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Padrões de ocupação do solo e microclimas urbanos na região de clima tropical continental.; Urban occupation patterns and microclimates in the brazilian continental tropical region

Duarte, Denise Helena Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/12/2000 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
O objeto deste trabalho são os microclimas urbanos nas cidades brasileiras na região de Clima Tropical Continental. Partindo do princípio que há uma correlação entre microclimas urbanos e ocupação do solo, o objetivo é medir numericamente a correlação entre a temperatura do ar e algumas variáveis familiares ao planejamento, e que podem ser regulamentadas pela legislação municipal, a fim de orientar as medidas necessárias para amenizar o rigor climático nas cidades da região. Faz-se uma descrição qualitativa e quantitativa das variáveis urbanísticas envolvidas, bem como medições de temperatura e umidade do ar em diferentes estações e horários. Os resultados mostram que as variáveis taxa de ocupação e coeficiente de aproveitamento mantém correlação positiva com a temperatura do ar, e refletem uma maior influência da densidade construída sobre o período noturno, o que concorda com a teoria existente. Já com as variáveis arborização e água a correlação foi negativa em relação à temperatura do ar, em todos os horários. Ao final propõe-se um índice em função das variáveis urbanísticas utilizadas, visando subsidiar futuros trabalhos na determinação da proporção ideal entre densidade construída...

Influência de lagos artificiais no clima local e no clima urbano: estudo de caso em Presidente Epitácio (SP); Influence of artificial lakes in local climate and urban climate: a case study in Presidente Epitácio (SP)

Souza, Marcos Barros de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/09/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Nas últimas décadas tem sido temática de estudos as alterações realizadas no meio ambiente urbano e as variabilidades climáticas que ocorrem a partir das intervenções, principalmente no que se refere à formação de lagos artificiais para construção de usinas hidrelétricas. As transformações antrópicas de um determinado espaço físico podem ocasionar variações nos atributos climáticos, como a umidade relativa do ar e a temperatura do ar, dentre outros. O objetivo geral desta pesquisa foi verificar as possíveis alterações no clima local e do clima urbano da cidade de Presidente Epitácio, localizada no extremo oeste do Estado de São Paulo, devido à formação do lago artificial para a construção da Usina Hidrelétrica Engenheiro Sérgio Motta (Porto Primavera), utilizando registros da temperatura do ar e da umidade relativa do ar em um transecto da margem do lago passando pela área urbana até o ambiente rural circunvizinho, analisando as variáveis temporal, espacial e horária em diferentes períodos do ano (primavera, verão, outono e inverno), bem como a análise dos desvios da temperatura do ar e da umidade relativa do ar, entre os postos localizados próximos ao lago, na área intra-urbana e na área rural. A área de estudo constitui o município de Presidente Epitácio (SP) e o lago artificial foi formado pelo represamento das áreas do rio Paraná...

Circadian and seasonal variation of the body temperature of sheep in a tropical environment.

daSilva, R. G.; Minomo, F. R.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 69-73
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.21%
Nychthemeral and annual rhythms of the rectal temperature were determined for Corriedale sheep in a tropical climate. The minimum rectal temperature averaged 39.55 degrees C at 0500 hours in summer, and 38.87 degrees C at 0600 hours in winter. The maximum was 40.03 degrees C in summer (1700 hours) and 39.33 degrees C in winter (1830 hours). Annual cycle of the rectal temperature showed a minimum in July and maximum in December.

Energy and Cost Associated with Ventilating Office Buildings in a Tropical Climate

Rim, Donghyun; Schiavon, Stefano; Nazaroff, William W.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
Providing sufficient amounts of outdoor air to occupants is a critical building function for supporting occupant health, well-being and productivity. In tropical climates, high ventilation rates require substantial amounts of energy to cool and dehumidify supply air. This study evaluates the energy consumption and associated cost for thermally conditioning outdoor air provided for building ventilation in tropical climates, considering Singapore as an example locale. We investigated the influence on energy consumption and cost of the following factors: outdoor air temperature and humidity, ventilation rate (L/s per person), indoor air temperature and humidity, air conditioning system coefficient of performance (COP), and cost of electricity. Results show that dehumidification of outdoor air accounts for more than 80% of the energy needed for building ventilation in Singapore’s tropical climate. Improved system performance and/or a small increase in the indoor temperature set point would permit relatively large ventilation rates (such as 25 L/s per person) at modest or no cost increment. Overall, even in a thermally demanding tropical climate, the energy cost associated with increasing ventilation rate up to 25 L/s per person is less than 1% of the wages of an office worker in an advanced economy like Singapore’s. This result implies that the benefits of increasing outdoor air ventilation rate up to 25 L/s per person — which is suggested to provide for productivity increases...

Tropical climate variability from the last glacial maximum to the present

Dahl, Kristina Ariel
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 149 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
This thesis evaluates the nature and magnitude of tropical climate variability from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present. The temporal variability of two specific tropical climate phenomena is examined. The first is the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the Atlantic basin, which affects sea surface temperature (SST) and precipitation patterns throughout the tropical Atlantic. The second is the strength of the Indian Monsoon, an important component of both tropical and global climate. Long-term variations in the position of the ITCZ in the Atlantic region are determined using both organic geochemical techniques and climate modeling. Upwelling in Cariaco Basin is reconstructed using chlorin steryl esters as proxies for phytoplankton community structure. We find that the diatom population was larger during the Younger Dryas cold event, indicating that upwelling was enhanced and the mean position of the ITCZ was farther south during the Younger Dryas than it is today. A climate simulation using an ocean-atmosphere general circulation model confirms these results by demonstrating that the ITCZ shifts southward in response to high-latitude cooling. The climate of the Arabian Sea region is dominated by the Indian Monsoon.; (cont.) Results from modern sediments from a suite of cores located throughout the Arabian Sea suggest that wind strength is well represented by the accumulation rate and carbon isotopic composition of terrestrially-derived plant waxes in sediments. Arabian Sea SST patterns...

Using agro-climatic models to estimate the Guineagrass potential production in Brazilian tropical Savanna.

ARAUJO, L. C.; SANTOS, P. M.; RODRIGUES, D.; PEZZOPANE, J. R. M.; CRUZ, P. G.; OLIVEIRA, P. P. A.
Fonte: In: WORLD CONGRESS ON CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE, 5.; FARMING SYSTEMS DESIGN CONFERENCE, 3., 2011, Brisbane, Australia. Proceedings... Brisbane: WCCA: FSD, 2011. Publicador: In: WORLD CONGRESS ON CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE, 5.; FARMING SYSTEMS DESIGN CONFERENCE, 3., 2011, Brisbane, Australia. Proceedings... Brisbane: WCCA: FSD, 2011.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Formato: p. 455-456
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Currently, Brazil has the world?s largest commercial herd of cattle, much of which is raised in extensive grazing farms. The area occupied by pastures in Brazil is approximately 172 million hectares, i.e. 69% of the total area dedicated to agricultural production. Panicum maximum grasses are particularly important in intensive production systems, i.e. irrigated and fertilized, because of their high annual productivity in Brazil?s tropical climate. Managing these intensive systems will require designing robust farming systems and better allocations of limited and increasingly more expensive inputs, in highly variable climates and markets. The development of simulation models that consider the influence of the climate on forage production can facilitate the planning and administration of forage production on the farm. Moreover, simulation models are commonly used to estimate expected changes in climate on the productivity of agricultural systems. Agro-climatic models are, in general, simple to use, require wide available inputs, and can be useful tools for these purposes. When applied in such a specific environment, they can often give more accurate simulations than more complicated and data intensive mechanistic models. In addition...

Framework for multi-scale integrated impact analyses of climate change mitigation options.

PÉREZ-SOBA, M.; PARR, T.; WINOGARD, M.; CLAROS, M. P.; VARELA-ORTEGA, C.; ASCARRUNZ, N.; BALVANERA, P.; BHOLANATH, P.; EQUIHUA, M.; MARTORANO, L. G.; JONES, L.; MAASS, M.; THONICKE, K.
Fonte: In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE EFECTS, 2013, Potsdam. Impacts world 2013. [Potsdam: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research], 2013. Publicador: In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE EFECTS, 2013, Potsdam. Impacts world 2013. [Potsdam: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research], 2013.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
Tropical forest ecosystems are hotspots for biodiversity and represent one of the largest terrestrial carbon stocks, making their role in climate change mitigation (CCM) programmes increasingly important (e.g. REDD+). In Latin America these ecosystems suffer from high land use pressures that have resulted in a dramatic biodiversity loss. Little is known about how CCM options may impact on biodiversity and how this in turn may affect ecosystem carbon storage. Within this context, the FP7 ROBIN (Role Of Biodiversity In climate change mitigatioN) project developed a framework for multi-scale integrated analysis of the impacts that land use change may have on the ecological and social-economic processes of these ecosystems. The framework represents a continuous feedback loop in which changes in CCM options modify land use, that results in biodiversity change, affecting ecosystem functions, leading to changes in ecosystem services that affect human outcomes and societal behaviour, and which then affect the main drivers and pressures on biodiversity and ecosystems, and so on. We have constructed an indicator framework that allows to quantify, link and assess these interactions at three spatial scales: regional (Central and South America)...

Efeito da sazonalidade climática na ocorrência de sistomas respiratórios em indivíduos de uma cidade de clima tropical; Effect of the climate seasonality on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms in subjects of a tropical city

SILVA JÚNIOR, José Laerte Rodrigues da
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Medicina Tropical; Medicina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Medicina Tropical; Medicina
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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46.34%
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of the climate seasonality on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms in patients attending a primary health unit in a tropical city. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on subjects attending an out-patient primary health unit in relation with meteorological data collected daily. During one year, forty-four cross-sectional observations categorized by season were made. The observations were chosen randomly, in twelve-hour intervals (7am to 7pm). Analysis of variance was used to compare means across seasons. Pairwise correlation was conducted to verify the association between the number of patients and each meteorological variable. A model of autoregressive moving average with exogenous variables was conducted to evaluate the ability of the meteorological variables to predict the proportions of subjects with respiratory symptoms on each season. Results: Among the 3,354 subjects enrolled, 14.6% had respiratory symptoms. The temperature variation was not enough to change the number of individuals with respiratory symptoms, however there was an increase of subjects with respiratory symptoms coinciding with low levels of humidity during winter, with a statistically significant difference between seasons (p=0...

Turn Down the Heat : Climate Extremes, Regional Impacts, and the Case for Resilience

Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
A Report for the World Bank by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Analytics. This report focuses on the risks of climate change to development in Sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia and South Asia. Building on the 2012 report, Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must be Avoided, this new scientific analysis examines the likely impacts of present day, 2°C and 4°C warming on agricultural production, water resources, and coastal vulnerability. It finds many significant climate and development impacts are already being felt in some regions, and that as warming increases from present day (0.8°C) to 2°C and 4°C, multiple threats of increasing extreme heat waves, sea-level rise, more severe storms, droughts and floods are expected to have further severe negative implications for the poorest and most vulnerable. The report finds that agricultural yields will be affected across the three regions, with repercussions for food security, economic growth, and poverty reduction. In addition, urban areas have been identified as new clusters of vulnerability with urban dwellers, particularly the urban poor, facing significant vulnerability to climate change. In Sub-Saharan Africa, under 3°C global warming, savannas are projected to decrease from their current levels to approximately one-seventh of total land area and threaten pastoral livelihoods. Under 4°C warming...

Understanding the Impact of Climate Change on Hydropower : The Case of Cameroon

Grijsen, Johan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
The Africa energy unit (AFTEG) of the World Bank has obtained financing from the trust fund for environmentally and socially sustainable development (TFESSD) funded by Finland and Norway for work towards understanding the impact of climate change on hydropower: the case of Cameroon. The development objective of this activity is: (i) to develop tools for assessing climate change impacts on the operation of hydraulic infrastructure such as regulating dams and hydropower plants in the Sanaga river basin, and (ii) to take steps towards an institutional framework for climate resilient water resources management in Cameroon. The aim of this initiative is to build resilience to climate risks into water management in general and hydropower development in Cameroon in particular. The study includes three components: (i) develop suitable climate change scenarios for the Sanaga basin, support the electricity development corporation (EDC) of Cameroon to develop a reliable hydrological model for the Sanaga river basin...

Weather and notified Campylobacter infections in temperate and sub-tropical regions of Australia: An ecological study

Bi, P.; Cameron, A.; Zhang, Y.; Parton, K.
Fonte: W B Saunders Co Ltd Publicador: W B Saunders Co Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Background The relationship between previous termweathernext term and food-borne diseases has been of great concern recently. However, the impact of previous termweathernext term variations on food-borne disease may vary in different areas with various geographic, previous termweathernext term and demographic characteristics. This study was designed to quantify the relationship between previous termweathernext term variables and previous termCampylobacter infectionsnext term in two Australian cities with different local climatic conditions. Methods An ecological–epidemiological study was conducted, using weekly disease surveillance data and meteorological data, over the period 1990–2005, to quantify the relationship between maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity and notifications of previous termCampylobacter infectionsnext term in Adelaide, with a temperate Mediterranean climate, and Brisbane, with a sub-tropical climate. Spearman correlation and time-series adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed taking into account seasonality, lag effects and long-term trends. Results The results indicate that weekly maximum and minimum temperatures were inversely associated with the weekly number of cases in Adelaide...

Climate Change Enhances the Potential Impact of Infectious Disease and Harvest on Tropical Waterfowl

Traill, L.; Bradshaw, C.; Field, H.; Brook, B.
Fonte: Assoc Tropical Biology Inc Publicador: Assoc Tropical Biology Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
Global warming exacerbates threats to biodiversity as ecological systems shift in response to altered climatic conditions. Yet the long-term survival of populations at direct risk from climate change may also be undermined by local factors such as infectious disease or anthropogenic harvest, which leave smaller and more isolated populations increasingly vulnerable to the rapid pace of global change. We review current and future threats to an exemplar tropical waterfowl species, magpie geese Anseranas semipalmata, and focus on the potential synergies between infectious diseases, harvest, and climate change. We outline viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens likely to cause disease in geese, and give mention to parasites. Further, we elaborate on a previously developed, spatially explicit population viability model to simulate demographic responses to hunting and novel or enhanced disease outbreaks due to climate change. With no harvest, the simulated disease epizootics only threatened metapopulation viability when both mortality rate was high and outbreaks were regular (a threshold response). However, when contemporary site-specific harvest is included as an additive impact, the response to disease severity and probability was linear. We recommend field research to test these hypotheses linking drivers of waterfowl population decline to disease–climate change interactions.; Lochran W. Traill...

Fenologia e carboidratos de reserva do caquizeiro (Diospyros kaki L.) 'Rama Forte' em clima tropical.; Fenology and carbohydrate reserves in persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) rama forte in tropical climate.

Corsato, Carlos Eduardo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/10/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
A década de 90 foi caracterizada por uma grande expansão no mercado Brasileiro e mundial de frutas, em especial nas frutas de outono, como o caqui Diospyros kaki L.). Embora a quase totalidade da produção nacional de caqui seja destinada ao mercado interno, o Brasil vem se consolidando nos últimos anos como país exportador dessa fruta para países do continente americano e europeu. Por essa razão, o cultivo dessa fruteira vem se constituindo numa importante atividade agrícola para pequenos produtores no Brasil. O conhecimento da fenologia e de como varia o conteúdo em carboidratos de reserva do caquizeiro em clima tropical é de grande importância para o estudo do desenvolvimento dessa espécie nessas condições. A falta informações dessa natureza para o caquizeiro cultivado no Brasil motivou o presente estudo com a variedade Rama Forte, a mais cultivada e consumida no país. O trabalho conduzido em um pomar localizado na área experimental, setor de horticultura, da escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz” (ESALQ) em Piracicaba – SP, no período 2002/2003. A fenologia foi caracterizada desde a brotação das gemas até a abscisão foliar. A variação dos teores de carboidratos de reserva em ramos e em raízes é descrita tendo por base os diferentes períodos de coleta de material no campo...

Analysis of microclimatic diversity and outdoor thermal comfort perceptions in the tropical megacity Dhaka, Bangladesh

Sharmin, Tania; Steemers, Koen; Matzarakis, Andreas
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
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This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.10.007; The study has observed microclimatic conditions in residential, commercial and educational areas in Dhaka city. Comfort surveys were carried out along with microclimatic measurements. Findings suggest, urban forms that are more variable with irregular plot sizes and building heights, mostly in traditional areas, have positive responses with respect to the synoptic climate, while planned areas with uniform plot sizes and height, shows a tendency to develop daytime urban heat island effect. An east-west orientated street in a formal residential area was found to be 1?C to 3.8?C warmer than a street in a traditional residential area in the same orientation. It is apparent that the differences are directly linked to the specific geometric pattern of the areas and can be defined by the parameters like uniformity versus diversity and compactness versus openness. Uniform heights, equal building separation and plot sizes can lead to harsher urban microclimate, while variety in these may foster positive changes. Lack of such variety can even affect compact urban areas. This is also evident from the analysis of pedestrian?s responses in the case-study areas. Pedestrians in the formal planned areas or less diverse traditional areas were found to be less comfortable than those in the more variable areas. A statistical analysis of climatic variables and thermal sensation showed moderately strong and significant correlations. These reveal that urban geometry and the resultant climatic variables may not be the only...

Clima e endemias tropicais; Tropical climate and endemisms

Barros, Marcus
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Avançados Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Avançados
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2006 POR; ENG
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56.26%
O ARTIGO trata dos distintos olhares sobre os trópicos e da relação entre o clima tropical e a saúde da população. Ao descartar a idéia preconceituosa de que as doenças se devem unicamente às condições climáticas, o autor propõe uma análise mais atenta à realidade socioeconômica, mais humanitária e menos fatalista, e vislumbra o desenvolvimento sustentável como forma de estabelecer o equilíbrio entre o ser humano e a natureza.; THIS ARTICLE depicts discrete ways of understanding the Tropics and the relationship between tropical climate and people's health. By rejecting the biased notion that diseases derive solely from climatic conditions, the author proposes analyses more concerned with the underlying socioeconomic reality, more humanitarian and less fatalist, and conceives sustainable development as the way to achieve a balance between human life and nature.

Conservação de coleções em ambientes tropicais: coletando e comunicando dados do Museu Paulista/USP, Brasil (1997-2000); Caring for collections in tropical environments: collecting and communicating data at Museu Paulista/USP, Brasil (1997-2000)

Paula, Teresa Cristina Toledo de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu Paulista Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu Paulista
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2001 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
As atividades de monitoramento e controle ambiental nas regiões temperadas originaram os parâmetros e práticas hoje estabelecidos mundialmente para a conservação de acervos; tais parâmetros e práticas, entretanto, podem não ser adequados à conservação de acervos em regiões tropicais. Este trabalho apresenta uma pesquisa sobre as condições ambientais em museu de região tropical, o Museu Paulista da Universidade de São Paulo. Trinta e três salas, halls e corredores nos quatro pavimentos do Museu Paulista têm sido monitorados por termo-higrógrafos desde 1997. Grandes variações na UR (30-98%) e temperatura (12-35 graus C) foram registradas. O efeito nocivo sobre as coleções, esperável em situações climáticas tão inconstantes, não foi encontrado onde há ventilação apropriada. O monitoramento possibilitou, também, a identificação de áreas de alto risco, onde ações localizadas podem ser introduzidas de forma econômica. Desenvolver um modo efetivo de comunicar essas informações ambientais à equipe do museu mostrou-se vital à implementação de medidas sustentáveis de monitoramento e controle climáticos.; The monitoring and environment control activities in the temperate regions have originated the parameters and the actions now established...

Intensified decadal variability in tropical climate during the late 19th century

Ault, Toby R; Cole, Julia E.; Evans, Micheal N; Barnett, Heidi; Abram, Nerilie; Tudhope, A W; Linsley, Braddock K
Fonte: American Geophysical Union Publicador: American Geophysical Union
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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46.29%
To evaluate and extend the record of decadal climate variability, we present a synthesis of 23 coral oxygen isotope records from the tropical Indo-Pacific that extends back to A.D. 1850. Principal components analysis (PCA) on detrended records reveals a leading pattern of variance with significant interannual (3-5 year) and decadal (9-14 year) variability. The temporal evolution and spatial pattern of this variability closely resembles the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) pattern across both time scales, suggesting that this decadal tropical variability is fundamentally related to ENSO. The 19th century experienced stronger decadal tropical climate variability, compared to the 20th. Decadal variability in the tropical oceans thus remains underestimated by analysis of direct observations.

Phenology of tropical understory trees: patterns and correlates

Boyle,W. Alice; Bronstein,Judith L.
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Reproductive phenologies of plants are constrained by climate in highly seasonal regions. In contrast, plants growing in wet tropical forests are freed from many abiotic constraints, which in canopy tree communities lead to a rich diversity of phenological patterns within and among individuals, species and communities. However, basic descriptions of tropical phenological patterns and the processes that shape them are rare. Here, we document the individual-, population-, and landscape-level phenological patterns of two dominant families of understory woody plants important to avian frugivores, the Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae, along an elevational transect in Costa Rica. The 226 individual plants belonging to 35 species in this study, varied in the number of reproductive bouts/year, and the timing, duration, and synchrony of reproductive stages. This variation was not related to factors related to their interactions with mutualists and antagonists, nor did it appear to be constrained by phylogeny. Diverse phenological patterns among species led to relatively aseasonal patterns at the community and landscape level. Overall, evidence for biotic processes shaping temporal patterns of fruiting phenology was weak or absent. These findings reveal a number of unexplained patterns...

Global Model selection for evaluation of Climate Change projections in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Seascape

Hidalgo,Hugo G.; Alfaro,Eric J.
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Two methods for selecting a subset of simulations and/or general circulation models (GCMs) from a set of 30 available simulations are compared: 1) Selecting the models based on their performance on reproducing 20th century climate, and 2) random sampling. In the first case, it was found that the performance methodology is very sensitive to the type and number of metrics used to rank the models and therefore the results are not robust to these conditions. In general, including more models in a multi-model ensemble according to their rank (of skill in reproducing 20th century climate) results in an increase in the multi-model skill up to a certain point and then the inclusion of more models degrades the skill of the multi-model ensemble. In a similar fashion when the models are introduced in the ensemble at random, there is a point where the inclusion of more models does not change significantly the skill of the multi-model ensemble. For precipitation the subset of models that produces the maximum skill in reproducing 20th century climate also showed some skill in reproducing the climate change projections of the multi-model ensemble of all simulations. For temperature, more models/simulations are needed to be included in the ensemble (at the expense of a decrease in the skill of reproducing the climate of the 20th century for the selection based on their ranks). For precipitation and temperature the use of 7 simulations out of 30 resulted in the maximum skill for both approaches to introduce the models.

Vegetation incorporation effects on the roofs in urban area in the continental tropical climate; Efeitos da incorporação de vegetação em telhados de zona urbana em clima tropical continental

Rosseti, Karyna de Andrade Carvalho; Durante, Luciane Cleonice; Nogueira, Marta Cristina de Jesus Albuquerque; Callejas, Ivan Júlio Aponônio; Kuhnen, Igor Antonio; Nogueira, José de Souza
Fonte: School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design Publicador: School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares; SIMULAÇÃO COMPUTACIONAL; Experimental research Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/06/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
In most urban areas there are a few residual spaces left to be converted into green areas. A possible solution for the incorporation of vegetation in the urban area would be turning the existing roofs into green ones. The purpose of this research is to assess whether the incorporation of green roofs into existing building roofs in low-density urban areas could alter the termo-hygrometric conditions to the pedestrian level. Methodology consists on the performing of computer simulations in urban area scenarios, located in a tropical climate city (Cuiabá-MT), by adding vegetation of 10%, 50% and 100% to the existing roofs in the research area. It is shown the existence of interference association between the occupation density of the roofs by vegetation and the cooling and humidification phenomenon of the air, to the pedestrian level, in low density condition urban areas. The most expressive effects caused by green roof in temperature and absolute humidity are contained in the yard area in the lee of the houses that added vegetation to the roofs.; Na maioria das áreas urbanizadas existem poucos espaços residuais para serem convertidos em áreas verdes. Uma possível solução para incorporação da vegetação na área urbana é a transformação dos telhados existentes em telhados vegetados. O objetivo desta pesquisa é avaliar se a incorporação de vegetação nos telhados de edificações localizadas em zonas urbanas de baixo adensamento construtivo altera as condições termo higrométricas ao nível do pedestre. A metodologia consiste de realização de simulação computacional de cenários...