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Transmissão psíquica transgeracional e construção de subjetividade: relato de uma psicoterapia psicanalítica vincular; Transgenerational psychic transmission and construction of subjectivity: report of a psychoanalytic linkage psychotherapy; Transmission psychique transgénérationnelle et construction de la subjectivité: récit d’une psychothérapie psychanalitique du lien; Transmisión psíquica transgeneracional y construcción de la subjetividad: relato de una psicoterapia psicanalítica vincular

GOMES, Isabel Cristina; ZANETTI, Sandra Aparecida S.
Fonte: Instituto de Psicologia da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Instituto de Psicologia da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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O presente artigo tem como objetivo refletir acerca do conceito de transmissão psíquica entre gerações, especificamente de uma modalidade - a transmissão psíquica transgeracional - e sua influência na construção das subjetividades individuais e dos vínculos familiares, enfatizando-se aqui o vínculo mãe-filha como gerador de sintomas na criança e conflitos no âmbito familiar, através de um relato clínico de uma psicoterapia psicanalítica vincular, segundo os referenciais de Eiguer (2006) e Berenstein e Puget (1997, 2005). A apresentação do caso clínico permite discutir, ainda, a relação entre a transmissão psíquica transgeracional e o estabelecimento da “maternagem”, bem como os resultados obtidos ao longo de todo o processo psicoterápico. A finalidade desse espaço terapêutico familiar é a de propiciar transformações frente ao legado geracional, promovendo o surgimento de uma subjetividade nova, impulsionadora de vida.; This article has as an objective to reflect concerning the concept of psychic transmission among generations, specifically of one modality - the transgenerational psychic transmission - and its influence on the creation of the individual subjectivities and of the family links, being emphasized mainly the link of mother-daughter as generator of symptoms in the child and familiar conflicts...

Transmissão de energia elétrica em meia-onda e em corrente contínua - análise técnico-econômica.; Half wave-length power transmission and HVDC power transmission - a technical and eponomical analysis.

Santos, Milana Lima dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/03/2012 PT
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Ao buscar alternativas para interligação entre importantes centros de geração de energia elétrica localizados no Norte do Brasil e centros consumidores no Nordeste e Sudeste, o setor elétrico brasileiro se depara com o desafio de transpor distâncias superiores a 2000 km. A alternativa em corrente contínua já é bastante utilizada, com desempenho satisfatório. Já a transmissão em meia-onda, ainda não utilizada comercialmente em país algum do mundo, é uma alternativa sugerida por alguns artigos como adequada a esse propósito. Este trabalho se propõe a apresentar uma metodologia de comparação econômica entre alternativas de transmissão e aplicá-la à comparação entre a meia-onda e a corrente contínua, utilizando um cenário muito próximo ao brasileiro. Para possibilitar esta comparação, são apresentados detalhes do funcionamento da linha de meia-onda, já que pouco foi publicado sobre o assunto. São mencionados alguns aspectos adversos de seu comportamento transitório e também são descritas etapas de definição de alternativas de transmissão a serem avaliadas.; In order to connect important power generation plants located in Northern region to the major load centers in the Northeast and Southeast parts of the country...

Análise do programa de prevenção da transmissão vertical do vírus HIV na ONG Associação Céu e Terras, Guiné - Bissau, 2007-2011; Analysis of the Program for Prevention of Vertical Transmission of HIV virus in the NGO Associação Céu e Terras, Guinea - Bissau, 2007 - 2011

Sane, Suado
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/02/2014 PT
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Introdução: Com o surgimento da epidemia da AIDS na década de 80, vários têm sido os desafios enfrentados pela sociedade, devido à rápida disseminação, em escala global. A epidemia acomete cerca de 34 milhões nos diversos continentes, e segundo a UNAIDS (2012), a maior parcela está em países em desenvolvimento. O continente africano, com mais de 800 milhões de habitantes, em 54 países, é o que mais tem sofrido os impactos da doença, apresentando a maior parcela de infectados pelo vírus HIV no mundo, com cerca de 23,5 milhões de infectados registrados. Assim como globalmente, a preocupação que tem suscitado debates é a crescente feminização dessa epidemia em Guiné-Bissau, aumentando as taxas de transmissão vertical do vírus HIV, que, segundo as últimas projeções do país (PEN III, 2012), o risco estimado foi de 8,9 por cento. O advento do antirretroviral (Zidovudina), em 1994, a partir da publicação do protocolo 076 da ACTG veio mudar o cenário da transmissão vertical. Em Guiné-Bissau, a chegada dos antirretrovirais, em 2006, constituiu uma nova fase na luta contra a disseminação do vírus, em particular, no âmbito da transmissão vertical, proporcionando melhor qualidade de vida e chances de uma criança nascer sem AIDS. A ONG Céu e Terras atua no país desde 2001...

Development of a simplified transmission line model directly in the phase domain

Silva, R. C.; Kurokawa, S.; Costa, E. C M; Pissolato, J.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
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A transmission line digital model is developed direct in the phase and time domains. The successive modal transformations considered in the three-phase representation are simplified and then the proposed model can be easily applied to several operation condition based only on the previous knowing of the line parameters, without a thorough theoretical knowledge of modal analysis. The proposed model is also developed based on lumped elements, providing a complete current and voltage profile at any point of the transmission system. This model makes possible the modeling of non-linear power devices and electromagnetic phenomena along the transmission line using simple electric circuit components, representing a great advantage when compared to several models based on distributed parameters and inverse transforms. In addition, an efficient integration method is proposed to solve the system of differential equations resulted from the line modeling by lumped elements, thereby making possible simulations of transient and steady state using a wide and constant integration step. © 2012 IEEE.

VERTICAL TRANSMISSION OF HTLV-I/II: A review

BITTENCOURT,Achiléa Lisboa
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/1998 EN
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The vertical transmission of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) occurs predominantly through breast-feeding. Since some bottle-fed children born to carrier mothers still remain seropositive with a frequency that varies from 3.3% to 12.8%, an alternative pathway of vertical transmission must be considered. The prevalence rate of vertical transmission observed in Japan varied from 15% to 25% in different surveys. In Brazil there is no evaluation of this form of transmission until now. However, it is known that in Salvador, Bahia, 0.7% to 0.88% of pregnant women of low socio-economic class are HTLV-I carriers. Furthermore the occurrence of many cases of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and of four cases of infective dermatitis in Salvador, diseases directly linked to the vertical transmission of HTLV-I, indicates the importance of this route of infection among us. Through prenatal screening for HTLV-I and the refraining from breast-feeding a reduction of ~ 80% of vertical transmission has been observed in Japan. We suggest that in Brazil serologic screening for HTLV-I infection must be done for selected groups in the prenatal care: pregnant women from endemic areas, Japanese immigrants or Japanese descendents, intravenous drug users (IDU) or women whose partners are IDU...

Vertical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 - HIV-1 -transmission - a review

Bongertz,Vera
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 EN
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Several factors appear to affect vertical HIV-1 transmission, dependent mainly on characteristics of the mother (extent of immunodeficiency, co-infections, risk behaviour, nutritional status, immune response, genetical make-up), but also of the virus (phenotype, tropism) and, possibly, of the child (genetical make-up). This complex situation is compounded by the fact that the virus may have the whole gestation period, apart from variable periods between membrane rupture and birth and the breast-feeding period, to pass from the mother to the infant. It seems probable that an extensive interplay of all factors occurs, and that some factors may be more important during specific periods and other factors in other periods. Factors predominant in protection against in utero transmission may be less important for peri-natal transmission, and probably quite different from those that predominantly affect transmission by mothers milk. For instance, cytotoxic T lymphocytes will probably be unable to exert any effect during breast-feeding, while neutralizing antibodies will be unable to protect transmission by HIV transmitted through infected cells. Furthermore, some responses may be capable of controlling transmission of determined virus types...

Cascade of access to interventions to prevent HIV mother to child transmission in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Araujo,Elaine S. Pires; Friedman,Ruth Khalili; Camacho,Luis Antonio Bastos; Derrico,Monica; Moreira,Ronaldo Ismério; Calvet,Guilherme Amaral; Oliveira,Marília Santini de; Veloso,Valdilea Gonçalves; Pilotto,José Henrique; Grinsztejn,Beatriz
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
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OBJECTIVES: To describe the access to the interventions for the prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) mother to child transmission and mother to child transmission rates in the outskirts of Rio de Janeiro, from 1999 to 2009. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study. Prevention of HIV mother to child transmission interventions were accessed and mother to child transmission rates were calculated. RESULTS: The study population is young (median: 26 years; interquartile range: 22.0-31.0), with low monthly family income (40.4% up to one Brazilian minimum wage) and schooling (62.1% less than 8 years). Only 47.1% (n = 469) knew the HIV status of their partner; of these women, 39.9% had an HIV-seronegative partner. Among the 1259 newborns evaluated, access to the antenatal, intrapartum and postpartum prevention of HIV mother to child transmission components occurred in 59.2%, 74.2%, and 97.5% respectively; 91.0% of the newborns were not breastfed. Overall 52.7% of the newborns have benefited from all the recommended interventions. In subsequent pregnancies (n = 289), 67.8% of the newborns received the full package of interventions. The overall rate of HIV vertical transmission was 4.7% and the highest annual rate occurred in 2005 (7.4%)...

Do Transmission Mechanisms or Social Systems Drive Cultural Dynamics in Socially Structured Populations?

Nunn, Charles Lindsay; Thrall, Peter H.; Bartz, Kevin; Dasgupta, Tirthankar; Boesch, Christophe
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Cultural traits spread via multiple mechanisms among individuals within social groups, including via transmission biases that occur when subordinates copy from dominants (prestige transmission), or via common cultural trait variants that are favoured over rare ones (consensus transmission). Most animal populations are subdivided into social groups where cultural learning occurs, yet theoretical studies of cultural trait transmission have tended to focus on within-group transmission dynamics. We developed an agent-based model of cultural transmission in socially structured populations in which a trait arises in one individual and either persists until a stable population equilibrium is reached, or goes extinct. With this model, we systematically varied group size, rates of dispersal among groups, mortality rates, transmission characteristics, the benefit of the cultural trait (including possibly negative benefits), and whether individuals disperse locally or randomly. We used generalized linear models to examine how changes in these parameters influence trait extinction, equilibrium prevalence and time to equilibrium. Four traits increased the probability of extinction: smaller group size, higher background mortality, lower transmission rate and more costly traits (although costly traits sometimes reached an equilibrium). Local dispersal and biased transmission mechanisms (prestige and consensus) had no significant effects on extinction probability...

Transmissão e volatilidade de preços das commodities agrícolas; Price transmission and volatility for agricultural commodities: soybean and corn

Moratoya, Elsie Estela
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Agronegocio (EAEA); Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos - EAEA (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Agronegocio (EAEA); Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos - EAEA (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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This study presents an empirical analysis of price and volatility transmission for soybean and corn prices, between an international market, represented by the Chicago Board of Trade, and four domestic markets in Brazil: State of Goiás, Mato Grosso, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. Daily soybean and corn prices were collected for the period January, 2008 to June 2013 from the Centre for Advanced Studies in Applied Economics and the Institute of Agricultural Economics in Brazil. Henceforth, returns for the nominal price series were calculated and logaritmized for a preliminary to assess the behavior of the series, in which all were found to be integrated of order (1). Furthermore, the international market and domestic markets were found to be highly correlated. Co-movement and price transmission speed for both crops in all domestic markets and international market were measured using the Johansen cointegration test and the error correction model. Empirical results for the soybean prices presented the state of Rio Grande do Sul as the market that more rapidly adjusts to international market prices, at a rate of speed of 55%. Soybean prices in the state of Goiás corrected at a rate of 40%, Mato Grosso at a rate of 46%, and Paraná at a rate of speed of 55%. In terms of corn prices...

La transmission religieuse et culturelle au sein de familles maghrébo-québécoises à Montréal

Cassan, Christelle
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Cette recherche porte sur la transmission religio-culturelle aux enfants de couples maghrébo-québécois islamo-chrétiens à Montréal. À la suite de l’analyse de 10 entrevues semi-directives réalisées auprès de couples parentaux, nous tenterons de répondre aux questions suivantes : Quelle appartenance religieuse les parents veulent-ils transmettre à leur(s) enfant(s) ? Comment se manifestent leurs choix dans leur pratique religieuse ? Quels compromis les parents font-ils pour l’équilibre familial et identitaire de leur(s) enfant(s) ? Comment légitiment-ils leurs choix parentaux ? Afin de répondre à ces questions, nous nous sommes donné les objectifs spécifiques suivants : 1) documenter les choix des parents concernant la transmission religio-culturelle aux enfants; 2) cerner les façons dont les pratiques et les croyances religieuses des parents influencent leurs choix; 3) expliquer en quoi ces choix se manifestent dans leurs pratiques rituelles avec les enfants; 4) dégager les légitimations que les parents font vis-à-vis de leur choix de transmission. Les résultats de notre recherche ne nous ont pas permis de trouver une logique de transmission qui s’applique à tous nos parents. Cependant, nous retenons que les enfants de notre échantillon sont identifiés par leurs parents soit comme musulmans (5 familles sur 10) soit sans religion (5 familles sur 10). Aucun couple n’a choisi...

Implication de DC-SIGN et DC-SIGNR dans la transmission mère-enfant du VIH-1

Boily-Larouche, Geneviève
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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La transmission mère-enfant du VIH-1 (TME) représente le principal mode d’infection chez l’enfant et se produit durant la grossesse (in utero, IU), l’accouchement (intrapartum, IP) ou l’allaitement (postpartum, PP). Les mécanismes qui sous-tendent le passage du VIH-1 à travers le placenta et les muqueuses intestinales du nouveau-né sont encore très peu décrits. « Dendritic cell-specific ICAM-grabbing non-integrin » (DC-SIGN) et son homologue DC-SIGN « related » (DC-SIGNR) sont des récepteurs d’antigènes exprimés au niveau du placenta et capables de capter et de transmettre le VIH-1 aux cellules adjacentes. Ils pourraient donc participer au passage trans placentaire du VIH-1 et le polymorphisme génétique affectant l’expression ou modifiant l’interaction avec le virus aurait une influence sur la TME du VIH-1. Afin d’explorer cette hypothèse, nous avons procédé à une analyse exhaustive du polymorphisme de DC-SIGN et DC-SIGNR dans la population du Zimbabwe. Par la suite, nous avons déterminé l’association entre le polymorphisme de DC-SIGN et DC-SIGNR et la TME du VIH-1 dans une cohorte d’enfants nés de mères VIH-positives à Harare, au Zimbabwe. Enfin, nous avons défini l’impact fonctionnel des mutations associées. Les enfants homozygotes pour les haplotypes H1 et H3 dans le gène de DC-SIGNR sont 4 à 6 fois plus à risque de contracter le VIH-1 par voie IU et IP. H1 et H3 contiennent la mutation du promoteur p-198A et la mutation de l’intron 2...

Long-run Cost Functions for Electricity Transmission

ROSELLÓN, Juan; VOGELSANG, Ingo; WEIGT, Hannes
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Electricity transmission has become the pivotal industry segment for electricity restructuring. Yet, little is known about the shape of transmission cost functions. Reasons for this can be a lack of consensus about the definition of transmission output and the complexitity of the relationship between optimal grid expansion and output expansion. Knowledge of transmission cost functions could help firms (Transcos) and regulators plan transmission expansion and could help design regulatory incentive mechanisms. We explore transmission cost functions when the transmission output is defined as point-to-point transactions or financial transmission right (FTR) obligations and particularly explore expansion under loop-flows. We test the behavior of FTR-based cost functions for distinct network topologies and find evidence that cost functions defined as FTR outputs are piece-wise differentiable and that they contain sections with negative marginal costs. Simulations, however, illustrate that such unusual properties do not stand in the way of applying price-cap incentive mechanisms to real-world transmission expansion.

Private Sector Participation in Electricity Transmission and Distribution; Experiences from Brazil, Peru, the Philippines, and Turkey

ESMAP
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
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In recent decades, many countries have embarked on structural reform programs involving private sector participation (PSP) across the entire value chain of the power sector. Often as part of a broader market oriented reform program, governments have resorted to PSP in transmission and distribution (T and D) for a variety of reasons, including to: (i) offset years of underinvestment and poor operating performance under public ownership; (ii) attract considerable private investment to fill the financing gap stemming from new T and D additions amid rapidly growing demand for electricity; and (iii) raise fiscal revenues by offloading state assets. In some cases (for example, Brazil and Peru), a prolonged electricity supply crisis prompted government into structural reforms of the T and D sector. The energy sector management assistance program (ESMAP) study covers PSP in transmission, as well as distribution. The four case-study countries, Brazil, Peru, Philippines, and Turkey were selected based on the substantial transmission story under their broader electricity PSP experience.

Évolution et transmission des savoir-faire céramiques au cours du Sylvicole (-1000 à 1550 de notre ère) : la station 3-avant de Pointe-du-Buisson (BhFl-1d), Haut-Saint-Laurent, Québec.

Méhault, Ronan
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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La station 3-avant de Pointe-du-Buisson (Beauharnois, Haut-Saint-Laurent, Québec) représente la plus importante collection de récipients de terre cuite datant du Sylvicole moyen ancien (-400 à 500 de notre ère) dans le Nord-Est américain. De plus, on trouve sur ce site une série continue d’occupations couvrant l’ensemble de la période Sylvicole. En dépit de complications d’ordre stratigraphique (terreau homogène et pédoturbations), des concepts et des méthodes évolutionnaires tirés de la théorie de l’hérédité duelle sont appliqués à l’étude de cet assemblage. D’un point de vue anthropologique, que nous apprend l’étude de l’évolution et de la transmission des savoir-faire d’une technologie que nous assumons exclusivement féminine au cours de la période Sylvicole? L’auteur défend que l’archéologie évolutionnaire permet de détecter le contexte de la transmission, c’est-à-dire l’organisation socioéconomique des populations du passé. L’examen des traits stylistiques suggère que la sédentarisation estivale des bandes amérindiennes à partir du Sylvicole moyen tardif favorise une homogénéisation des productions céramiques dans un contexte virilocal qui est la conséquence d’une transmission de type conformiste opérant sur un axe horizontal (entre pairs). Cependant...

Transmission de Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis dans les troupeaux de bovins laitiers et dépistage de l’infection par la culture de l’environnement au Québec

Doré, Elizabeth
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cause la maladie de Johne, une maladie chronique et incurable affectant les ruminants partout dans le monde. Plusieurs pays ont mis en place des programmes de contrôle afin de prévenir la transmission entre et au sein des troupeaux. Afin d’arriver à prévenir et contrôler cette maladie, une bonne compréhension des facteurs de risque impliqués dans la transmission est essentielle. Des tests diagnostiques performants et à coût abordable sont aussi nécessaires afin de détecter la présence du MAP et/ou les animaux infectés. L’objectif de la première étude était de réviser systématiquement la littérature scientifique concernant les facteurs de risque associés à la transmission du MAP aux génisses laitières. La présence d’une association significative entre les facteurs de risque concernant l’environnement néonatal, le colostrum, le lait, le logement des veaux et le contact des veaux avec le fumier de vaches adultes et la transmission du MAP a été compilée de 23 articles. Le contact des veaux avec le fumier de vaches adultes est le facteur de risque le plus important dans la transmission du MAP. L’objectif de la seconde étude était d’évaluer la relation entre le nombre d’échantillons de l’environnement positifs pour le MAP et la prévalence individuelle d’excrétion fécale dans les troupeaux laitiers entravés du Québec. Le nombre de cultures positives d’échantillons de l’environnement s’est avéré associé à la prévalence individuelle d’excrétion fécale du MAP. Une association significative a été trouvée entre la présence d’une forte charge bactérienne dans un échantillon de fumier individuel et la détection du MAP dans l’environnement.; Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease...

Transmission Expansion for Renewable Energy Scale-Up : Emerging Lessons and Recommendations

Madrigal, Marcelino; Stoft, Steven
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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Scaling up renewable energy, such as wind and solar, goes hand-in-hand with the expansion of transmission infrastructure. The richest solar and wind renewable energy sites are often located far away from consumption centers or existing transmission networks. Unlike fossil fuel-based power sources, renewable energy sources are greatly site-constrained and, for this reason, transmission networks need to be expanded to reach the renewable energy sites. Delivering transmission is a challenge, given the dispersion and granularity of renewable sources. Tapping a few hundred megawatts of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, will likely require delivering transmission to several sites. Furthermore, transmission is also required to smooth out the variability of new renewable sources in a large geographical area. For these reasons, countries' renewable energy scale-up efforts are being challenged by the need for timely and efficient delivery of transmission networks. The objective of this report is to present emerging lessons and recommendations on approaches to efficiently and effectively expand transmission networks for renewable energy scale-up. The report focuses on the planning and regulatory aspects of transmission expansion that are relevant to transmission utilities and electricity regulators.

Sero-epidemiological evaluation of changes in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission patterns over the rainy season in Cambodia

Cook, Jackie; Speybroeck, Nico; Sochanta, Tho; Somony, Heng; Sokny, Mao; Claes, Filip; Lemmens, Kristel; Theisen, Michael; Soares, Irene S; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc; Erhart, Annette
Fonte: BIOMED CENTRAL LTD; LONDON Publicador: BIOMED CENTRAL LTD; LONDON
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background: In Cambodia, malaria transmission is low and most cases occur in forested areas. Seroepidemiological techniques can be used to identify both areas of ongoing transmission and high-risk groups to be targeted by control interventions. This study utilizes repeated cross-sectional data to assess the risk of being malaria sero-positive at two consecutive time points during the rainy season and investigates who is most likely to sero-convert over the transmission season. Methods: In 2005, two cross-sectional surveys, one in the middle and the other at the end of the malaria transmission season, were carried out in two ecologically distinct regions in Cambodia. Parasitological and serological data were collected in four districts. Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum Glutamate Rich Protein (GLURP) and Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-119 (MSP-119) were detected using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The force of infection was estimated using a simple catalytic model fitted using maximum likelihood methods. Risks for sero-converting during the rainy season were analysed using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) method. Results: A total of 804 individuals participating in both surveys were analysed. The overall parasite prevalence was low (4.6% and 2.0% for P. falciparum and 7.9% and 6.0% for P. vivax in August and November respectively). P. falciparum force of infection was higher in the eastern region and increased between August and November...

A constant force bicycle transmission

Chase, Thomas
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
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A prototype design for a human powered automatic transmission intended for use on an ordinary touring bicycle is presented. The transmission is intended to automatically adjust the gearing of the bicycle to maintain an optimum pedal force, regardless of the current riding conditions. Therefore, the transmission eliminates the need for the cyclist to manually adjust the bicycle gearing. The entire transmission is a self-contained unit designed to bolt onto the rear wheel of an otherwise unmodified 27-inch bicycle. The transmission combines a unique adaptation of a commercially popular continuously variable traction drive with a totally mechanical integral feedback controller. The features of the traction drive unique to its application to a bicycle are outlined in detail, along with an analysis of the important traction drive design parameters. The control system is also uniquely adapted to the requirements of bicycling. A detailed classical analysis of the controller is presented to verify its desirable performance characteristics. In addition, a numerical simulation of the transmission is included to accurately predict its performance under typical operating conditions. A knowledge of typical pedal force profiles for normal touring cycling is prerequisite for the design of the constant force bicycle transmission. This data has not been previously published. An instrumentation package was developed especially to determine this data. A description of the system and a summary of the results are presented. These results are reduced to a set of design criteria for the constant force transmission.

Vehicle simulations of fuel economy for an automatic transmission and a ratio limited continuously variable transmission

Suthar, Hemant
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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An automatic transmission (AT) of a vehicle was compared with a ratio limited Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). Dynamic model of a passenger car was simulated to compare the overall efficiency of the vehicle equipped with these different types of transmissions. The overall efficiencies were calculated in terms of fuel consumption of the vehicle. The results are based on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) city and highway driving cycles. A Modular approach is taken to model an existing vehicle. The complete model is subdivided into an engine model, road load model, throttle and brake pedal models, and a transmission model. The model is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink software. The automatic transmission model was then replaced by a CVT model and simulated under similar conditions to compare the overall gain in the fuel economy. The simulation results for the automatic transmission closely match with the data obtained from the EPA. The results for the ratio limited CVT indicate improvement in the fuel economy of the vehicle under both the urban and highway driving cycles.

Comparison of anti-retroviral therapy treatment strategies in prevention of mother-to-child transmission in a teaching hospital in Ethiopia

Kumela,Kabaye; Amenu,Demisew; Chelkeba,Legese
Fonte: Pharmacy Practice (Granada) Publicador: Pharmacy Practice (Granada)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2015 ENG
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Background: More than 90% of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children is acquired due to mother-to-child transmission, which is spreading during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral and short course antiretroviral regimens in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and associated factors Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). Method: A hospital based retrospective cohort study was conducted on HIV infected pregnant mothers who gave birth and had follow up at anti-retroviral therapy (ART) clinic for at least 6 months during a time period paired with their infants. The primary and secondary outcomes were rate of infant infection by HIV at 6 weeks and 6 months respectively. The Chi-square was used for the comparison of categorical data multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the determinants of early mother-to-child transmission of HIV at 6 weeks. Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze factors that affect the 6 month HIV free survival of infants born to HIV infected mothers. Results: A total of 180 mother infant pairs were considered for the final analysis, 90(50%) mothers received single dose nevirapine (sdNVP) designated as regimen-3...