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Bosnia and Herzegovina - The Road to Europe : Annex 4. Urban Transport - A Need for Safe, Clean, and Affordable Transport

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report highlights deficiencies and indicates priorities for a prospective national transport strategy and action plan for further consideration by key stakeholders. The overall objective should be the development of a transport system, and an institutional framework, that facilitates rather than constrains, economic development in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A strong transport system contributes to economic growth by reducing the economic distance to markets by expanding opportunities for trade, by improving the competitiveness of national locations for production and distribution, and by facilitating mobility for a country s citizens; while minimizing the social and environmental costs of the transport sector. The report concludes by recommending actions that aim to improve the institutional framework, improve the sustainability of the transport sector, facilitate broad based economic growth, and mitigate the social and environmental detriments associated with transport. Specific policy recommendations are presented to accomplish these conclusions.

A Framework for Urban Transport Benchmarking

Henning, Theuns; Essakali, Mohammed Dalil; Oh, Jung Eun
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This report summarizes the findings of a study aimed at exploring key elements of a benchmarking framework for urban transport. Unlike many industries where benchmarking has proven to be successful and straightforward, the multitude of the actors and interactions involved in urban transport systems may make benchmarking a complex endeavor. It was therefore important to analyze what has been done so far, propose basic benchmarking elements and test them, and identify lessons for a simple and sustainable urban transport benchmarking framework. A major component of this study was to investigate (a) the availability of data for benchmarking and (b) the value of benchmarking on the basis of limited data. The study therefore proposes a benchmarking framework for urban transport, focusing on the performance of public transport. Because the design of a benchmarking framework depends on the objectives sought from it, the study focused on the performance of public transport systems from the policymaker s perspective. The study included pilot application of the proposed framework in five cities from three continents Beijing...

Greater Cairo : A Proposed Urban Transport Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The objective of the urban transport strategy note (UTSN) is to provide an assessment of the urban transport system in Greater Cairo (GC), identify what now appear to be the most pressing urban transport problems, and framework for urgent policy actions and investment priorities that would be the basis of a formal transport strategy to be adopted and implemented by the authorities of the metropolitan area of Cairo. This note is essentially based on a thorough review of the 2002 Urban Transportation Master Plan for GC and a rapid analysis of the current conditions and performance of the urban transport system. This note includes nine chapters. The first chapter provides a quick overview of the current situation of the UT in GC. In chapter two, present the main guiding principles and key components of the proposed strategy to prepare the ground for the following chapters. Chapter three to nine elaborate on the issues and policy recommendations for each of the components of the strategy: organization and operation of public transport systems (chapter three)...

A National Framework for Sustainable Urban Transport Systems : Proposals for Improving Urban Transportation in Russian Cities

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Moscow Publicador: World Bank, Moscow
EN_US
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36.34%
In many Russian cities, these growing demands for mobility are not adequately met by the existing urban transport infrastructure and services. Most municipalities have had difficulties in planning and managing the development of their urban transport systems in a coherent manner, which is a precondition for successful resolution of the existing transport problems. In addition, there is a need to develop and put in place a sound legal and regulatory framework. Thus, in order to create favorable conditions for addressing the existing transport problems, there is a need to develop a national framework that would contribute to the creation of pre-requisites for sustainable development of urban transport systems. The purpose of this work is to develop proposals for the formation of the national framework for improvement of the quality and sustainability of urban transport and road traffic safety in Russian cities.

Controlling Greenhouse Gas Emissions Generated by the Transport Sector in ECA : Policy Options

Monsalve, Carolina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) generated from transport are among the fastest growing in Europe and in the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region, posing a challenge in creating a low-carbon future, as economic development has been paralleled with a modal share increasingly dominated by roads.1 This modal shift, as in the European Union (EU), has been driven by a number of factors, including growing affluence, suburbanization, and falling land use densities in urban areas, which have translated into more widespread vehicle ownership, increasing trip numbers and lengths, while reducing the financial viability of public transport and non-motorized transport. This paper begins by reviewing recent trends in transport and GHG emission trends in the ECA region, using trends in the EU-15 and EU-27 as comparators.8 Subsequently, it will provide an overview of climate friendly transport policies for the road, rail, and air transport modes, before presenting some land transport success stories and then turning to a discussion on how to use revenues generated from pricing policy instruments. The objective is to provide a menu of policy options to improve the functioning of the transport sector in ECA...

Review of the Urban Transport Sector in the Russian Federation : Transition to Long-Term Sustainability

Oh, JungEun; Gwilliam, Kenneth
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
EN_US
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36.34%
Russian cities are undergoing critical economic and social changes that affect the performance and condition of their urban transport systems. While the population of most large cities in Russia (over one million residents) has remained relatively unchanged over the last decade, the average income of the urban dwellers has sharply increased. The number of private cars per capita has increased rapidly, generating a demand for urban mobility which is increasingly difficult to meet. This review of the urban transport sector in the Russian Federation (the Review, hereafter) aims to assess the current condition and performance of urban transport systems in medium-to-large size Russian cities and to identify key issues and underlying causes. The review principally covers software of urban transport in the secondary cities of Russia, including institutional arrangements, legal and regulatory issues, operation of public transport systems, traffic management, and parking, and less extensively hardware aspects, such as construction of road network.

A Methodology for Rapid Assessment of Rural Transport Services

Starkey, Paul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.35%
Rural transport services are often inadequate. Passenger and goods transport needs improving to stimulate rural economies and reduce poverty. Understanding existing rural transport systems and constraining factors is a precondition for appropriate policy action. The Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP) commissioned a study to develop and test a methodology for the rapid assessment of rural transport systems. The guidelines specified passenger and freight transport for distances of 5-200 km, encompassing much rural transport, but excluding within-village transport, long-distance national transport and international corridors. Rural transport systems operate on hub and spoke systems at several levels. Key rural hubs are provincial/regional towns, market/district towns and villages. The various spokes and hubs have characteristic combinations of transport, including trucks, buses, minibuses, pickups and intermediate means of transport (IMTs). The smallest spokes are footpaths while national spokes form transport corridors. The methodology surveys transport types...

Mainstreaming Gender in Road Transport : Operational Guidance for World Bank Staff

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.34%
The paper aims to provide guidance for both transport and gender specialists on how to mainstream gender-related considerations into road transport projects to improve development effectiveness, sustainability and to reduce gender inequality. The paper draws attention to the most basic ways in which gender affects and is affected by transport policies and projects and provides practical approaches to address gender-related problems in road transport projects. Women and men have different travel and transport needs due to their different social and economic roles and activities. Women also face different constraints than men in accessing, using and paying for transport services. Transport can play a significant role in ameliorating or exacerbating the life conditions of women, particularly when poor and living in developing countries, depending on the extent to which gender differences are taken into account. The paper provides examples of entry points for mainstreaming gender into various road project contexts in urban...

Urban Transport for Development : Towards an Operationally-Oriented Strategy

Mitric, Slobodan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.34%
This paper arose from the perception that a gap existed between the practice of project design and the formal Bank strategies for transport and urban sectors as stated in the cited reports. Formal strategies tend to be too general to be linked meaningfully to project designs. The paper in hand attempts to close this gap by putting forward a different, operationally-oriented concept of urban transport strategy and derives one such strategy from a review of recent Bank-funded projects. The term "operationally-oriented" means that the strategy is expressed in terms of objectives, policies, institutions and investments, mimicking the structure common to all individual projects. Projects on which the paper is based date from the last 15 years. They exhibit a wide diversity of features, reflecting inherited local conditions, the nature and rhythms of socio-economic changes underway, and the vintage of client-Bank relations. Yet, a strong central tendency is also evident, amounting to a coherent and robust approach. The core strategy...

A Framework for Urban Transport Projects : Operational Guidance for World Bank Staff

Mitric, Slobodan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.34%
This paper starts with a brief perspective on urban transport in developing countries, followed by a detailed presentation of an overall framework for making projects in this sector. Additional details on cities and projects used as case studies are given in the accompanying tables. The challenge for the Bank is to assist client cities in providing transport infrastructure and services that respond to demographic, spatial and economic growth in ways that balance the many different competing interests. Reflecting the importance that poverty and environmental factors are given in its development lending, the key strategic goal of the Bank is to protect and nurture public transport services and non-motorized transport modes, with underlying meta-objectives of equity and sustainability. In the policy dimension, the following approach features: (i) the equitable allocation of existing/new street space to protect and nurture public transport, and non-motorized modes; (ii) a for-the market rather than in the market...

Institutional Labyrinth : Designing a Way Out for Improving Urban Transport Services--Lessons from Current Practice

Kumar, Ajay; Agarwal, O. P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.34%
Severe congestion, poor air quality, increases in road accidents, and explosive growth in energy consumption are manifestations of rapid motorization in cities around the globe, especially in the developing world. The tendency in most developing cities has been to deal with these problems in a piecemeal fashion, largely through supply side interventions, such as widening roads, constructing flyovers, or building high-cost mass transit systems. It is becoming increasingly recognized that effective solutions lie in comprehensive and holistic approaches that integrate what would normally be patchwork efforts and, in addition, combine supply side efforts with demand side measures. In general, this means that multiple, well-integrated actions need to be taken. Integrated and comprehensive thinking and implementation is required across multiple subsystems and disciplines, such as land use planning, environmental quality, energy efficiency, and services for the poor and physically disadvantaged. The ability to undertake comprehensive planning and execution that is integrated functionally...

Developing the Public Transport Sector in China

Gwilliam, Ken
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
The focus of this discussion paper is on institutional arrangements for the provision of public transport bus services, including the introduction of private capital in bus operations, the value of competitive tendering mechanisms as a determining factor in selecting suppliers, and the role of regulation. The purpose of this paper is to assist Chinese municipalities by describing the experience of other countries that have attempted to implement similar reforms, which may be considered relevant to China. The goal of this paper is to assist interested municipalities, the Ministry of Construction, and other relevant Chinese authorities to: 1) identify models of regulation and competition for the urban bus industry, based on the experience of Chinese and international practices, which are best, suited for the current and projected future of the urban bus industry in China; and 2) provide guidance for municipalities that are considering restructuring their bus industries.

Formulating an Urban Transport Policy : Choosing between Options

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.34%
As the developing world rapidly urbanizes, the demands on transport systems also grow often at a faster pace than the population. Given the above tendency, an effective and coordinated approach to urban transport requires that sound policies be put into place. Such policies enunciate the direction that a government wants to take; they lay the basic framework for downstream planning as well as project identification and prioritization. This document policy lays out the guiding principles for more detailed downstream planning. The objective of this guideline is to improve mobility, environmental quality, universal access, safety, and energy security of any urban transport policy. This guidebook is intended to be a practical support for formulating urban transport policies at the national, provincial, and local levels. To this end, it highlights some of the important issues that arise when creating an urban transport policy. The report is organized as follows: section one gives introduction. Section two presents a framework of possible actions...

Good Policies and Practices on Rural Transport in Africa : Planning Infrastructure and Services

Hine, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.35%
This publication forms part of the work of the Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP) on identifying and promoting good policies and practices in rural transport in Africa. It provides an overall framework for identifying, planning, and prioritizing rural transport infrastructure and services interventions. Inadequate rural transport is a major factor contributing to the poverty of the rural population of most developing countries. For large parts of rural Africa, walking and headloading are by far the most important means of transport, most of this effort being undertaken by women. A key element is to encourage a holistic understanding of rural transport. In the context of this paper, the term covers both transport at the village and farm levels, as well as the transport services and infrastructure involved with the movement of people and goods within the village area and between villages, rural markets, and urban areas. First and foremost, though, the role of planning and prioritization is emphasized; a process based on reliable data is introduced...

Good Policies and Practices on Rural Transport in Africa : Monitoring and Evaluation

Airey, Anthony
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.34%
This publication is part of a series aimed at promoting good policies and practices on rural transport in Africa. A recent review of the status of Rural Transport Knowledge Products and Practice (Riverson, 2012) identified a number of knowledge gaps and recommended the production of working papers to address these. One of these gaps was the absence of robust tools, including relevant indicators and instruments, to measure the impact of rural transport projects on rural growth and poverty reduction. This paper addresses this gap. The focus on impact monitoring appears relatively straightforward but in reality requires a distinction between effects and impact, terms used interchangeably in the literature. Similarly, there is a range of technical terms and definitions applied to Monitoring and Evaluation, presented in annex four. A monitoring and evaluation system is an essential element of planning, design and implementation of a rural transport project1 as it serves to assess whether it has achieved its objective and its development goal. Thus...

Turkey - Transport Sector Expenditure Review : Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.34%
Turkey is an upper-middle income country with a population of 73 million. It has a diversified economy with a strategic geographical position, located on the southeastern side of Europe and southwestern side of Asia. Continued economic growth, combined with increases in the urban population, will place increasing demands on Turkey's transport infrastructure. High middle income countries such as Turkey typically see very rapid increases in demand for transport services for several decades. Consequently public expenditures on transport sector have increased substantially in Turkey in recent years. Public expenditures on transport have almost doubled from 1.06 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2004 to 1.92 percent in 2010, and the transport sector accounted for the bulk of the increase in total public investments over this period. Turkey's transport sector has been growing both in terms of its size and the quality of the network, and currently compares well with similar middle income countries. However...

Preparing a National Transport Strategy : Suggestions for Government Agencies in Developing Countries

Lee, John; Hine, John L.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.34%
The purpose of this report is to assist policy makers and planners in developing countries in the preparation of a National Transport Strategy (NTS). The report highlights lessons that can be learned from NTSs developed by different countries around the world. It draws upon transport strategy and policy documents from 23 countries and from a range of World Bank source material. The aim is not to provide a ready-made strategy document but to identify relevant questions and choices that need to be considered in preparing an NTS. At each stage of the development of the NTS, a checklist of considerations is given, and, where appropriate, examples of good and bad practice are identified. Within the report particular attention is paid to separately identifying Objectives, Policy Principles and Strategies. Objectives express society's goals, which should reflect the general socio-economic goals of the country-goals that are shared with other (non-transport) sectors. Policy Principles represent the principles that should govern the pursuit of those goals. They are the guiding philosophy for decisions within the sector. Strategies represent the ways in which goals are to be achieved in line with the policy principles. A wide range of policies relating to the sector as a whole and to different modes of transport are considered in the report...

Engaging communities for sustainable behaviour change in Limerick City

Cullinane, Kay; Cosgrove, Tom
Fonte: Irish Transport Research Network Publicador: Irish Transport Research Network
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
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peer-reviewed; As 'Ireland's Smarter Travel Demonstration City' Limerick is charged with piloting ways to convince its citizens to move around their city in a more sustainable way, in particular to walk, cycle and use public transport more. The project is funded by the Department of Transport with EU support and implemented by a multi-disciplinary team of University of Limerick (UL) researchers and Limerick Local Authority staff. Behaviour change programs tend to focus on a few behavioural change theories which gained ground in the 1980s. Many theories explain the behaviour change process in terms of several cyclical stages. Limerick Smarter Travel (LST) is adopting the ‘Seven Doors Social Marketing Approach,’ which defines each stage in terms of the type of obstacle to be overcome. This model for behaviour change assigns different types of intervention according to the stage of readiness of the individual or community. The LST team works with the community in the design of infrastructure principally walking and cycling routes. This facilitates a new type of participatory planning to meet the felt needs of the community. This generates goodwill and trust that further benefits the project. LST collaborates with the National Transport Authority (NTA) and works closely with An Taisce and with relevant disciplines within UL. LST is working with the Graduate Entry Medical School (GEMS) to link health and wellbeing initiatives with the project. LST has recruited 30 local champions to take on a ‘20 Weeks of Change’ challenge to incorporate Smarter Travel into their daily routine and to measure the impact on their health and well-being. This element of the LST project offers huge potential to link with national health and education policy and broaden the vision for Smarter Travel. This paper describes the development and implementation of community engagement...

Demonstrating localised workplace travel planning in Limerick City

Cullinane, Kay; Cosgrove, Tom
Fonte: Irish Transport Research Network Publicador: Irish Transport Research Network
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
peer-reviewed; As 'Ireland's Smarter Travel Demonstration City' Limerick is charged with piloting ways to convince its citizens to move around their city in a more sustainable way, in particular to walk, cycle and use public transport more. The Limerick Smarter Travel (LST) project is funded by the Department of Transport with EU support and implemented by a multidisciplinary team of University of Limerick (UL) researchers and Limerick Local Authority staff [Cullinane and Cosgrove 2013]. Travel is an integral part of everyday life, which allows people to meet their needs by providing access to work, services and social gatherings. Commuting to work by car makes up a large proportion of all car traffic, particularly during the morning and evening peak periods in Limerick City. Consequently, workplace travel planning forms an integral part of the LST project. Workplace travel plans are behaviour change packages that are a tried and tested means of achieving mode shift away from the single-occupancy car. In the early 1990s, the idea of workplace travel planning began to gain ground in Britain, based on successful experience in the Netherlands and the US. Research shows that workplace travel plans can reduce car use by between 10-24% [Cairns et al 2004]. However...

Separació de compostos aniònics i neutres amb membranes de transport facilitat millores en la selectivitat /

Calzado Cuevas, Joan Antoni
Fonte: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2001 CAT; CAT
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36.35%
Consultable des del TDX; Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada; Les membranes han estat àmpliament emprades en molts processos, p.e. les membranes sintètiques d'ultrafiltració, macrofiltració o les de diàlisi. Al mateix temps, les membranes líquides (LM) han rebut un gran desenvolupament per crear-ne noves, de més selectives i estables per millorar el seu funcionament en els processos de separació en que intervenen reaccions químiques específiques. En aquest sentit, n'hi moltes aplicacions per a la separació de metalls i alguna per a espècies no metàl·liques. L'ús de ML comporta majors fluxos que a les membranes sòlides de filtració i la inclusió de transportadors també produeix una millor selectivitat. La interacció entre el transportador i el substrat indueix un transport facilitat amb el transportador que ha de ser ràpid i reversible per a aconseguir un transport adequat. La selectivitat prové de l'adequat enllaç o interacció entre el transportador i l'analit, així com d'una velocitat de reacció adient. De tot plegat podem deduir la possibilitat de dissenyar ML a mida, tot desenvolupant nous transportadors o identificant les molècules apropiades que compleixen aquests requisits. El present treball ha estat dirigit a la separació d'anions inorgànics i molècules neutres...