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Urban Transport Dysfunction and Air Pollution in Dakar : Study Conclusions

Patrick, Bultynck
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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66.33%
This Note presents the main conclusions of an on-site study of urban transport dysfunction and air pollution in the Dakar agglomeration carried out from August to November 1998. The study aims to define the main causes of transport dysfunction, quantify them, and recommend a suitable framework for monitoring changes in the parameters. This forms part of the sub-Saharan African air quality initiative that was launched jointly in 1998 by the Urban Transport Component of the sub-Saharan African Transport Policy Program (SSATP) and the World Bank Institute. The kinds of dysfunction the study found in Dakar agglomeration include: road safety problems, congestion, air pollution, and noise pollution. This Note recommends that air pollution caused by urban transport can be reduced through measures in a number of areas: institutional, technical, or organizational.

Social Assessment Identifies Urban Transport Priorities in the Kyrgyz Republic

Kudat, Ayse; Ozbilgin, Bulent; Tabyshalieva, Anara
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
Since the demise of the Soviet Union, urban transport services in the Kyrgyz Republic have deteriorated badly and are increasingly incapable of satisfying public demand. Currently publicly owned and operated services are available primarily in the capital, Bishkek. Private operators provide a variety of transport services in Bishkek and other urban areas. Whether publicly or privately provided, however, the services are not satisfactory to users. The Kyrgyz Government is concerned about this situation and has requested World Bank assistance. The proposed project will focus on three major cities: Bishkek, Osh, and Jalal-Abad. As part of the project preparation process, the Bank launched a social assessment (SA) in September 1997. The SA sought to gain a better understanding of transport patterns and the transport needs of low-income residents, as well as to facilitate stakeholder participation in the design of a people-focused urban transport project. This Note gives a brief presentation of the objectives of the social assessment...

A Framework for Urban Transport Benchmarking

Henning, Theuns; Essakali, Mohammed Dalil; Oh, Jung Eun
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
This report summarizes the findings of a study aimed at exploring key elements of a benchmarking framework for urban transport. Unlike many industries where benchmarking has proven to be successful and straightforward, the multitude of the actors and interactions involved in urban transport systems may make benchmarking a complex endeavor. It was therefore important to analyze what has been done so far, propose basic benchmarking elements and test them, and identify lessons for a simple and sustainable urban transport benchmarking framework. A major component of this study was to investigate (a) the availability of data for benchmarking and (b) the value of benchmarking on the basis of limited data. The study therefore proposes a benchmarking framework for urban transport, focusing on the performance of public transport. Because the design of a benchmarking framework depends on the objectives sought from it, the study focused on the performance of public transport systems from the policymaker s perspective. The study included pilot application of the proposed framework in five cities from three continents Beijing...

Greater Cairo : A Proposed Urban Transport Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.44%
The objective of the urban transport strategy note (UTSN) is to provide an assessment of the urban transport system in Greater Cairo (GC), identify what now appear to be the most pressing urban transport problems, and framework for urgent policy actions and investment priorities that would be the basis of a formal transport strategy to be adopted and implemented by the authorities of the metropolitan area of Cairo. This note is essentially based on a thorough review of the 2002 Urban Transportation Master Plan for GC and a rapid analysis of the current conditions and performance of the urban transport system. This note includes nine chapters. The first chapter provides a quick overview of the current situation of the UT in GC. In chapter two, present the main guiding principles and key components of the proposed strategy to prepare the ground for the following chapters. Chapter three to nine elaborate on the issues and policy recommendations for each of the components of the strategy: organization and operation of public transport systems (chapter three)...

A National Framework for Sustainable Urban Transport Systems : Proposals for Improving Urban Transportation in Russian Cities

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Moscow Publicador: World Bank, Moscow
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
In many Russian cities, these growing demands for mobility are not adequately met by the existing urban transport infrastructure and services. Most municipalities have had difficulties in planning and managing the development of their urban transport systems in a coherent manner, which is a precondition for successful resolution of the existing transport problems. In addition, there is a need to develop and put in place a sound legal and regulatory framework. Thus, in order to create favorable conditions for addressing the existing transport problems, there is a need to develop a national framework that would contribute to the creation of pre-requisites for sustainable development of urban transport systems. The purpose of this work is to develop proposals for the formation of the national framework for improvement of the quality and sustainability of urban transport and road traffic safety in Russian cities.

Review of the Urban Transport Sector in the Russian Federation : Transition to Long-Term Sustainability

Oh, JungEun; Gwilliam, Kenneth
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
Russian cities are undergoing critical economic and social changes that affect the performance and condition of their urban transport systems. While the population of most large cities in Russia (over one million residents) has remained relatively unchanged over the last decade, the average income of the urban dwellers has sharply increased. The number of private cars per capita has increased rapidly, generating a demand for urban mobility which is increasingly difficult to meet. This review of the urban transport sector in the Russian Federation (the Review, hereafter) aims to assess the current condition and performance of urban transport systems in medium-to-large size Russian cities and to identify key issues and underlying causes. The review principally covers software of urban transport in the secondary cities of Russia, including institutional arrangements, legal and regulatory issues, operation of public transport systems, traffic management, and parking, and less extensively hardware aspects, such as construction of road network.

A Study of Institutional, Financial, and Regulatory Frameworks of Urban Transport in Large Sub-Saharan African Cities

Adam Smith International
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
This working paper presents the findings of "A Study of Urban Transport Institutional, Financial and Regulatory Frameworks in Large Sub-Saharan African Cites" and it was commissioned by the Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP). The study objective was to review the institutional, financial and regulatory frameworks for the provision of urban transport in four selected cities, Dakar (Senegal), Douala (Cameroon), Kampala (Uganda) and Nairobi (Kenya). The specific focus was to examine: (a) the structure, process and performance of the existing institutions and financing arrangements; and (b) operational practices of public and private bus operators. The study has examined the existing institutional arrangements in the four cities and identified opportunities and constraints for policy reform. The general focus is on identifying mechanisms suitable in different cultural and political environment to organize planning, regulation and monitoring of urban transport services. The study has identified a phased program of improvements required in the urban transport systems...

Urban Transport for Development : Towards an Operationally-Oriented Strategy

Mitric, Slobodan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
This paper arose from the perception that a gap existed between the practice of project design and the formal Bank strategies for transport and urban sectors as stated in the cited reports. Formal strategies tend to be too general to be linked meaningfully to project designs. The paper in hand attempts to close this gap by putting forward a different, operationally-oriented concept of urban transport strategy and derives one such strategy from a review of recent Bank-funded projects. The term "operationally-oriented" means that the strategy is expressed in terms of objectives, policies, institutions and investments, mimicking the structure common to all individual projects. Projects on which the paper is based date from the last 15 years. They exhibit a wide diversity of features, reflecting inherited local conditions, the nature and rhythms of socio-economic changes underway, and the vintage of client-Bank relations. Yet, a strong central tendency is also evident, amounting to a coherent and robust approach. The core strategy...

A Framework for Urban Transport Projects : Operational Guidance for World Bank Staff

Mitric, Slobodan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
This paper starts with a brief perspective on urban transport in developing countries, followed by a detailed presentation of an overall framework for making projects in this sector. Additional details on cities and projects used as case studies are given in the accompanying tables. The challenge for the Bank is to assist client cities in providing transport infrastructure and services that respond to demographic, spatial and economic growth in ways that balance the many different competing interests. Reflecting the importance that poverty and environmental factors are given in its development lending, the key strategic goal of the Bank is to protect and nurture public transport services and non-motorized transport modes, with underlying meta-objectives of equity and sustainability. In the policy dimension, the following approach features: (i) the equitable allocation of existing/new street space to protect and nurture public transport, and non-motorized modes; (ii) a for-the market rather than in the market...

Institutional Labyrinth : Designing a Way Out for Improving Urban Transport Services--Lessons from Current Practice

Kumar, Ajay; Agarwal, O. P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
Severe congestion, poor air quality, increases in road accidents, and explosive growth in energy consumption are manifestations of rapid motorization in cities around the globe, especially in the developing world. The tendency in most developing cities has been to deal with these problems in a piecemeal fashion, largely through supply side interventions, such as widening roads, constructing flyovers, or building high-cost mass transit systems. It is becoming increasingly recognized that effective solutions lie in comprehensive and holistic approaches that integrate what would normally be patchwork efforts and, in addition, combine supply side efforts with demand side measures. In general, this means that multiple, well-integrated actions need to be taken. Integrated and comprehensive thinking and implementation is required across multiple subsystems and disciplines, such as land use planning, environmental quality, energy efficiency, and services for the poor and physically disadvantaged. The ability to undertake comprehensive planning and execution that is integrated functionally...

Urban Transport and CO2 Emissions : Some Evidence from Chinese Cities

Darido, Georges; Torres-Montoya, Mariana; Mehndiratta, Shomik
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
This working paper provides a bottom-up estimate of energy use and Green-House Gas (GHG) emissions for the transport sector based on data available at the city and municipal levels. For urban transport in China, GHG emissions primarily consist of carbon dioxide (CO2), so these terms are used interchangeably. Energy use and CO2 emissions are also highly correlated based on the predominance of fossil fuels in transport. A database of self-reported indicators was developed and verified for the fourteen participating cities of the China World Bank-Global Environment Facility (GEF) Urban Transport Partnership Program. Other supplemental sources were also used to enrich the dataset for urban transport and energy analysis, namely the most recent China City Statistical Yearbooks. Beijing and Shanghai were also included where data was available from existing studies given their relevance in broad comparison of Chinese cities. Section two discusses the general demographic and economic trends in the sample of cities that may be influencing the sector. Section three points to stylized facts about the most relevant urban transport demand...

Formulating an Urban Transport Policy : Choosing between Options

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.44%
As the developing world rapidly urbanizes, the demands on transport systems also grow often at a faster pace than the population. Given the above tendency, an effective and coordinated approach to urban transport requires that sound policies be put into place. Such policies enunciate the direction that a government wants to take; they lay the basic framework for downstream planning as well as project identification and prioritization. This document policy lays out the guiding principles for more detailed downstream planning. The objective of this guideline is to improve mobility, environmental quality, universal access, safety, and energy security of any urban transport policy. This guidebook is intended to be a practical support for formulating urban transport policies at the national, provincial, and local levels. To this end, it highlights some of the important issues that arise when creating an urban transport policy. The report is organized as follows: section one gives introduction. Section two presents a framework of possible actions...

Toward Sustainable and Energy Efficient Urban Transport

Energy Sector Management Assistance Program
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
Many cities of developing countries are experiencing rapid growth of motorized transportation. This is leading to severe congestion, which, in turn, is reducing productivity. Road accidents have been increasing. Transport emissions have become a major contributor to severe air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. The main cause of these problems has been the increasing preference for personal motor vehicles for commuting to work and getting around the city. In many countries, urban development practices have worked in favor of such preference, leading to urban sprawl. Thus, remedial measures have to focus on reversing the preference for such modes of travel, shifting to public transport, cycling, or walking, and building and retrofitting cities to minimize the need for private automobiles. The objective of this guidance note is to present a systematic, practical, and comprehensive approach to dealing with the problems of urban transport. It outlines a framework of possible interventions and demonstrates how such interventions relate to the overall objectives of improving mobility and energy efficiency as well as reducing air pollution and road accidents. Thereafter...

Challenges and Opportunities in Urban Transport Projects

Kumar, Ajay; Zimmerman, Samuel
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.36%
Problems or even failure in transport initiatives are more likely for projects set in the urban areas of developing countries. Connecting a rural village to an all-weather road or restoring a section of national highway is usually straightforward. Costs are modest, institutional issues limited, and the benefits obvious. In contrast, urban transport is not a single mode governed by a single agency but a collection of modes with varied administrative boundaries and many private sector stakeholders. Successful urban transport strategies reflect an understanding of linkages among transport, land use, and environmental factors. Working out the complex local challenges requires social, political, and technical capacities often in short supply in developing countries. And even when a project manages to attain its physical objectives, the civil and governmental capacity needed for sustainability often remains underdeveloped. The institutional frictions and gaps point to the elements of the way forward on urban projects: thoroughly understand the local context...

Integrated urban transport planning: accessible cities towards individual and collective development; Urbane Verkehrsplanungskonzepte: zugängliche Städte unter Berücksichtigung individueller und kollektiver Entwicklungen

Martins Gonçalves, Natália
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.38%
As expressed by Ribbeck (2005), “Die Welt wird Stadt”. The city has indeed become the heart of human activity today and the most dynamic space where the highest levels of social, economic and cultural pressure become manifest. In order to satisfy human needs, cities must provide efficient infrastructure and urban services. Besides housing, energy and water supply, an essential part of this urban infrastructure and facilities is related to mobility. The world today is not only urban, it has also become “online”. Addressing solutions for any human demand today means working in a very complex and multicultural environment. The growing concerns about the environment, climate change, energy production and consumption, urban development, demography and the political and economic power shifts in different regions of the world, are some of the challenges that planners face today when designing projects, proposing policies and measures, and, last but not least, when developing new concepts in urban mobility for the future. They are supposed to present optimal solutions in accordance with the multiple transformations taking place in cities. The actors involved in local governance, the different levels of government and the population itself...

Urban Transport in the Europe and Central Asia Region : World Bank Experience and Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
The paper's main objectives are to provide a common thematic basis for urban transport inputs into the making of country-specific assistance strategies, and thereafter to guide urban transport project and sector work included in the business plans agreed under these strategies. It is a companion volume to the forthcoming ECA Transport Strategy Paper, which covers all modes of transport. It also represents a bridge between the project-related and policy studies done for specific cities/countries in ECA, and the Bank-wide urban transport policy, whose latest expression is the document Cities on the Move: The World Bank Urban Transport Strategy Review, published in August 2002. Also, urban transport activities being highly interdependent with other aspects of urban life and economy, this paper is related to parallel Bank writings on urban development, water, and environment in the ECA region.

Cities on the Move : A World Bank Urban Transport Strategy Review; Villes en mouvement: la strategie de transport urbain de la Banque mondiale Cidades em movimento: estrategia de transporte urbano do Banco mundial Ciudades en movimento: revision de la estrategia de transporte urbano del Banco mundial

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
The report's objectives are i) to better understand the nature and magnitude of urban transport problems, particularly in respect of the poor, and ii) to articulate a strategy by which the World Bank and other agencies can assist national and city governments to address these problems. The first part of the report considers how urban transport can be used as an instrument of urban development and poverty reduction. Chapter 2 discusses how transport reduces poverty. Chapter 3 examines how urban transport policies can be focused more specifically on meeting the needs of the poor but touches on other transport related aspects of the quality of life of poor people. Chapter 4 considers the urban environment, focusing on air pollution to which the poor are particularly vulnerable, while Chapter 5 considers problems of personal safety and security. The second part of the report considers how the objectives can be pursued by using a range of instruments. Chapter 6 considers the provision and management of road infrastructure. Chapter 7 discusses road based public transport...

Yemen, Republic of - Urban Transport in Sana’a : Strategy Note

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.44%
Yemen, the fastest urbanizing country in the Middle East and North Africa region, has a very limited natural resource base and the efficiency of its cities is therefore essential for its future economic growth. However, this efficiency is increasingly handicapped by the poor performance of urban transport, especially in the capital Sana'a. This report presents the main findings of this review and makes key recommendations to improve the efficiency of urban transport in Sana'a. It contains the following chapters: a first chapter presents the general context of the study, characterized by fast demographic and spatial growth in Sana'a, causing major difficulties in terms of urban transport management; a second chapter analyses and describes the main underlying issues affecting the performance and efficiency of Sana'a transport system; a third chapter presents institutional, technical and financing recommendations to improve the performance of Sana'a transport system; and a fourth chapter presents a tentative three-year action plan for implementation of the recommendations.

Developing an Energy Efficient Urban Transport Plan for Zarqa City Downtown Area

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.38%
To promote energy efficiency in the delivery of city services, the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) in the World Bank launched a multi-year initiative, the Energy Efficient Cities Initiative (EECI), in December 2008 to help scale-up energy efficiency improvements in developing country cities around the world. One of the tools to help scale up energy efficiency improvements under the EECI program is the provision of pre-investment policy support wherein ESMAP applies its expertise in advising cities on appropriate analytical tools, policy and regulatory framework, lifecycle costing principles, energy efficient codes, and financing schemes. ESMAP is also working with Cities Alliance City Development Strategies (CDS) in this regard. Within this context and in keeping with the Government of Jordan's (GOJ) regional development agenda, ESMAP received a proposal from the Zarqa Municipality seeking technical and financial support for developing an energy efficient urban transport planning strategy for the city Downtown area. This is linked with the cities alliance grant to prepare inputs to the broader CDS for preparation of the new Zarqa master plan to be developed by the Ministry of Municipal Affairs (MOMA).

Planning for the Laobaixing : Public Participation in Urban Transport Project, Liaoning, China

Chen, Wenling; Mehndiratta, Shomik Raj
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
International experience suggests that in the realm of urban transport, a public participation process can be a valuable complement to the technical planning process in generating good projects with widespread distributional benefits that minimize concentration of adverse impacts. If properly designed, participation processes also offer an opportunity to incorporate the interests of vulnerable groups into the planning process. This paper presents a recent case study of a World Bank financed urban infrastructure improvement project in Liaoning, China, where the successful development of a meaningful public participation process influenced project design to better address the broad needs of the project beneficiaries. Particularly, the participatory process significantly influenced the project design and raised city leaders' sensitivity to public needs. Through the process the project shifted focus from major road expansion to secondary road improvements. Additionally, the participation processes picked up latent issues to better address needs of non-auto users...