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Programa luz para todos - da eletrificação rural à universalização do acesso à energia elétrica - da necessidade de uma política de Estado; Luz para Todos - from rural electrification to universal access to electricity. The need for a state policy

Camargo, Ednaldo Jose Silva de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/04/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
CAMARGO, Ednaldo J. S. Programa Luz para Todos da eletrificação rural à universalização do acesso à energia elétrica. Da necessidade de uma política de Estado, 2010, 127 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Energia) Programa de Pós-Graduação em Energia da Universidade de São Paulo, 2010 A criação do Programa Luz para Todos, em 11 de novembro de 2003, por meio da Lei 10.762, e sua regulamentação pelo Decreto 4.873, da mesma data, trouxe novos temas para o âmbito do estudo da eletrificação rural. O Programa luz para Todos acumulou em sua estruturação uma somatória de conhecimentos e experiências anteriores, com um arranjo financeiro que possibilitou uma solução até então inédita para o atendimento do morador pobre das áreas rurais: a total gratuidade da ligação. Esta solução foi possível graças a um arranjo financeiro que envolveu diversas partes. O Governo Federal, com recursos de dois fundos setoriais a RGR Reserva Global de Reversão e a CDE Conta de Desenvolvimento Energético, sendo a CDE lançada a fundo perdido, como subvenção e a RGR na forma de financiamento, os Governos Estaduais e os agentes concessionários e permissionários, não havendo qualquer participação financeira de parte do consumidor a ser ligado. Este arranjo tripartite varia dependendo do impacto tarifário que a ligação ou conjunto de ligações gerar para o agente executor da obra...

Saúde e processo migratório: estudo exploratório sobre o acesso à saúde e tuberculose na comunidade boliviana do Município de São Paulo; Health and the migration process: an exploratory study about Bolivian immigrants access to public health and tuberculosis cases in the city of São Paulo

Mello, Fernanda Maria Raimundo Valença Braga de Deus e
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/07/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
Objetivos: Apresentar características do processo migratório de Bolivianos no Município de São Paulo, explorando, num contexto de saúde global, a relação entre os Sistemas de saúde do Brasil e da Bolívia; destacando os respectivos processos históricos, noções de acesso universal e semelhanças que possam vir a ser fundamentais na compreensão da problemática específica da alta incidência de Tuberculosos entre bolivianos residentes na capital do Estado de São Paulo. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo de abordagem qualitativa e exploratória em que foi realizado um levantamento teórico bibliográfico capaz de apresentar a problemática do tema. Dentre os métodos foi utilizado o descritivo e a pesquisa histórica para caracterizar os processos de implementação e reforma dos sistemas de saúde do Brasil e da Bolívia. Resultados: As fortes correntes migratórias internacionais levam a uma discussão do papel do Estado na garantia dos direitos do migrante, dentre eles, o acesso universal a saúde. Neste trabalho foi possível caracterizar a dinâmica do mundo em constante modificação e ausência de fronteiras no contexto da saúde globalizada. Usando como base o imigrante Boliviano com Tuberculose no Município de São Paulo...

Architecture for publication and universal access to smart transducers

De Lima Ribeiro, Alexandre Alves; Da Silva, Alexandre César Rodrigues
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 2361-2364
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
This paper proposes a simple and powerful architecture for publication and universal access to smart transducers, through existing and established open standards. Smart transducers are put to work on standards and styles already included in the Web, exploring resources in Cloud Computing and simplifying access to data. © 2012 IEEE.

Options to Increase Access to Telecommunications Services in Rural and Low-Income Areas

Muente-Kunigami, Arturo; Navas-Sabater, Juan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
Recent evidence suggests that increasing overall service coverage and promoting access to telecommunications services have a high economic benefit. Overall, it is estimated that a ten percent increase in mobile telephony penetration could increase economic growth by 0.81 percent in developing countries, whereas a ten percent increase in broadband penetration could increase economic growth by 1.4 percent. In rural and low-income areas in particular, not only do basic telephony services and broadband access allow population to connect with relatives and friends, but they have also introduced a dramatic increase in productivity and in many cases have become the only way for small and medium enterprises in rural areas to access national and, in some cases, global markets. Moreover, the impact of access to telecommunications in rural areas on health, education, disaster management, and local governments has allowed better and more rapid responses, improved coordination, and more effective public management. It is therefore worthwhile to take a second look at all possible policy options...

Toward Universal Coverage in Health : The Case of the State Guaranteed Benefit Package of the Kyrgyz Republic

Giuffrida, Antonio; Jakab, Melitta; Dale, Elina M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
In this case study the paper describes the evolution of the Kyrgyz health care system and discusses challenges in ensuring universal access to basic health care services. Section one provides an overview of the Kyrgyz health system and of the national health care reform programs that started in 2001 with Manas (2001-2005) and which have been continued with Manas Taalimi (2006-2011), and the recently adopted Den Sooluk (2012-2016). Section two provides a detailed discussion of the SGBP that follows a universal approach as it applies to all citizens, and describes the management of public funds and the information environment of the State Guaranteed Benefit Package (SGBP). Section three draws lessons from Kyrgyz national health reforms for universal health coverage for other countries with very limited public resources, widespread poverty, and high levels of corruption. Section four discusses the remaining challenges for universal health coverage for the poor and how the provision of good-quality care forms an important part of the agenda for the recently adopted Den Sooluk program.

Telecommunications and Information Services for the Poor : Toward a Strategy for Universal Access

Navas-Sabater, Juan; Dymond, Andrew; Juntunen, Niina
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.32%
Access to information, and communications technologies has become crucial to a sustainable agenda of economic development, and poverty reduction, and yet access remains concentrated in a few regions and population groups, with the contours of this new "digital divide" closely following, and supplementing existing income, and economic divides. However, technological innovations, economic pressures, and regulatory reforms, are making access to information, and communications technologies more affordable, and, providing opportunities to close the digital divide. This discussion paper outlines a number of policy, and regulatory measures, including incentives to attract investors to high cost, or challenging areas, that can be used under different scenarios, to close the digital divide. While Bank Group experience shows an increasing number of projects with specific universal access components, this paper proposes alternatives for Bank Group support for universal access policies, through an appropriate mix of technical assistance...

Access to Financial Services : A Review of the Issues and Public Policy Objectives

Claessens, Stijn
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
This article reviews the evidence on the importance of finance for economic well-being. It provides data on the use of basic financial services by households and firms across a sample of countries, assesses the desirability of universal access, and provides an overview of the macroeconomic, legal, and regulatory obstacles to access. Despite the benefits of finance, the data show that use of financial services is far from universal in many countries, especially developing countries. Universal access to financial services has not been a public policy objective in most countries and would likely be difficult to achieve. Countries can, however, facilitate access to financial services by strengthening institutional infrastructure, liberalizing markets and facilitating greater competition, and encouraging innovative use of know-how and technology. Government interventions to directly broaden access to finance, however, are costly and fraught with risks, among others the risk of missing the targeted groups. The article concludes with recommendations for global actions aimed at improving data on access and use and suggestions on areas of further analysis to identify constraints to broadening access.

Universal Health Coverage for Inclusive and Sustainable Development : A Synthesis of 11 Country Case Studies

Maeda, Akiko; Araujo, Edson; Cashin, Cheryl; Harris, Joseph; Ikegami, Naoki; Reich, Michael R.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.22%
The goals of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) are to ensure that all people can access quality health services, to safeguard all people from public health risks, and to protect all people from impoverishment due to illness, whether from out-of-pocket payments for health care or loss of income when a household member falls sick. Countries as diverse as Brazil, France, Japan, Thailand, and Turkey that have achieved UHC are showing how these programs can serve as vital mechanisms for improving the health and welfare of their citizens, and lay the foundation for economic growth and competitiveness grounded in the principles of equity and sustainability. Ensuring universal access to affordable, quality health services will be an important contribution to ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity in low income and middle-income countries (LMICs), where most of the world s poor live.

From right to light: a human rights-based approach to universal access to modern energy services.

Solis, Manuel Peter Samonte
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.36%
The thesis re-introduces the human rights-based approach to achieve universal access to modern energy services to offer an integrated and coherent legal strategy and implementation framework that brings renewable energy technology and rural electrification under the common logic and language of human rights. Although access to modern energy services is indispensable to providing basic needs, eradicating poverty and meeting sustainable development goals, 1.3 billion people remain without access to electricity and 2.6 billion people are still without access to clean cooking facilities. Essentially, the challenge lies in how to enhance access to modern energy services, particularly for those who are in impoverished rural areas of the developing world, while achieving universal coverage and sustainable development at the same time. In response, the United Nations called the world’s attention to this challenge and launched the ‘Sustainable Energy for All’ initiative that focuses on three interlinked objectives: 1) enhancing universal access to modern energy services; 2) improving the rate of energy efficiency; and 3) increasing renewable energy use. Beyond catalysing global awareness, however, the critical stage of turning the vision into reality with concrete commitments to action beckons. The imperative of developing a coherent and appropriate legal response is vital to advancing international and national development agenda and goals. For this reason...

Toward Universal Coverage in Health : The Case of the State Guaranteed Benefit Package of the Kyrgyz Republic

Giuffrida, Antonio; Jakab, Melitta; Dale, Elina M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
In this case study the paper describes the evolution of the Kyrgyz health care system and discusses challenges in ensuring universal access to basic health care services. Section one provides an overview of the Kyrgyz health system and of the national health care reform programs that started in 2001 with Manas (2001-2005) and which have been continued with Manas Taalimi (2006-2011), and the recently adopted Den Sooluk (2012-2016). Section two provides a detailed discussion of the SGBP that follows a universal approach as it applies to all citizens, and describes the management of public funds and the information environment of the State Guaranteed Benefit Package (SGBP). Section three draws lessons from Kyrgyz national health reforms for universal health coverage for other countries with very limited public resources, widespread poverty, and high levels of corruption. Section four discusses the remaining challenges for universal health coverage for the poor and how the provision of good-quality care forms an important part of the agenda for the recently adopted Den Sooluk program.

Policy Study on Electricity Universal Service in China

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
This policy study on universal access to electric power (universal service) in China is based on research conducted by the China Electricity Regulatory Commission in 2006. China's policy on universal service has three facets: First, availability, that is, power service shall be available to all users; second, non-discrimination, that is, equal treatment shall be granted to all users; and third, affordability, that is, a majority of the users can afford the service. Households across China were surveyed, with emphasis on six major metropolitan regions. A comparative study was made of the Chinese postal and telecommunications services, comparing the problems faced by them with the problems of universal access to electric power. The report also compares China's policies on universal service with those of other nations.

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : The Case of Bangladesh

Sadeque, Zubair; Rysankova, Dana; Elahi, Raihan; Soni, Ruchi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
This knowledge note is the second of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Since its inception in 2003, Bangladesh's solar home system program has installed about three million electrification systems in rural households, two-thirds of them in the last three years. The program is the most dynamic off-grid electrification program in the world, benefitting more than 15 million people and contributing about 130 MW in renewable energy generation capacity. The case study for Bangladesh is interesting, because off-grid electrification is crucial to reaching universal access. Achieving universal access to modern energy services is one of the three complementary objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative. Bangladesh's rural electrification program was initiated in 1977 with the creation of the Rural Electrification Board (REB). Yet, it was estimated that at the prevailing pace of grid electrification, Bangladesh was going to take 50 years to reach universal access. By 2002...

Output-Based Aid in Telecommunications : New Models for Universal Access in Latin America

Muente, Arturo Kunigami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
During the 1990s many Latin American countries developed universal access programs, financed through universal service funds, to increase telecommunications access in rural and low-income areas. The mechanism most often used to allocate the funds was the minimum subsidy tender, with subsidy payments linked to predefined performance criteria (such as installation of telephones in rural areas) under an output-based aid (OBA) approach. After more than 10 years' experience, a study evaluated the performance of the universal service funds in Latin America, home to some of the first OBA programs in telecommunications. The aim was to identify lessons and best practices and help regulators define a new generation of universal access programs using OBA mechanisms.

Brazil Background Study for a National Rural Electrification Strategy : Aiming for Universal Access

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
According to data from the 2000 Census, about 27 percent of Brazil's rural population still lacks access to electricity. This represents more than 2.5 million households. In comparison, the same statistic is about 20 percent in Argentina, Chile, and Mexico. The figure includes the achievements of the Luz no Campo program, which will complete its first implementation phase with more than 600,000 new connections, but also users with precarious or illegal access to electricity. One important message from the census data is that the absence of a basic and modern energy source affects particularly low-income families, which end up paying a much higher price for energy service per kWh (because they use batteries) and living with poor quality lighting (from kerosene or LPG lamps), or both.

Jamaica’s Effort in Improving Universal Access within Fiscal Constraints

Chao, Shiyan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
Jamaica's primary health care system was a model for the Caribbean region in the 1990s. Because of it, Jamaicans enjoy relatively better health status than people in other countries of similar income level in the Caribbean region. However, Jamaica's health system is being severely challenged by persistent and reemerging infectious diseases and by the rapid increase in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and injuries. At the same time, the country has suffered from low economic growth and carries a high debt burden, which leaves limited fiscal space for improving health care. The Government of Jamaica has been trying to sustain the gain in health outcomes and improve access to health care for its population in an environment of constrained resources during the last decade. With the establishment of the Jamaica National Health Fund (NHF) in 2003 and the abolition of user fees at public facilities in 2008, the Government of Jamaica has taken steps toward achieving universal coverage. This study reviews the achievements and challenges in expanding universal access in Jamaica and assesses the impact of the NHF's drug-subsidy programs and the abolition of user fees on universal access, and discusses policy options for achieving universal coverage.

Liberalization and Universal Access to Basic Services : Telecommunications, Water and Sanitation, Financial Services, and Electricity

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; World Bank
Fonte: OECD and the World Bank, Paris Publicador: OECD and the World Bank, Paris
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
Access to basic services plays an important role in both individual well-being and a country's economic development. For this reason, general availability of these services to citizens, regardless of income level and geographical location, has generally been viewed as an important public policy goal. However, the precise definition of this goal and the means of attaining it have provoked controversy. This volume explores whether liberalization can contribute to achieving universal service goals and, if so, how, and looks at the types of complementary policies that may be required. It focuses on experience in four sectors: telecommunications, financial, water and sanitation, and energy services. For each sector, an overview paper and one or two case studies from developing countries examine the experience of governments in harnessing liberalization to meet social goals. It is hoped that this cross-sector view will yield general insights which a focus on a single sector may not, and help each sector to generate ideas by drawing upon experience in other sectors. A horizontal assessment also helps to determine how far the services negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO)...

One Goal, Two Paths : Achieving Universal Access to Modern Energy in East Asia and the Pacific

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
The purpose of the current flagship report is to address energy access and related developmental issues in East Asia Pacific (EAP) that so far have received less attention compared to the macro energy issues of climate change and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. EAP countries have two steep paths to climb to achieve universal access to modern energy: electricity and modern cooking solutions. Approximately 170 million people, or 34 million households, in EAP countries do not have electricity connections in their homes. This number is equivalent to approximately 9 percent of the Region's total population, and 30 percent of the Region's population excluding China. Moreover, approximately 6 times that number, or over 1 billion people, still lack access to modern cooking solutions. In addition, EAP is exceeded by only Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia in the number of people who lack access to electricity. However, access to both electricity and modern cooking solutions is essential to address the enduring impacts of poverty and to move the poor onto a rising development trajectory. The link between access to modern energy and development is most clearly defined by the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDGs were formulated to reduce global poverty while increasing education...

Impactos das políticas públicas sobre as patentes dos antirretrovirais para a sustentabilidade do Programa de Distribuição Universal pelo SUS no Brasil

Puorro, Aline Terra
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar os impactos econômicos que as patentes de medicamentos e certas políticas públicas relacionadas ao acesso da população aos antirretrovirais tiveram no Brasil. Para isso, temos como base a sua distribuição pelo SUS entre 2004 e 2013 e os preços contratuais dessa classe de medicamentos que sofreram impactos de ações do governo durante este período. É um estudo epidemiológico descritivo e analítico, de desenho transversal retrospectivo com utilização de dados secundários de domínio público. Os dados foram separados, organizados por ano e por antirretroviral e comparados com anos anteriores ou posteriores a fatos relevantes das patentes e demais ações. Os resultados demonstram que quando a propriedade intelectual de um medicamento expira ou é negada, há mudanças significativas na sua distribuição e preço. Os resultados ainda mostram a mudança dessa oferta e preço ao utilizar a licença compulsória de patentes ou até mesmo apenas diante da ameaça de sua existência, confirmando a eficácia dessa medida como ação em saúde. A dissertação ainda ressalta os impactos dos acordos de tranferência de tecnologia, que foram utilizados em algumas situações pelo governo brasileiro para adiantar a produção nacional desses antirretrovirais. Os resultados permitem validar positivamente as ações do governo relacionadas aos antirretrovirais como ferramentas essenciais para redução de preço...

Estimating greenhouse gas emissions associated with achieving universal access to electricity for all households in South Africa

Tait,Louise; Winkler,Harald
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
Climate change, energy security and achieving universal electricity access for all households are all pressing issues that South Africa must address. These objectives need not be trade-offs, however, and achieving electricity access for the poor does not justify the building of large coal-fired power stations or threaten South Africa's climate change objectives. This paper estimates the electricity demand from the residential sector to 2020 resulting from universal access, and finds that electricity for low-income households would constitute only a small addition to total electricity demand and would represent only a minor portion of output from the coal-fired power station, Medupi. Furthermore, emissions from the additional electricity consumed by newly connected households would have a negligible impact on South Africa's emissions profile.

Uncertainties within South Africa's goal of universal access to electricity by 2012

Bekker,B; Gaunt,C T; Eberhard,A; Marquard,A
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
The South African President in 2004 stated the policy goal of universal access to electricity by 2012. This goal requires a significant adjustment of annual connection targets and electrification budgets, based on accurate knowledge of the number of electrified and non-electrified households in South Africa. Published data on the state of electrification, however, varies widely, with reported proportions of households electrified in 2005 varying from 57% to 80%. In addition, apparent discrepancies of tens of thousands of connections exist between annual new connection rates reported in different official publications. Different definitions of Universal Access further impact strategic planning. This paper explores these uncertainties in relation to South Africa's goal of Universal Access by 2012 by focusing on the availability and accuracy of South African electrification data, and the definitions, targets and electrification budgets associated with Universal Access.