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The Challenge of Ensuring Adequate Stocks of Essential Drugs in Rural Health Clinics

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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26.07%
Health experts and policymakers want people to have access to affordable and high-quality medical care. But in some developing countries, making quality healthcare available may first necessitate ensuring that essential medicines are available, such as anti-malaria pills and antibiotics. The challenge of guaranteeing a steady supply is not only related to the financial side of paying for medicines. Zambia, the World Bank supported a project exploring how to guarantee the availability of essential medicines in often-remote health facilities. Based on the results, clinics in districts that were part of the pilot study are now able to order drugs directly from a central pharmacy. Donors and the Government of Zambia are working together to expand the program to the rest of the country. A pilot program, consisting of two different models for distribution, was initiated to test the best way to overcome the bottleneck at the district level. In Model A, a commodity planner was put in place at the district level. In Model B...

Steaming on Convex Hulls

Kline, Jeffrey E.; Brown, Gerald G.; Rosenthal, Richard E.; Washburn, Alan R.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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16.56%
Energy Academic Group Policy and Analysis Project; Objective/Approach: Demonstrate the value of leveraging fuel use curves by intelligently planning for long transits to minimize fuel. Most fuel curves have a region where going faster then slower than the average speed required to make a transit saves fuel. Modify current transit planner for LCS ships to test value and applicability of planner.

Alternative practices to improve surface fleet fuel efficiency

Crawford, Dustin K.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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76.82%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; We explore the United StatesNavy's surface fleet policies and practices that, if changed, could provide significant fuel savings for fossil fuel ships. Recent and potential future budget cuts give fuel conservation and efficiency extreme importance. The policies and practices explored incur no overhead cost, and to reap the benefits of these changes, we simply need to prudently change in the way we operate. Conducting drift operations 10% of the nights while underway can save the Navy $14.1 million per year, and conducting single-generator operations 25% of the time underway can save $27.4 million per year. Removing the moving window requirement during a transit can reduce fuel consumption by as much as 21%. Utilizing the Transit Fuel Planner shows fuel savings as high as 19% during transits. Lowering the minimum fuel safety levels in 5th and 7th Fleets from 60% to 50% reduces fuel consumption for Military Sealift Command ships by $18.5 million per year. Changing or removing outdated policies and practices utilized by the surface fleet can save significant amounts of fuel, and therefore dollars, and can be done with the stroke of a pen.; Lieutenant, United States Navy

Converting Land into Affordable Housing Floor Space

Bertaud, Alain
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.34%
Cities emerge from the spatial concentration of people and economic activities. But spatial concentration is not enough; the economic viability of cities depends on people, ideas, and goods to move rapidly across the urban area. This constant movement within dense cities creates wealth but also various degrees of unpleasantness and misery that economists call negative externalities, such as congestion, pollution, and environmental degradation. In addition, the poorest inhabitants of many cities are often unable to afford a minimum-size dwelling with safe water and sanitation, as if the wealth created by cities was part of a zero-sum game where the poor will be at the losing end. The main challenge for urban planners and economists is reducing cities' negative externalities without destroying the wealth created by spatial concentration. To do that, they must plan and design infrastructure and regulations while leaving intact the self-organizing created by land and labor markets. The balance between letting markets work and correcting market externalities through infrastructure investment and regulation is difficult to achieve. Too often...

Converting Land into Affordable Housing Floor Space

Bertaud, Alain
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.34%
Cities emerge from the spatial concentration of people and economic activities. But spatial concentration is not enough; the economic viability of cities depends on people, ideas, and goods to move rapidly across the urban area. This constant movement within dense cities creates wealth but also various degrees of unpleasantness and misery that economists call negative externalities, such as congestion, pollution, and environmental degradation. In addition, the poorest inhabitants of many cities are often unable to afford a minimum-size dwelling with safe water and sanitation, as if the wealth created by cities was part of a zero-sum game where the poor will be at the losing end. The main challenge for urban planners and economists is reducing cities' negative externalities without destroying the wealth created by spatial concentration. To do that, they must plan and design infrastructure and regulations while leaving intact the self-organizing created by land and labor markets. The balance between letting markets work and correcting market externalities through infrastructure investment and regulation is difficult to achieve. Too often...