implementation strategies for growth in the agribusiness and tourism sectors. A rapid move to cities is a central element of Burundi development strategy, including an increase in the urbanization rate from 11 percent to 40 percent by 2025. Burundi vision 2025 aims to aims to promote urbanization via rural-urban migration...

Research on the impact assessment of urbanization on air environment with urban environmental entropy model: a case study

Wang, Q.; Yuan, X.; Ma, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zuo, J.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
A new concept of urban environmental entropy was introduced to investigate the effect of urbanization on air environment considering the fact that rapid development of urbanization may have negative influence on the whole air environment system. The urban environmental entropies which were built based on the generalized thermodynamic entropy and the generalized statistic entropy, respectively. These two entropy models have been used to analyze the relationship between the development of urbanization and air environment. The negative entropy flow mechanism was proposed to reveal the advantages and approaches of regional cities in improving air environment system. A case study on 17 cities in Shandong Province of China showed that the values of urban environmental entropy were negative in most cities from 2001 to 2008, which implies that there is a positive correlation between the development of urbanization and air environment and that is a negative entropy development level in Shandong Province of China. In 2008, the urbanization of Qingdao city and Jinan city improved their air environments. Moreover, restraints for both cities in air environment improvement were recognized according to the analysis of negative entropy flow mechanism.; Qingsong Wang...

Urbanization and Productivity : Evidence from Turkish Provinces Over the Period 1980-2000

Coulibaly, Souleymane; Deichmann, Uwe; Lall, Somik
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Since the early 1980s, Turkey has been going through a rapid urbanization process at a pace beyond the World average. This paper aims at assessing the impact of this rapid urbanization process on the country's sector productivity. The authors built a database combining two-digit manufacturing data and some geographical, infrastructural, and socio-economic data collected at the provincial level by the Turkish State Institute of Statistics. The paper develops a parsimonious econometric relation linking sector productivity to accessibility, localization, and urbanization economies, proxying variables in the tradition of the New Economic Geography literature. The estimation results suggest that both localization and urbanization economies, as well as market accessibility, are productivity-enhancing factors in Turkey, although the causation link between productivity and these agglomeration measures is not clearly established. The sector-by-sector estimation confirms this result, although the localization economies effect is negative for the non-oil mineral sector...

Urban China : Toward Efficient, Inclusive, and Sustainable Urbanization

World Bank; Development Research Center of the State Council, the People’s Republic of China
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05%
In the last 30 years, China’s record economic growth lifted half a billion people out of poverty, with rapid urbanization providing abundant labor, cheap land, and good infrastructure. While China has avoided some of the common ills of urbanization, strains are showing as inefficient land development leads to urban sprawl and ghost towns, pollution threatens people’s health, and farmland and water resources are becoming scarce. With China’s urban population projected to rise to about one billion – or close to 70 percent of the country’s population – by 2030, China’s leaders are seeking a more coordinated urbanization process. Urban China is a joint research report by a team from the World Bank and the Development Research Center of China’s State Council which was established to address the challenges and opportunities of urbanization in China and to help China forge a new model of urbanization. The report takes as its point of departure the conviction that China's urbanization can become more efficient, inclusive, and sustainable. However, it stresses that achieving this vision will require strong support from both government and the markets for policy reforms in a number of area. The report proposes six main areas for reform: first...

Vietnam Urbanization Review : Technical Assistance Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Urban Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05%
As Vietnam enters a crucial period of urbanization corresponding to its present stage of economic development, the Government of Vietnam has placed strong emphasis on developing its system of cities. In accordance with this objective this Urbanization Review is dedicated to understanding the key dimensions and aspects of Vietnam's urbanization process and to identifying trends, opportunities, challenges and core policy priorities that the government will need to address in order to realize its objective. The Vietnam Urbanization Review was prepared following extensive consultations with various stakeholders, including officials from national and local government, private sector groups and international and bilateral organizations active in development assistance in the urban sector in Vietnam. It builds on a strong portfolio of World Bank engagements in investment and policy lending to the Government of Vietnam. It also builds on a number of more in-depth studies that were commissioned specifically for the Vietnam urbanization review.

Urbanization without Growth : A Not-So-Uncommon Phenomenon

Fay, Marianne; Opal, Charlotte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.21%
To find out why African countries' experience with urbanization and sustained growth appeared to differ from that of other countries, the authors investigated the determinants of urbanization across countries over 40 years. Rather than studying individuals' decisions to migrate, they relied on macroeconomic data and cross-country comparisons. A central hypothesis of their study: that individuals move (with varying degrees of ease) in response to economic incentives and opportunities. If location incentives are distorted, so is growth. The authors find that urbanization levels are closely correlated with levels of income. But urbanization continues even during periods of negative growth, carried by its own momentum, largely a function of the level of urbanization. From that viewpoint, Africa's urbanization without growth is not a puzzle. Factors other than income that help predict differences in levels of urbanization across countries include: a) income structure; b) education; c) rural-urban wage differentials; d) ethnic tensions; and e) civil disturbances. In addition, the relationship between economic incentives and urbanization is weaker in countries with fewer civil or political liberties. Factors other than initial urbanization level that help explain the speed of urbanization include: 1) The sector from which income growth is derived; 2) ethnic tensions; 3) civil disturbances and democracy (these two slow the pace of urbanization if all else is constant); 4) rural-urban wage differentials...

Urbanization and (In)Formalization

Ghani, Ejaz; Kanbur, Ravi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
Two of the great stylized predictions of development theory, and two of the great expectations of policy makers as indicators of progress in development, are inexorable urbanization and inexorable formalization. Urbanization is indeed happening, beyond the "tipping point" where half the world's population is now urban. However, formalization has slowed down significantly in the past quarter century. Indeed, informality has been increasing. This disconnect raises a number of questions for development analysis and development policy. Is the link between urbanization and formalization more complex than what had been thought? What does this mean for policy? The first core section of this paper asks what exactly is meant by formality and informality. The second core section turns to processes of urbanization and asks how these processes intersect with and interact with the incentives to formalize. The paper examines why cities attract the informal sector and the role that urbanization plays in growth and job creation through both the formal and informal sectors. Cities generate agglomeration benefits in the informal sector...

Harnessing Urbanization to End Poverty and Boost Prosperity in Africa

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
Urbanization is the single most important transformation that the African continent will undergo this century. More than half of Africa's population will live in its cities by 2040. In the face of rapid urbanization, there is a narrow window of opportunity to harness the potential of cities as engines of economic growth, and use this as a powerful leverage to achieve sustainable development and poverty reduction. Despite its rapid urban growth, Africa is less than halfway through the urbanization process and in some countries, a large number of people reside in rural areas. Rapid urbanization, if well managed, can curb urban sprawl, deteriorating access to services, greater inequality, and increased crime. The concentration of people in cities also elevates the risks and costs associated with extreme weather and natural disasters resulting from climate change. The World Bank Group's (WBGs) support will focus on three key areas: metropolitan areas and large cities; secondary and tertiary cities; and informal settlements. This will include both multi-sectoral investment programs that integrate a basket of services (for example...

New Evidence on the Urbanization of Global Poverty

Ravallion, Martin; Chen, Shaohua; Sangraula, Prem
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
The authors provide new evidence on the extent to which absolute poverty has urbanized in the developing world, and the role that population urbanization has played in overall poverty reduction. They find that one-quarter of the world's consumption poor live in urban areas and that the proportion has been rising over time. By fostering economic growth, urbanization helped reduce absolute poverty in the aggregate but did little for urban poverty. Over 1993-2002, the count of the "$1 a day" poor fell by 150 million in rural areas but rose by 50 million in urban areas. The poor have been urbanizing even more rapidly than the population as a whole. Looking forward, the recent pace of urbanization and current forecasts for urban population growth imply that a majority of the poor will still live in rural areas for many decades to come. There are marked regional differences: Latin America has the most urbanized poverty problem, East Asia has the least; there has been a "ruralization" of poverty in Eastern Europe and Central Asia; in marked contrast to other regions...

Urbanization and the Geography of Development

Henderson, J. Vernon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
This paper focuses on several interrelated key questions on the geography of development. Although we herald cities with their industrial bases as 'engines of growth,' does industrialization in fact drive urbanization?1 What economic activities do cities of different sizes undertake? Does this change as countries develop? If so, what are the policy implications? Do development policies have a big-city bias? If so, what does this imply for growth and inequality, and what are appropriate place-based policies? Should countries have policies concerning optimal city sizes or city-size distributions? Urbanization is central to the development process. Employment shifts out of agriculture into industry, and industrial production proceeds most effectively in cities, with their agglomeration economies. Cities are thus viewed as engines of growth. While such relationships appear in the data, the process is not straightforward. Among developing countries, changes in income or industrialization correlate only weakly with changes in urbanization. This suggests that policy and institutional factors may also influence the urbanization process...

Respuesta de las comunidades de dípteros de recipientes artificiales a la urbanización; Response of the fly communities from artificial containers to urbanization

Rubio, Alejandra
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%
La urbanización es considerada una de las principales actividades humanas que impacta negativamente sobre la biodiversidad. En esta tesis se investigan los patrones de respuesta de la comunidad de dípteros que utilizan el agua contenida en recipientes artificiales como hábitats larvales a lo largo de un gradiente de urbanización en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se colectaron en total 297.172 dípteros entre los 10.161 recipientes inspeccionados. A escala de paisaje, la respuesta de la comunidad al nivel de urbanización dependió del atributo analizado (i.e. abundancia, riqueza, diversidad, similitud en la composición de especies) y del origen de dicha comunidad (i.e. floreros en cementerios o cubiertas de auto en desuso en áreas residenciales). En floreros, las variables relacionadas con la abundancia registraron valores máximos a niveles intermedios de urbanización, mientras que una elevada similitud en composición específica y riqueza fue observada a lo largo del gradiente. En contraste, todas las variables utilizadas para caracterizar la estructura de la comunidad en cubiertas revelaron una respuesta negativa a elevados niveles de urbanización. Por otro lado, no se hallaron evidencias de que la estructura de la comunidad difiera entre usos de la tierra o parches con distinto nivel de edificación y vegetación. Finalmente...

Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystem functions

Sudduth, Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.08%

As the human population continues to increase, the effects of land use change on streams and their watersheds will be one of the central problems facing humanity, as we strive to find ways to preserve important ecosystem services, such as drinking water, irrigation, and wastewater processing. This dissertation explores the effects of land use change on watershed nitrate concentrations, and on several biogeochemical ecosystem functions in streams, including nitrate uptake, ecosystem metabolism, and heterotrophic carbon processing.

In a literature synthesis, I was able to conclude that nitrate concentrations in streams in forested watersheds tend to be correlated with soil solution and shallow groundwater nitrate concentrations in those watersheds. Watershed disturbances, such as ice storms or clear-cutting, did not alter this relationship. However both urban and agricultural land use change increased the nitrate concentrations in streams, soil solution, and groundwater, and altered the correlation between them, increasing the slope and intercept of the regression line. I conclude that although the correlation between these concentrations allows for predictions to be made, further research is needed to better understand the importance of dilution...

Bayesian Methods to Characterize Uncertainty in Predictive Modeling of the Effect of Urbanization on Aquatic Ecosystems

Kashuba, Roxolana Oresta
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 4713977 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.1%

Urbanization causes myriad changes in watershed processes, ultimately disrupting the structure and function of stream ecosystems. Urban development introduces contaminants (human waste, pesticides, industrial chemicals). Impervious surfaces and artificial drainage systems speed the delivery of contaminants to streams, while bypassing soil filtration and local riparian processes that can mitigate the impacts of these contaminants, and disrupting the timing and volume of hydrologic patterns. Aquatic habitats where biota live are degraded by sedimentation, channel incision, floodplain disconnection, substrate alteration and elimination of reach diversity. These compounding changes ultimately lead to alteration of invertebrate community structure and function. Because the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems are complex, multilayered, and interacting, modeling these effects presents many unique challenges, including: addressing and quantifying processes at multiple scales, representing major interrelated simultaneously acting dynamics at the system level, incorporating uncertainty resulting from imperfect knowledge, imperfect data, and environmental variability, and integrating multiple sources of available information about the system into the modeling construct. These challenges can be addressed by using a Bayesian modeling approach. Specifically...

Urbanization, nutrition transition, and obesity: evidence from China

Zhou, Song
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.05%
Awokuse, Titus O.; This thesis explores the effects of urbanization on nutrition transition and obesity. Taking adult individuals from a longitudinal dataset, the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), from the year 1989 to 2009, this study uses the fixed effects model to examine the effects of urbanization on nutrition transition and obesity, controlling for community-level food prices and individual characteristics. The findings confirm the hypothesis that rising urbanization has positive effects on the obesity level in the adult population in China. Also, the results reveal a nutrition transition towards a dietary pattern of more fat and protein intake, which is consistent with previous studies. The regression analysis uses Body Mass Index (BMI) as measurement for body weight and Triceps Skin Fold (TSF) for body fat. The empirical results show that urbanization has positive effect on BMI, but the effect is not statistically significant for TSF. Evidence from the analysis on gender difference indicates that the effect of urbanization on obesity is more pronounced for females than for males. For regional difference, Heilongjiang and Hubei, among other provinces, appear to have consistent results for urbanization???s positive effect on obesity levels. This study also indicates price effects of food on the obesity level...