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Reducing Urban Transport Energy Dependence: A New Urban Development Framework and GIS-Based Tool

SAUNDERS, Michael James; SILVA, Antonio Nelson Rodrigues da
Fonte: TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC Publicador: TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
High urban transport energy consumption is directly influenced by transport energy dependence. Dramatic reductions in urban transport energy dependence or consumption are not yet being widely observed despite the variety of urban planning tools currently available. A new urban development framework is presented to tackle this issue that makes use of a recently developed and successfully trialed GIS-based tool, the Transport Energy Specification (TES). The TES was simulated on a neighborhood in Sao Carlos, Brazil. In the simulation, energy dependence was reduced by a factor of 8 through activity location or infrastructure modifications to the built environment.

A razão e os limites das políticas nacionais de desenvolvimento urbano; uma análise comparativa das proposições de 1975 e 2004; The reasons and the limits of the national policies for urban development: a comparative analysis of the proposals of 1975 and 2004 in Brazil

Adeodato, Marise Tissyana Parente Carneiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/10/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
A presente tese busca compreender fundamentos e práticas da atuação do Estado sobre o urbano por meio das Políticas Nacionais de Desenvolvimento Urbano (PNDUs) elaboradas em dois momentos: uma no período militar, autoritário e centralizador, a PNDU de 1975, e outra na condição democrática, após a Constituição Cidadã de 1988, a PNDU de 2004, que assume a descentralização e tem o município como ente federativo. A pesquisa baseou-se em dados oficiais e pesquisas anteriores sobre essas políticas para investigar como foram concebidas e desenhadas pelo Estado, e se foram transpostas ou não em propostas e ações efetivas. Para isso analisou comparativamente fundamentos, razões e concepções de cada PNDU em seus contextos específicos, seus instrumentos institucionais, financeiros, legais e técnicos, bem como seus planos e programas implementados, de modo a constatar limitações que se impõem a essas Políticas. As constatações apontam para descontinuidades e continuidades, distinções e semelhanças entre as duas propostas. O autoritarismo, o centralismo e a ditadura de 1975 contrastam com a democratização e abertura à participação social e liberdades políticas em 2004. As proximidades se apresentam em propostas governamentais que pouco se efetivam na prática...

Financiamento do desenvolvimento urbano: normas, eventos e instrumentos urbanísticos na cidade de São Paulo ; Financing urban development: rules, events and urban instruments in the city of São Paulo

Santos, Jonatas Mendonça dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/02/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
Este trabalho procura destacar o desenvolvimento urbano de São Paulo, levantando as principais normas e eventos - além dos mecanismos de financiamento das infraestruturas - que condicionaram a formação da metrópole. O início da regulação urbanística do município ocorre no final do período imperial, quando são introduzidas as primeiras normas e políticas de segregação da pobreza. A partir de então a cidade se estrutura mediante arranjo institucional que relaciona norma e finança, como os institutos de aposentadorias, o sistema BNH, sem, no entanto, obedecer um planejamento específico. Somente no governo militar, em 1975, o Estado divulga a elaboração de um documento para direcionar desenvolvimento das cidades, cujo abandono poucos anos após sua publicação ampliou a precarização da cidade, aliada à crise econômica na década de 1980. A reforma normativa da Constituição de 1988 revigora o orçamento municipal e estabelece regras para as políticas urbanas, mas o avanço concomitante do neoliberalismo traz forças que entrecruzam as leis nacionais e municipais e durante toda a década de 1990 são reduzidos os investimentos públicos em desenvolvimento, habitação e urbanização. Somente em 2003, com a criação do Ministério das Cidades...

Avanços e limites das políticas de desenvolvimento urbano no Brasil (1988-2013); Advances and limits of urban development policies in Brazil (1988-2013)

Raphael Brito Faustino
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/07/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
O processo de urbanização no Brasil avançou de forma desordenada, o que resultou numa grave crise urbana no último quarto do século passado. O problema urbano deteriorou-se sobremaneira a partir da crise econômica ocorrida nos anos 1980 e não foi solucionado durante a recuperação econômica dos anos 2000. Ainda hoje se verificam, em variadas escalas, a depender do tamanho das cidades, diversos problemas relacionados ao processo de urbanização, mas também vinculados ao padrão de políticas públicas adotadas para a área de desenvolvimento urbano. A partir de 1988, diversos marcos institucionais e regulatórios foram definidos para o desenvolvimento urbano, em conjunto com expressiva evolução dos recursos aplicados. Contudo, as políticas destinadas ao enfrentamento da questão não proporcionaram uma melhoria consistente das condições de vida nas cidades brasileiras. Procurando contribuir para o debate dessa questão, o objetivo do presente estudo é analisar a trajetória da evolução institucional, a aprovação dos marcos regulatórios e a evolução dos principais programas para a áreas de habitação, saneamento e mobilidade urbana. Para tal, além de examinar o discurso do governo federal sobre as diretrizes dos referidos programas...

Desenvolvimento urbano e turismo: uma análise da dinâmica urbana em Jequiá da Praia, Alagoas.; Urban development tourism: a analysis of the urban dynamics in Jequiá da Praia-AL.

Palmeira, Maria Verônica Lins
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Dinâmicas do Espaço Habitado; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Arquitetura e Urbanismo; UFAL Publicador: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Dinâmicas do Espaço Habitado; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Arquitetura e Urbanismo; UFAL
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
This dissertation is based on the assumption that the issue of development is beyond process of achieving economic development. In this perspective, sustainable development approaches have being considered as part of a continuum mechanism that aims at promoting social justice though development in order to pursue a better quality of life for all inhabitants. Tourism is seen as an alternative for the economic development of many places, as the case of Alagoas state indicates, by adopting an expansion of tourism to the Southern seashore, a region where Jequiá da Praia is situated. The rationale for choosing Jequiá da Praia is based on several transformations related to the construction of a tourist complex, coupled with the growth of smaller hotel units, new development sites, and housing neighborhoods, occupying previous coconut plantation areas, which are potentially developed for new resorts. Taking into consideration that tourism is a social activity, it can be related to the development of tourist towns, therefore, the purpose of this work is to analyze the relationship between urban development and tourism with an emphasis the case of Jequiá da Praia, Alagoas. In order to address the implications of the development of tourism actions in the study area through the implementation of new developments...

Logiche e dinamiche operative per la gestione delle trasformazioni urbane: il caso dei Large Scale Urban Development Projects

BOCA, ALESSANDRO
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
IT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
This research aims at investigate a topic probably not well examined by national and international literature, which is the one of the evolutions in operational rationales and patterns followed in contemporary urban planning. The hypothesis here discussed is that the transition from the so-called “modern” to the so-called “contemporary” city has engendered a number of issues, including a need for adjustment of a planning practice that is both not completed yet and can’t be longer avoided. In order to carry out such a survey two different case studies will be analyzed, the large scale urban development project of Paris Rive Gauche, in Paris, and King’s Cross Central, in London. From the late ‘70s a number of factors, among which the research pinpoints the disappearance of manufacturing industry from large urban contexts, caused a deep physical and socio-economic restructuring process in many European cities. As a consequence, also the urban planning models followed during the previous decades faced a corresponding restructuring process. In particular, what fell in crisis was the traditional plan-led rationale that for at least three decades characterized urban planning in many European countries. Indeed this rationale was considered by many scholars and practitioners no longer suitable to respond to the increased complexity characterizing contemporary urban contexts. During all the ‘80s a massive practice of deregulation has been proposed as the answer able to face such an issue. From the traditional plan-led model previously followed to implement urban strategies...

Senegal - The Urban Development and Decentralization Program

Farvacque-Vitkovic, C.; Godin, L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
After twenty-five years of experience in the urban development sector in Africa and nearly 400 projects involving a combined investment of US$25 billion, an in-depth study distill lessons from this experience and identifies strategic thrusts for future operations. The future of African cities: urban development issues and priorities present policy guidelines already built into a number of new projects. This article deals initially with the African situation and then looks at the Senegal experience.

The World Bank and the Arab Urban Development Institute : A Decade Long Partnership on Urban and Youth Issues

Al-Salloum, Ahmed; Al-Turki, Ibrahim; Jalloh, Aliya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
Founded in 1980, with permanent headquarters in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, the Arab Urban Development Institute (AUDI) is a regional, non-governmental, non-profit urban research, technical and consulting organization. AUDI is also the technical and scientific arm of the Arab Towns Organization (ATO), the regional United Nation (UN) habitat affiliate with an active membership of more than 400 Arab cities and towns representing 22 Arab states.

Enhanced Spatial Planning as a Precondition for Sustainable Urban Development

Ionescu-Heroiu, Marcel; Neagu, Marina; Taralunga, Nicolae; Ortiz, Pedro; Petrovici, Norbert; Moldovan, Ciprian; Panescu, Eugen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
This report provides an analysis of the spatial planning system in Romania and suggests ways in which it can be improved. Romania has recently experienced a proliferation of plans, strategies, and policies developed at all administrative levels. Adding to this, the analysis of territorial and urban development in Romania reveals important dynamics and challenges, such as uncontrolled expansion of built perimeters, increased pressures on transport infrastructure and utilities, and aggressive urban interventions causing disruptions and redundancies in the urban fabric. Such dynamics require new system architecture, including the design and implementation of new instruments, enhancing and mainstreaming existing ones, as well as building capacity. This report provides recommendations for: 1) the correlation and harmonization of different types of plans; 2) the simplification of the framework of planning in Romania; and 3) the development of a planning system that will better integrate national and European Union (EU)-funded initiatives.

Socialist Republic of Vietnam : Results-Based National Urban Development Program in the Northern Mountains Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
The proposed Results-Based National Urban Development Program in the Northern Mountains Region (RBNUDP-NM or the Program ) will assist the Government of Vietnam in developing the implementation framework for its national urban program. It will do this by piloting a performance-based transfer system that will provide participating cities with a combination of much needed resources along with a clarification of implementation responsibilities, a results-based orientation, improved planning and a strengthening of oversight and accountability through audits and verification activities. The Program Development Objective is to strengthen the capacity of participating Northern Mountains cities to plan, implement and sustain urban infrastructure. The World Bank s Program-for-Results lending instrument is to be used for this operation. The Program targets the following seven cities Dien Bien Phu, Bac Kan, Cao Bang, Thai Nguyen, Hoa Binh, Tuyen Quang and Yen Bai.

Transforming Cities with Transit : Transit and Land-Use Integration for Sustainable Urban Development

Suzuki, Hiroaki; Cervero, Robert; Iuchi, Kanako
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
This study explores the complex process of transit and land-use integration in rapidly growing cities in developing countries. It first identifies barriers to and opportunities for effective coordination of transit infrastructure and urban development. It then recommends a set of policies and implementation measures for overcoming these barriers and exploiting these opportunities. Well-integrated transit and land development create urban forms and spaces that reduce the need for travel by private motorized vehicles. Areas with good access to public transit and well-designed urban spaces that are walkable and bikeable become highly attractive places for people to live, work, learn, play, and interact. Such environments enhance a city's economic competitiveness, reduce local pollution and global greenhouse gas emissions, and promote inclusive development. These goals are at the heart of transit-oriented development (TOD), an urban form that is increasingly important to sustainable urban futures. This book uses a case study approach. It draws lessons from global best-case examples of transit-oriented metropolises that have direct relevance to cities in developing countries and elsewhere that are currently investing in bus rapid transit (BRT) and other high-capacity transit systems. It also reports the results of two original in-depth case studies of rapidly growing and motorizing cities that introduced extended BRT systems: Ahmedabad...

Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
In Japan, the sustainable development of cities and provinces has been vigorously pursued since the late 1990s under various programs through the initiative of the central government and local authorities. In 2009, the World Bank launched an urban development initiative called Eco2 Cities: Ecological Cities as Economic Cities (Eco2 Cities Initiative) to help cities in developing countries achieve greater synergistic ecological and economic sustainability. This study, entitled 'Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction,' was conducted to cover components A and C of the Eco2 East Asia Program with the following objectives: (i) To undertake a study of Japanese experiences on sustainable urban development including pollution control and management, resource/energy efficiency and GHG reduction (Task 1), and (ii) To coordinate and prepare the Eco2 international conference in Yokohama, Japan, on 21-23 October 2010 (Task 2). This report mainly focuses on Task 1...

A Brief History of Urban Development and Upgrading in Swaziland

Lowsby, John; De Groot, David
Fonte: Cities Alliance/World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Cities Alliance/World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
This history illustrates a number of themes encountered in Swaziland that faces developing countries and their external partners in Africa and beyond. Firstly, the history relates the experience of a small and comparatively insular country in addressing complex challenges deriving from rapid urbanization and, as a result, the growing need to adapt governance systems and structures. A second key issue is the challenge that small nations like Swaziland face in attracting assistance. In the absence of significant lending programs, institutions like IBRD have limited resources available for advisory services, particularly given the ineligibility of middle income countries for most trust funds available in Africa. The third theme that emerges is the centrality of land. Access to land in Swaziland is a cross-cutting issue that influences outcomes in many sectors. A fourth important theme relates to the 'generational shift' which is a necessary concomitant of any serious decentralization process. Finally, the history demonstrates that despite all the challenges faced...

Mexico Urban Development : A Contribution to a National Urban Strategy, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
The study aims to contribute towards a national urban strategy, in an effort to maximize Mexico's cities competitiveness, and livelihoods, in the urban economists' terms - to maximize agglomeration economies, while minimizing congestions costs. The country is in a good position for this challenge: it has relatively a mature urban system, implying an overall urban population growth, and, a reasonably balanced system of cities. However, key issues affecting the competitiveness, and livelihood of its cities are identified in three broad categories: dysfunctional nexus of land management, housing markets, and urban transport; unsatisfied demand for quality basic services - water, sanitation, and waste management; and, the lack of instruments to address the growing urbanization of poverty. Thus, the study suggests elements for an urban strategy, by addressing the implementation of institutional and regulatory reform for improved urban management; development of urban poverty programs; and development of joint programs for cities of national importance. Such suggestions are in line with the programs developed by the Government...

Mexico Urban Development : A Contribution to a National Urban Strategy, Volume 2. Background Studies

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
The study aims to contribute towards a national urban strategy, in an effort to maximize Mexico's cities competitiveness, and livelihoods, in the urban economists' terms - to maximize agglomeration economies, while minimizing congestions costs. The country is in a good position for this challenge: it has relatively a mature urban system, implying an overall urban population growth, and, a reasonably balanced system of cities. However, key issues affecting the competitiveness, and livelihood of its cities are identified in three broad categories: dysfunctional nexus of land management, housing markets, and urban transport; unsatisfied demand for quality basic services - water, sanitation, and waste management; and, the lack of instruments to address the growing urbanization of poverty. Thus, the study suggests elements for an urban strategy, by addressing the implementation of institutional and regulatory reform for improved urban management; development of urban poverty programs; and development of joint programs for cities of national importance. Such suggestions are in line with the programs developed by the Government...

The Urban Development Investment Corporations (UDICs) in Chongqing, China

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Urban Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
Urban Development Investment Corporations (UDICs) have over the years become the central pillar in the local government drive to build infrastructure in China, where local governments are not allowed to engage in direct market borrowing. UDICs were established during the early 1990s when local governments were under great pressure to both build municipal infrastructure and to reform the role of the government in infrastructure development. The UDIC model provided the local governments with a corporate government structure to borrow from the market and quickly develop infrastructure. They are treated as municipal corporations under the Company Law of the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC). The law does not clarify the relationship between UDICs and the local government, including the limits of the financial liability of the local governments vis-a-vis UDICs. The Government of China (GOC) agencies expect that the World Bank (WB) Technical Assistance Report (TAR), based on the detailed analysis of the financial operations of a selected UDIC in Chongqing...

“Bottom-up” Community-Based Development : Gabon Urban Development Project

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
The Gabon Urban Development Project is being conducted through a series of pilot projects in the poorest, most densely populated neighborhoods in three cities. Reducing poverty hinges on increasing the access of the poor to employment opportunities. This requires improving infrastructure, which includes establishing water and sanitation systems, as well as creating roads, safe walkways, and transport services. This work is being carried out by local contractors and employs the local poor. The project's bottom-up approach is a key strategy for sustainability. The pilot project focuses on the construction of roads through targeted neighborhoods to improve access and create direct, complementary benefits such as services, local employment, and support for local construction companies. To increase employment of local unskilled laborers, the project uses concrete blocks for paving roads. At the community level, each targeted neighborhood provides help to identify the location and alignment of the road that would make the area more accessible. One of the criteria in the exercise is that the proposed road should not involve involuntary resettlement. Working with the assistance of NGOs...

Reframing the Issues : Consulting with Beneficiaries Swaziland Urban Development Project

Kuehnast, Kathleen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
Unplanned and unregulated urban development is not unique to Swaziland, but addressing the issue through direct consultations with beneficiaries is an important improvement toward resolving this persistent problem. The Swaziland Urban Development Project includes standard infrastructure work, such as increasing urban roads, rehabilitating and expanding water and sewage services, and developing a solid waste facility However, in Swaziland it was the shift in focus from infrastructure problems to land ownership policies that reframed the urban issues. To make property ownership possible, the legal framework was changed to allow for the signing of 99-year leases by occupants. Project beneficiaries pay a deposit for their plots and use their leases as collateral to access loans to pay for the new services. The World Bank team contracted with consultants to develop participatory methods, provide training for personnel, and improve institutional capacity. It was the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development (MHUD) and the beneficiaries who worked together to address the process of land acquisition. As a result of the project's success...

Developing a Criteria Framework for Evaluation of the Urban Development Plans in Iran: Bridging the Gap between Knowledge and Action

Maghsoodi Tilaki, Mohammad Javad; Hedayati Marzbali, Massoomeh
Fonte: JUEE Press Publicador: JUEE Press
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/06/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
This article discusses the conceptual requirements in preparing an evaluation framework for the urban development plans in Iran as well as modifies the evaluation criteria proposed in previous studies. Although applying a highly refined evaluation framework for assessing the quality of urban development plans can increase the efficiency of the development process, employing an unmodified framework in a specific urban context may negatively affect the development process because of exclusive conditions. An evaluation framework based on the worldwide experiences cannot normally be employed in the evaluation of the urban development plans of Iran. Hence, this research contributes to the advancement of a more adaptable evaluation framework for evaluation in four parts. These parts include (i) the examination of the urban development process of Iran; (ii) the extraction of a general evaluation framework from different studies and worldwide experiences; (iii) the analysis of the effective elements for the urban development plans of Iran through SWOT analysis; and (iv) the generation of an evaluation framework based on a preliminary analysis of the specific situation of the urban development plans of Iran.

AN EVALUATION TO IDENTIFY THE BARRIERS TO THE FEASIBILITY OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLANS: FIVE DECADES OF EXPERIENCE IN URBAN PLANNING IN IRAN

Maghsoodi Tilaki, Mohammad Javad; Abdullah, Aldrin; Bahauddin, Azizi; Hedayati Marzbali, Massoomeh
Fonte: JUEE Press Publicador: JUEE Press
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/03/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
The rapid urbanization in many developing countries has indicated several challenges in different aspects. This is due to inefficient urban planning approaches towards managing the development process. Similar to many other developing countries, Iran has experienced rapid urbanization in recent decades. Although over the last few decades, urban planning processes have been applied to develop Iranian cities, urban planning has failed to tackle the challenges facing the cities. This paper seeks to identify the barriers that have prevented Iranian cities from achieving the goals of urban planning. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on the concept of urban planning and to assess the urban development plan process in Iranian cities. The required data were collected through a review of international theoretical studies, Iranian experimental research and governmental reports. The findings of this study reveal five major barriers to the feasibility of the urban planning process, including the urban plans context, structure of urban planning, related law and regulations, public participation, and financial resources.