Página 1 dos resultados de 198 itens digitais encontrados em 0.003 segundos

Payments for environmental services as a policy tool for conserving the portuguese montado ecosystem

Ribas, Thaís de Toledo
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.23%
Natural systems provide a multitude of goods and services that benefit human societies, known as environmental services (ES). Most of these ES are currently undervalued, or have no economic value at all, and ecosystem managers have no direct incentives to ensure their provision. The market failure in incorporating the value of natural systems is a major reason behind current ecosystem losses and unsustainable use of resources. The Montado ecosystem in Portugal is an agro-silvo-pastoral system of high conservation value because it sustains high biodiversity and provides important ES. Its ecological stability is depended on traditional management practices, which have become economically unviable due to recent changes in the context for Portuguese agriculture. Montados are current threatened by land use change, and innovative policy tools are needed to maintain the economic viability of these systems. “Payments for Ecosystem Services” (PES) is an incentive-based mechanism considered a new promising policy tool to address environmental problems. It relies on arrangements through which ES beneficiaries pay individuals or communities to undertake practices that increase levels of desired services. PES is a highly variable instrument whose success is determined by choices in policy design combined with implementation context. The aim of this project is to propose PES as a conservation tool for Montados. This project started with literature review of the Montado ecosystem and the instrument PES. Then...

Pagamento por serviços ambientais: limites e oportunidades para o desenvolvimento sustentável da agricultura familiar na Amazônia Brasileira; Payments for environmental services: limits and opportunities for sustainable development of family farming in the Brazilian Amazon.

Costa, Rosangela Calado da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/12/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
O pagamento por serviços ambientais é um instrumento econômico que tem sido utilizado para incentivar a adoção de usos da terra e/ou de recursos naturais que melhorem ou aumentem o fornecimento de serviços ambientais, tais como conservação da biodiversidade e seqüestro de carbono. Seu uso é recente e os efeitos que as mudanças de uso da terra podem trazer às rendas e ao desenvolvimento das populações-alvo ainda são poucos conhecidos. Nesta pesquisa, procurou-se avaliar, de forma prospectiva, o impacto que usos da terra capazes de fornecer maiores níveis de serviços ambientais podem ter sobre a geração de renda das unidades de produção e sobre a sustentabilidade econômica, social e ambiental da agricultura familiar, na Amazônia Brasileira. Também, foi avaliado se o nível de pagamento previsto pelo Programa Proambiente, uma política pública em implementação que pretende pagar aos agricultores por serviços ambientais fornecidos, pode facilitar a adoção desses usos da terra. Para isso, foram simulados cenários com uso da terra tradicional (sistema de "derrubae- queima"), utilizando-se dados coletados em pesquisa com agricultores familiares pertencentes ao Pólo de Desenvolvimento Rio Capim do Programa Proambiente...

Tradition and Change in Marriage Payments in Vietnam, 1963–2000

Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan; Knodel, John
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.35%
Trends and determinants of marriage payments have rarely been examined at the population level despite their plausible implications for the welfare of family and the distribution of wealth across families and generations. In this study, we analyze population-based data from the Vietnam Study of Family Change to document prevalence and directions of marriage payments in Vietnam from 1963 to 2000. We investigate the extent to which structural and policy transformations (particularly market reform and the socialist policy that banned brideprice) influenced the practice of marriage payments as well as estimate how societal changes indirectly impacted payments via their effects on population characteristics. Results indicate that marriage payments surged following market reform but also reveal more nuanced trends and regional differences during earlier years. While the socialist attempts to eradicate brideprice appear to have been moderately successful in the North prior to economic renovation the evidence suggests they were largely unsuccessful in the South. Results suggest that structural and policy change explained most of the observed variations in marriage payments and that changing characteristics of the individuals who married mattered relatively little. We interpret the reemergence of marriage payments as attesting to resilience of traditional values and the unraveling of the socialist agenda...

How non-traditional are non-traditional exports? The experience of seven countries of the Caribbean Basin

Gabriele, Alberto
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.18%
Includes bibliography; In the six Central American countries --Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, which make up the Central American Common Market, and Panama-- non-traditional exports increased in the 1970s, went down between 1980 and 1986 because of macroeconomic imbalances, armed conflicts and the crisis in the Central American Common Market, but grew once again in the second half of the 1980s and the early 1990s. Except in Nicaragua and Honduras, the share of such exports in total exports increased, reflecting the general trend towards modernization of the export structure and reduction of the vulnerability of the balance of payments to fluctuations in the prices of traditional exports. The qualitative improvement in the export structure has been only limited, however. On the one hand, the role of non-traditional exports of agricultural origin has been maintained and in many cases has increased, while on the other hand, none of the countries have markedly increased the share of industrial exports that make intensive use of human capital or technology. Among the factors which have most influenced the performance of non-traditional exports are investment, the real exchange rate and, in the case of Costa Rica...

Mobile Banking and Financial Inclusion : The Regulatory Lessons

Klein, Michael; Mayer, Colin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.33%
Mobile banking is growing at a remarkable speed around the world. In the process it is creating considerable uncertainty about the appropriate regulatory response to this newly emerging service. This paper sets out a framework for considering the design of regulation of mobile banking. Since it lies at the interface between financial services and telecoms, mobile banking also raises competition policy and interoperability issues that are discussed in the paper. Finally, by unbundling payments services into its component parts, mobile banking provides important lessons for the design of financial regulation more generally in developed as well as developing economies.

New Technologies, New Risks? Innovation and Countering the Financing of Terrorism

Zerzan, Andrew
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.2%
Recent developments in the way financial services are delivered have provided both opportunities for economic development and prompted fears of their attractiveness for crimes such as terrorist financing. This paper explores four innovations, value cards, mobile financial services, online banking and payments, and digital currencies, outlining how they work, analyzing their risks, and identifying some ways in which governments and providers are attempting to reduce their attractiveness to financiers of terrorism. Determining what the actual risks are is critical to ensuring that laws and regulations balance both the need to protect integrity in the market and to create an environment friendly to business and empowering to the poor. The paper concludes that these new methods of payment do not offer particular usefulness to terrorist financiers. However, some of these channels could be attractive for general criminal abuse because they have an ambiguous place in the legal regime. Providers therefore, may not know about or elect to properly mitigate risks. The industry is encouraged to work within itself to share information to prevent and detect criminal activity. Governments should consult with industry in deciding regulation and industry should notify government prior to rolling out a new service. This will make government oversight more effective. Lastly...

Worldwide Landscape of Postal Financial Services : Asia Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.33%
Postal networks in the nine countries in the Asian region profiled here have 289,067 post offices. In many of these Asian countries, post offices have provided payments and savings services for more than 130 years. At the end of 2002, 335 million Asians had postal savings accounts, for a total balance of USD 83 billion (about 20 percent of the adult population). In China and Vietnam, postal savings have only been recently established, but are growing quickly. In addition to payment services, it provides domestic money transfers, including collecting bill payments. In some countries, e.g. Thailand, the role of postal networks in the payments system is significant. In general, however, transaction volumes for savings and payments together appear low, suggesting that many of these accounts may be dormant and may play only a marginal role in the payment system. Vigorous reform is required to develop intrinsically strong and competent institutions. The issue is not limited to repositioning postal financial services in the financial sector (instead of the public postal sector)...

Options for Financing Lifelong Learning

Palacios, Miguel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.23%
How should lifelong learning be financed? The author attempts to answer the question by creating a framework for analyzing different education financing mechanisms in light of particular characteristics of lifelong learning. The framework compares the different financing alternatives on four dimensions: (1) who ultimately pays for the education, (2) who finances its immediate costs, (3) how payments are made, and (4) who collects the payments. The author uses specific characteristics of lifelong learning to determine which among the financing alternatives are most useful. The characteristics are that the individual should decide what and where to study, carry a significant part of the financial burden, and be encouraged to continue learning through all life stages. The author analyzes the financing alternatives according to who ultimately pays for the education. Hence, the alternatives are classified either as cost-recovery or cost-subsidization alternatives. Cost-recovery alternatives include traditional loans...

The Opportunities of Digitizing Payments

Klapper, Leora; Singer, Dorothe
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.28%
The G20 s focus on financial inclusion directly contributes to its core goal of achieving strong, sustainable, and balanced growth. Studies show that broader access to and participation in the financial system can reduce income inequality, boost job creation, accelerate consumption, increase investments in human capital, and directly help poor people manage risk and absorb financial shocks.

From Remittances to M-Payments

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
Retail payment systems play an important role in the smooth functioning of any economy, and thus any inefficiency in the retail payments market can send negative effects cascading throughout the financial realm. The World Bank Global Payment Systems Survey 2010 has shown that inefficiencies persist in the payment systems of many middle-income and low-income countries, with cash continuing to be the most widely used instrument for small-value payments. A number of issues are responsible for this pattern, and the lack of a coherent, holistic strategy for the development of retail payment systems is among the most common. The lessons learned during more than a decade of World Bank Group technical assistance, along with the research findings of other international and national agencies, have been merged into a comprehensive package for the development and reform of the national retail payments system: a) developing a comprehensive national retail payments strategy aims to provide public authorities and market participants with detailed guidance on how to develop and implement a comprehensive...

Investing in Habope; Financial Assessment of Community-Based Small Investments in Sierra Leone

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.2%
In countries ravaged by a history of civil war and genocide, the overarching goal for local government and international donors alike is to promote social cohesion, stability and community reconstruction. In Sierra Leone, reconstruction programs emphasize a decentralized approach to: (i) rapidly build market institutions; (ii) enhance community decision making; and (iii) strengthen intra and inter-community tolerance and benefit sharing. This study addresses a program to provide small grants to some of the poorest communities in Sierra Leone. The program builds on the success of relevant micro financing initiatives. However, compared to traditional loans to small enterprises, which are generally available in urban and peri-urban areas where micro financing institutions are accessible, socially motivated grants to reach the poorest households are used. This report presents the findings of financial assessments funded by the Public Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF) of the World Bank. The assessments cover two of the poorest districts in northern Sierra Leone under the Habope project. The project...

Electronic payments in DoD contracting

Smith, Daniel J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 238 p.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Electronic payment methods are rapidly changing the way in which invoices are paid, displacing the traditional paper check method Electronic payments can provide a secure, rapid, accurate, and cost effective means for issuing and receiving payment, if properly implemented. This study provides an assessment as to whether or not the expanded use of electronic payments for DoD contracts is improving the payment process. Three DoD contract paying activities which have implemented electronic payment systems are examined: DFAS-Columbus Center (MOCAS system), Aviation Supply Office, Philadelphia (IDA system), and DFAS-Cleveland STARS/SEPS system). An analysis of these systems, their objectives, and the difficulties associated with DoD payment/accounting processes is presented. A survey of defense contractors provides an assessment of electronic payment usage in private industry, as well as an evaluation of DoD's electronic payment capabilities from a customer perspective. Several suggestions which may help make DoD electronic payment capabilities more effective will be offered.; Lieutenant, United States Navy

Creating choice or social engineering? An exploration of government assistance to Australian families

Tai, Rebekha
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.53%
Australian Prime Minister John Howard has stated that his government's family policies increase parents' choices about they wish to balance work and caring. By looking at the current government family initiatives and their practical application one can examine whether these policies really do create more choices. The Coalition's family policies reward breadwinner families disproportionately and so supports parents who make this choice more than others. The Australian Government has historically assisted families with the costs of raising children. This has occurred primarily through welfare payments, which have been given to those families believed to need help the most. Today's government continues this tradition of aiding families through financial payments, spending $18.2 billion this financial year on the five dominant family assistance payments alone. All these payments, except the Baby Bonus, are means-tested to ensure these payments continue to target those parents deemed most in need. These payments disproportionately benefit families with one full-time working parent and a parent that either does not work or works very little. The rates of family payments give greatest benefits to families that split income earning on a ratio of 80/20. Further...

The Role of Postal Networks in Expanding Access to Financial Services : Country Case - Egypt's Postal Finance Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.37%
This paper discusses the role of the postal network in expanding access to financial services in Egypt. It reviews the public postal operator within the postal sector and within the broader context of the communications sector. The roles of the postal network and state and privately-owned banks are also reviewed from the perspective of the financial sector development, with particular focus on payments systems development and microfinance. The ultimate goal of postal reform is to create a system where modern technology and a free flow of information benefit the customer. A modern, efficient postal service that utilizes the latest information technology will not only increase Egypt's social and economic development, but will also contribute significantly to the creation of an Egyptian information society.

Health Equity and Financial Protection : Streamlined Analysis with ADePT Software

Wagstaff, Adam; Bilger, Marcel; Sajaia, Zurab; Lokshin, Michael
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.23%
This book provides a guide to Automated Development Economics (DEC) Poverty Tables (ADePT's) two health modules: the first module covers inequality and equity in health, health care utilization, and subsidy incidence; the second, health financing and financial protection. It also provides introductions to the methods used by ADePT and a step-by-step guide to their implementation in the program. ADePT is a software package that generates standardized tables and charts summarizing the results of distributional analyses of household survey data. ADePT health is just one of several modules; other modules include poverty, inequality, labor, social protection, and gender. ADePT health has two sub modules: health outcomes and health financing. Together these modules cover a wealth of topics in the areas of health equity and financial protection. This manual is divided into two parts corresponding to each of these sub modules. The following topics are covered: part 1, health outcomes: (a) measuring inequalities in outcomes and utilization (with and without standardization for need)...

Vietnam - The Role of Postal Networks in Expanding Access to Financial Services Country case : Vietnam's postal finance services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.23%
This paper discusses the role of the postal network in expanding access to financial services in Vietnam. It reviews the public postal operator within the postal sector and within the broader context of the communications sector. The roles of the Vietnam postal network and post bank are also reviewed from the perspective of the financial sector development, with particular focus on payments systems development and micro finance. While this country case on Vietnam can stand alone, it is an integral part of this large study of the potential of postal networks to coordinate with financial service providers in 7 countries (Egypt, Kazakhstan, Namibia, Romania, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Vietnam) and 5 regions (Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East and Northern Africa). Five years after its introduction, the Vietnamese Postal Savings Corporation (VPSC) can look back on an impressive record of successes. With its 920 post offices (of 3,000), VPSC operates the second-largest financial service network in the country. It developed as a channel for mobilizing small household deposits...

The Role of Postal Networks in Expanding Access to Financial Services : Egypt's Postal Finance Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.37%
This paper discusses the role of the postal network in expanding access to financial services in Egypt. It reviews the public postal operator within the postal sector and within the broader context of the communications sector. The roles of the postal network and state and privately-owned banks are also reviewed from the perspective of the financial sector development, with particular focus on payments systems development and microfinance. The ultimate goal of postal reform is to create a system where modern technology and a free flow of information benefit the customer. A modern, efficient postal service that utilizes the latest information technology will not only increase Egypt's social and economic development, but will also contribute significantly to the creation of an Egyptian information society.

Debt Relief and Beyond : Lessons Learned and Challenges Ahead

Primo Braga, Carlos A.; Domeland, Dorte
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.2%
Heavily indebted low-income countries benefited from significant debt relief over the past decade. Under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative and the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI), assistance of about $117 billion in nominal terms had been committed to 35 HIPC as of end-April 2009. This debt relief represents about half of the 2007 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of these countries, whose debt burden is expected to drop by more than 80 percent once full debt relief is granted. As a result of relief already provided, debt-service payments have plummeted and expenditures on pro-poor growth programs increased. The book is divided into four parts. Part one examines the design of debt-relief initiatives and provides evidence of its effect on education, health, and economic growth. Part two describes the risks and opportunities developing countries face following debt relief. It identifies how they can safeguard debt sustainability; describes the role of sovereign risk for private sector access to capital; and draws lessons from the experience of market-access countries on the links between sovereign debt and development. Part three examines the concept and various policy proposals of dealing with 'odious' debt. Part four looks at debt management...

Improving Payment Mechanisms in Cash-Based Safety Net Programs

del Ninno, Carlo; Subbarao, Kalanidhi; Kjellgren, Annika; Quintana, Rodrigo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
Cash transfers have proliferated in the past decade as key policy instruments to tackle vulnerability and inequality. Payment mechanisms (PMs), the backbone of cash transfers, are the channels through which cash travels from the funding source to the hands of beneficiaries. In theory, the harmonization of payment flows in PMs with other program processes is critical to delivering the right benefit to the right people at the right time while minimizing costs. In reality, however, PMs tend to remain disconnected, rendering payments inefficient and plagued by error, fraud and corruption. In recent years, program operators, financial institutions, and technology innovators have developed strategies for streamlining payment flows. These innovations, if properly integrated into program management through a Management Information System (MIS) and supported by rigorous outreach, can not only promote efficiency and transparency but also ensure effectiveness. This paper provides a framework for integrating PMs within program management. It walks the reader through seven basic steps to process payments. It does so by articulating the flow of beneficiary information and funds from the point of beneficiary enrollment to payment reconciliation and grievance redress. It also looks at the framework through the lenses of different cash transfer interventions and the cases of Kenya...

Nuevos métodos de pago online, seguridad y confiabilidad; New online payment methods, security and reliability

Rodríguez Martínez, Miguel
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
RESUMEN: El uso de internet claramente ha cambiado nuestros hábitos y costumbres a lo largo de estos últimos años y principalmente a comienzos del siglo XXI. La economía, que siempre está en constante cambio tampoco podría haberse quedado atrás por lo que se ha ido adaptando a este gran cambio social. El E-commerce o Comercio Electrónico basado en la compra y venta de bienes y servicios mediante internet, ha sufrido un gran incremento tanto en el volumen de operaciones como el número de usuarios. Los negocios deben posicionarse de forma eficiente para poder atraer a un mayor número de consumidores mediante medidas de negocio. Una de las decisiones claves que deben tomar los servicios de comercio electrónico es la de elegir los medios de pago que pondrán a disposición de sus clientes. Los medios de pago tradicionales han tenido y siguen teniendo el mayor peso en las operaciones de compraventa. El pago en efectivo, el pago con tarjeta y con transferencias, entre otros sistemas, son conocidos por los usuarios pero en ciertos aspectos no cumplen con las expectativas futuras de los negocios online. Los nuevos medios de pago online son el incentivo de desarrollo del comercio electrónico. Su principal objetivo es la de facilitar las compras...