Página 1 dos resultados de 2476 itens digitais encontrados em 0.008 segundos

Tobacco Smoke Induces Ventricular Remodeling Associated with an Increase in NADPH Oxidase Activity

RAFACHO, Bruna P. M.; AZEVEDO, Paula S.; POLEGATO, Bertha F.; FERNANDES, Ana A. H.; BERTOLINE, Maria A.; FERNANDES, Denise C.; CHIUSO-MINICUCCI, Fernanda; ROSCANI, Meliza G.; SANTOS, Priscila P. dos; MATSUBARA, Luiz S.; MATSUBARA, Beatriz B.; LAURINDO, Fr
Fonte: KARGER Publicador: KARGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
Background: Recent studies have assessed the direct effects of smoking on cardiac remodeling and function. However, the mechanisms of these alterations remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate de role of cardiac NADPH oxidase and antioxidant enzyme system on ventricular remodeling induced by tobacco smoke. Methods: Male Wistar rats that weighed 200-230 g were divided into a control group (C) and an experimental group that was exposed to tobacco smoke for a period of two months (ETS). After the two-month exposure period, morphological, biochemical and functional analyses were performed. Results: The myocyte cross-sectional area and left ventricle end-diastolic dimension was increased 16.2% and 33.7%, respectively, in the ETS group. The interstitial collagen volume fraction was also higher in ETS group compared to the controls. In addition to these morphological changes, the ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in the ETS group. Importantly, these alterations were related to augmented heart oxidative stress, which was characterized by an increase in NADPH oxidase activity, increased levels of lipid hydroperoxide and depletion of antioxidant enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase). In addition...

Avaliação do desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso central de camundongos Balb/c expostos à fumaça do cigarro no início do período pós-natal; Evaluation of the brain development in BALB/c mice exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in the early postnatal period.

Torres-Pacheco, Larissa Helena Lobo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/10/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
Diversos estudos relatam os efeitos da exposição à nicotina nos períodos pré e pós-natal, contudo, pouco se sabe a respeito dos efeitos da fumaça do cigarro na cascata de eventos que caracteriza o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso central (SNC). Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi esclarecer se a exposição à fumaça do cigarro no início do período pós-natal induz prejuízo ao desenvolvimento do SNC na infância, e as possíveis consequências na adolescência e na fase adulta. Camundongos BALB/c foram expostos a uma mistura de fumaça central e lateral do cigarro referência 3R4F (Universidade de Kentucky, EUA), desde o 3° dia de vida pós-natal (P) até P14 por duas horas diárias. Nossos resultados indicam que a exposição à fumaça do cigarro no início do período pós-natal induz prejuízo ao processo de aprendizado e memória e aumento na ansiedade em todas as idades avaliadas, além de induzir diminuição da atividade locomotora na infância e na adolescência. Ainda, observamos diminuição dos níveis de BDNF e das proteínas sinápticas sinapsina e sinaptofisina no hipocampo, cerebelo, córtex pré-frontal e estriado. A fumaça do cigarro também induz diminuição na porcentagem de fibras mielinizadas no nervo óptico e aumento da proteína básica de mielina (PBM) no cerebelo na infância...

Tobacco Smoke Induces Ventricular Remodeling Associated with an Increase in NADPH Oxidase Activity

Rafacho, Bruna P. M.; Azevedo, Paula S.; Polegato, Bertha F.; Fernandes, Ana A. H.; Bertoline, Maria A.; Fernandes, Denise C.; Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; Roscani, Meliza G.; dos Santos, Priscila P.; Matsubara, Luiz S.; Matsubara, Beatriz B.; Laurindo, Fr
Fonte: Karger Publicador: Karger
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 305-312
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Background: Recent studies have assessed the direct effects of smoking on cardiac remodeling and function. However, the mechanisms of these alterations remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate de role of cardiac NADPH oxidase and antioxidant enzyme system on ventricular remodeling induced by tobacco smoke. Methods: Male Wistar rats that weighed 200-230 g were divided into a control group (C) and an experimental group that was exposed to tobacco smoke for a period of two months (ETS). After the two-month exposure period, morphological, biochemical and functional analyses were performed. Results: The myocyte cross-sectional area and left ventricle end-diastolic dimension was increased 16.2% and 33.7%, respectively, in the ETS group. The interstitial collagen volume fraction was also higher in ETS group compared to the controls. In addition to these morphological changes, the ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in the ETS group. Importantly, these alterations were related to augmented heart oxidative stress, which was characterized by an increase in NADPH oxidase activity, increased levels of lipid hydroperoxide and depletion of antioxidant enzymes (e.g....

β-carotene attenuates the paradoxical effect of tobacco smoke on the mortality of rats after experimental myocardial infarction

Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Novo, Rosangela; Matsubara, Beatriz B.; Matsubara, Luiz S.; Azevedo, Paula S.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Campana, Álvaro O.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2109-2113
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.8%
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to tobacco smoke (ETS) in rats that were or were not supplemented with dietary β-carotene (BC), on ventricular remodeling and survival after myocardial infarction (Ml). Rats (n = 189) were allocated to 4 groups: the control group, n = 45; group BC administered 500 mg/kg diet, n = 49, BC supplemented rats; group ETS, n - 55, rats exposed to tobacco smoke; and group BC+ETS, n = 40. Wistar rats weighing 10O g were administered one of the treatments until they weighed 200 to 250 g (∼5 wk). The ETS rats were exposed to cigarette smoke for 30 min 4 times/d, in a chamber connected to a smoking device. After reaching a weight of 200-250 g, rats were subjected to experimental MI (coronary artery occlusion) and mortality rates were determined over the next 105 d. In addition, echocardiographic, isolated heart, morphometrical, and biochemical studies were performed. Mortality data were tested using Kaplan-Meyer curves and other data by 2-way ANOVA. Survival rates were greater in the ETS group (58.2%) than in the control (33.3%) (P = 0.001) and BC+ETS rats (30.0%) (P = 0.007). The groups did not differ in the other comparisons. Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter normalized to body weight was greater and maximal systolic pressures were lower in the ETS groups than in non-ETS groups. Previous exposure to tobacco smoke induced a process of cardiac remodeling after MI. There is a paradoxical protector effect with tobacco smoke exposure...

Prevalência de alunos de escolas de Braga expostos ao fumo ambiental do tabaco em casa, antes e após a aplicação da lei antitabágica : estudo transversal; Exposure of students to tobacco smoke at home before and after a new anti-smoking law : a cross-sectional study

Precioso, José; Araújo, Ana Carolina; Machado, José Cunha; Samorinha, Catarina; Becoña, Elisardo; Antunes, Henedina
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.63%
Objectivos: Esta investigação pretende avaliar o impacto da lei antitabágica Portuguesa – Lei n. o 37/2007, de 14 de agosto – na exposição das crianças ao Fumo Ambiental do Tabaco em casa Tipo de estudo: Realizaram-se três estudos observacionais, transversais e analíticos Local: Escolas do 1. o ciclo de Braga População: Alunos do 4. o ano, do 1. o ciclo das escolas de Braga Métodos: Foram utilizados questionários de autopreenchimento, aplicados em contexto de sala de aula. Na análise de dados foi utilizado o qui-quadrado por se tratar de variáveis de categoria. Utilizou-se a mesma metodologia em momentos diferentes, o primeiro em 2007 (antes da entrada em vigor da lei), o segundo em 2010 e o terceiro em 2011 (ambos após a entrada em vigor da lei). Resultados: Em 2007, a amostra era constituída por 793 alunos do 4. o ano e no segundo e terceiro estudos participaram, respetivamente, 513 e 509 alunos do mesmo ano de escolaridade de escolas de Braga – Portugal. FA prevalência de crianças expostas diária ou ocasionalmente ao FAT, pelo facto de pelo menos um dos conviventes fumar em casa, desceu de 43,2% em 2007 para 19,9% em 2011 (p<0,001). Conclusões: A entrada em vigor da lei antitabágica Portuguesa poderá estar associada a uma diminuição do consumo de tabaco no domicílio; Aims: This study aims to assess the impact of the new Portuguese anti-smoking law of 2007 on the exposure to tobacco smoke at home. Study type: Three observational and cross-sectional studies Setting: Elementary schools in Braga...

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home and smoking prevalence in the general Portuguese population--the INAsma study

Pereira, AM; Morais-Almeida, M; Sá e Sousa, A; Jacinto, T; Azevedo, LF; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Bugalho de Almeida, A; Fonseca, JA
Fonte: Repositório Comum de Portugal Publicador: Repositório Comum de Portugal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
BACKGROUND: We aimed to: 1) estimate the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home in the Portuguese population; 2) estimate tobacco smoking prevalence in Portugal; 3) identify social and personal characteristics associated with smoking or exposure to ETS. METHODS: Nationwide, cross-sectional, population-based telephone survey. Overall, 6003 individuals completed the interview. ETS exposure at home was defined as exposure to at least one current smoker at home. A smoker was defined as someone with 15 years or older, smoking at least 1 cigarette per day during a year; a current smoker (CS) smoked in the last month. RESULTS: Exposure to ETS at home was reported by 26.6% (95%CI 25.5-27.7) of the participants. Living in households with ≥4 persons (OR=2.31; 95%CI[1.81-2.96]), being a current smoker (OR=7.29; 95%CI[5.74-9.26]) or having current asthma (OR=2.06; 95%CI[1.45-2.94]) were factors positively associated with ETS exposure. When analyzed by gender, the effect of current asthma was only relevant to females. Currently 19.0% (95%CI 18.0-20.0) of the Portuguese population smokes tobacco and 17.2% (95%CI 16.2-18.2) are ex-smokers. CS prevalence is higher in males than females (26.5%versus 12.2%, p<0,001). The odds of being a CS were higher for males...

Environmental tobacco smoke, indoor allergens, and childhood asthma.

Gold, Diane R.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
Both environmental tobacco smoke and indoor allergens can exacerbate already established childhood albeit primarily through quite disparate mechanisms. In infancy and childhood, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is associated with measures of decreased flow in the airways, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and increased respiratory infections, but the relationship between ETS and allergy is poorly understood. Indoor allergens from dust mite, cockroach, and cat can be associated with asthma exacerbation in children sensitized to the specific allergens. The precise role of either ETS or indoor allergens in the development of asthma is less well understood. The strong and consistent association between ETS and asthma development in young children may relate to both prenatal and postnatal influences on airway caliber or bronchial responsiveness. Dust mite allergen levels predict asthma in children sensitized to dust mite. The tendency to develop specific IgE antibodies to allergens (sensitization) is associated with and may be preceded by the development of a T-helper (Th)2 profile of cytokine release. The importance of either ETS or indoor allergens in the differentiation of T cells into a Th2-type profile of cytokine release or in the localization of immediate-type allergic responses to the lung is unknown. This article evaluates the strength of the evidence that ETS or indoor allergens influence asthma exacerbation and asthma development in children. We also selectively review data for the effectiveness of allergen reduction in reducing asthma symptoms and present a potential research agenda regarding these two broad areas of environmental exposure and their relationship to childhood asthma.

Effect of Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Levels of Urinary Hormone Markers

Wang, Xiaobin; Wang, Lihua; Yang, Fan; Tang, Genfu; Xing, Houxun; Lasley, Bill; Overstreet, James W.; Stanford, Joseph B.; Chen, ChangFeng; Ryan, Louise Marie; Xu, Xiang
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.48%
Our recent study showed a dose–response relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the risk of early pregnancy loss. Smoking is known to affect female reproductive hormones. We explored whether ETS affects reproductive hormone profiles as characterized by urinary pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) and estrone conjugate (E1C) levels. We prospectively studied 371 healthy newly married nonsmoking women in China who intended to conceive and had stopped contraception. Daily records of vaginal bleeding, active and passive cigarette smoking, and daily first-morning urine specimens were collected for up to 1 year or until a clinical pregnancy was achieved. We determined the day of ovulation for each menstrual cycle. The effects of ETS exposure on daily urinary PdG and E1C levels in a ±10 day window around the day of ovulation were analyzed for conception and nonconception cycles, respectively. Our analysis included 344 nonconception cycles and 329 conception cycles. In nonconception cycles, cycles with ETS exposure had significantly lower urinary E1C levels (β= –0.43, SE = 0.08, p less than 0.001 in log scale) compared with the cycles without ETS exposure. There was no significant difference in urinary PdG levels in cycles having ETS exposure (β= –0.07...

Fractionation, chemical and toxicological characterization of tobacco smoke components

Kaur, Navneet
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.87%
La fumée du tabac est un aérosol extrêmement complexe constitué de milliers de composés répartis entre la phase particulaire et la phase vapeur. Il a été démontré que les effets toxicologiques de cette fumée sont associés aux composés appartenant aux deux phases. Plusieurs composés biologiquement actifs ont été identifiés dans la fumée du tabac; cependant, il n’y a pas d’études démontrant la relation entre les réponses biologiques obtenues via les tests in vitro ou in vivo et les composés présents dans la fumée entière du tabac. Le but de la présente recherche est de développer des méthodes fiables et robustes de fractionnement de la fumée à l’aide de techniques de séparation analytique et de techniques de détection combinés à des essais in vitro toxicologiques. Une étude antérieure réalisée par nos collaborateurs a démontré que, suite à l’étude des produits de combustion de douze principaux composés du tabac, l’acide chlorogénique s’est avéré être le composé le plus cytotoxique selon les test in vitro du micronoyau. Ainsi, dans cette étude, une méthode par chromatographie préparative en phase liquide a été développée dans le but de fractionner les produits de combustion de l’acide chlorogénique. Les fractions des produits de combustion de l’acide chlorogénique ont ensuite été testées et les composés responsables de la toxicité de l’acide chlorogénique ont été identifiés. Le composé de la sous-fraction responsable en majeure partie de la cytoxicité a été identifié comme étant le catéchol...

A study of environmental tobacco smoke in South Australian pubs, clubs and cafes

Cenko, C.; Pisaniello, D.; Esterman, A.
Fonte: Carfax Publishing Publicador: Carfax Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.48%
Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) in hotels and clubs is of community concern and may lead to a variety of adverse health outcomes for workers and patrons. This study sought to measure ETS in both smoking and non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in South Australia and to assess the effectiveness of ETS control measures. Seven hotels, clubs and cafes were investigated and the concentrations of airborne nicotine and particulate matter (PM10) were measured as markers of ETS exposure during normal to busy periods. Overall average concentrations were higher in smoking areas (nicotine=15 mg/m3 and PM10=255mg/m3) compared with non-smoking dining areas (nicotine=7 mg/ m3 and PM10=192 mg/m3). The data demonstrate an approximate two-fold reduction of ETS within nonsmoking areas and suggest that mechanical ventilation is only partially effective in preventing propagation of ETS throughout premises. Risk models suggest that ETS exposures in non-smoking areas may still represent an appreciable health risk. It is recommended that smoking be totally banned in enclosed publicly accessible areas.; Clinton Cenko, Dino Pisaniello and Adrian Esterman

Tobacco smoke and age as risk factors in emphysema. Morphometrical study on the rat

Escolar Castellón, J.de D.; Martínez, M.N.; Escolar, M.A.; Arranz, M.; Gallego, B.; Roche Roche, P.A.
Fonte: Murcia : F. Hernández Publicador: Murcia : F. Hernández
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.8%
During ageing, a progressive deterioration in the pulmonary function, which can be accelerated by exposure to tobacco smoke, takes place. The hypothesis that the initial age of exposure to tobacco smoke is a factor of utmost importance in the development of ernphysema is proposed. Eighty-six rats, aged nineteen months at the time of sacrifice, were used and were ordered into three groups: the first group consisted of unrnanipulated animals; the second, of animals which had been exposed to tobacco smoke from the age of twelve months to the age of nineteen months; and the third, of animals which had been exposed to tobacco smoke from the age of nine months to the age of twelve months. The lungs of the animals were histologically processed for light microscopy and were studied morphometrically by computer. Eleven quantitative variables were quantified and ordered into three groups: variables related with alveolar enlargement; variables related with tissue loss; and variables related with the elastic fibre. The number of animals in which alveolar enlargement and tissue destruction concurred was counted, thus enabling the attributable and relative risks of developing emphysema to be calculated in the two groups of rnanipulated anirnals. From the results it is clear that...

How free of tobacco smoke are 'smoke-free' homes?

Rumchev, K.; Jamrozik, K.; Stick, S.; Spickett, J.
Fonte: Munksgaard Int Publ Ltd Publicador: Munksgaard Int Publ Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.63%
The risks of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are well established and 'harm reduction' strategies such as smoking outside to protect infants and children from exposure to ETS have been advocated for some time. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of self-reported smoking levels in residential settings. The participants were families (n = 92) randomly selected from lower socioeconomic areas of Perth, Western Australia. Each household was monitored for vapor phase nicotine and particulates with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤10 μm (PM10). Of the 42% (39) households who reported that someone smoked cigarettes at home, only four (4%) said that smoking occurred inside the house. There was a 'moderate' agreement between parental-reported tobacco smoking and levels of nicotine (κ = 0.55, P < 0.01). There were significant differences in the median levels of air nicotine (P < 0.01) and PM10 (P < 0.05) between households in which smoking was reported as only occurring outside, and the smoke-free households.; K. Rumchev, K. Jamrozik, S. Stick and J. Spickett

Smoke-Free Workplaces; Lugares de trabajo libres de humo de tabaco Lieux de travail sans tabac

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.9%
Smoking harms the health of smokers and those around them. Smokers are at far higher risks of strokes, heart attacks and other cardiovascular diseases; cancers of the lungs, mouth, larynx, bladder, pancreas, kidneys and stomach; emphysema, bronchitis, and tuberculosis. These diseases cause serious illness, disability and premature death. Tobacco causes 4 million deaths worldwide each year, and the numbers are rising fast. Tobacco smoke also harms non-smokers exposed to so-called second-hand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In addition to smell and irritation to eyes, ETS exposure increases the risk of lung cancer and cardio-vascular and respiratory diseases. ETS exposure is common in workplaces. In 1996, an estimated 130 million adult non-smokers in China were exposed to workplace ETS. In the UK in 1999, more than 3 million non-smokers were continuously or frequently exposed to tobacco smoke at work. In France, where there are laws restricting smoking in public spaces, 40 percent of employees are still exposed to ETS. ETS can interact with chemicals and radiation in workplaces to produce an additive or multiplicative effect and increase significantly the risk of many occupational diseases. In some countries...

Contribution of traffic and tobacco smoke in the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on outdoor and indoor PM2.5

Castro, Dionísia; Slezakova, Klara; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição M.; Morais, S.; Pereira, Maria do Carmo
Fonte: Global NEST Journal Publicador: Global NEST Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.74%
Traffic emissions and tobacco smoke are considered two main sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor and outdoor air. In this study, the impact of these sources on the level of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and on the distribution of 15 PAHs regarded as priority pollutants by the US-EPA on PM2.5 were evaluated and compared. Outdoor and indoor PM2.5 samples were collected during winter 2008 in Oporto city in Portugal, for sampling periods of 12 and 24 hours, respectively. The outdoor PM2.5 were sampled at one site directly influenced by traffic emissions and the indoor PM2.5 samples were collected at one home directly influenced by tobacco smoke and another one without smoke. A methodology based on microwave-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was applied for the efficient PAHs determination in indoor and outdoor PM2.5. PAHs in indoor PM2.5 concentrations were significantly influenced by the presence of traffic and tobacco smoking emissions. The mean of ΣPAHs in the outdoor traffic PM2.5 was not significantly different from the value attained in the indoor without smoking site. The tobacco smoke increased significantly PAHs concentrations on average about 1000 times more...

Developing asthma in childhood from exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke: insights from a meta-regression

Vork,Kathleen; Broadwin,Rachel; Blaisdell,Robert
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
Studies have shown links between household secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and induction of childhood asthma. But the true nature of this link remains unclear in many studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies published from 1970 to 2005 to uncover consistent patterns of relative risk estimates (RRs), and found substantial heterogeneity within initial summary RRs of 1.48 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.32-1.65], 1.25 (1.21-1.30), and 1.21 (1.08-1.36), for ever, current, and incident asthma, respectively. Lack of control for type of atopy history (familial or child) and child's own smoking status within studies and age category altered summary RRs in separate metaregressions. After adjustments, consistent patterns of association emerged between SHS exposure and childhood asthma induction. Our summary RR of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.14-1.56) from studies of incident asthma among older children (618 years old) is 1.27 times the estimate from studies of younger children and higher than estimates from earlier meta-analyses. This showns that exposure duration may be a more important factor than previously understood, and suggests that SHS could be a more fundamental cause of childhood asthma than some previous meta-analyses have indicated.

Efectos de la exposición al humo de tabaco ambiental en no fumadores; EFFECTS IN PASSIVE SMOKERS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE

Michalland H., Susana; Salinas C., Judith; Soto I., Marina; Contreras N., Carla; Bello S., Sergio
Fonte: Universidade do Chile Publicador: Universidade do Chile
Tipo: Artículo de revista
ES
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
National and international environmental tobacco smoke studies were reviewed regarding its effects on passive smokers’ health. Environmental tobacco smoke is composed by more than 4,000 known substances, which are different if they are in the mainstream or sidestream. Studies with biomarkers like cotinine have concluded that exposed nonsmokers have an increased cardiovascular morbi-mortality. Passive smokers also have an increased risk of lung, nasal sinus and breast cancer. Children have more acute and chronic respiratory symptoms, low respiratory infections, otitis and sudden infant death syndrome. Environmental tobacco smoke induces asthma and causes exacerbations in both children and adults. In reproductive health, it decreases the age of menopause and produces menstrual disorders. Newborn infants of passive smoking mothers have a higher probability of l

Occupational secondhand smoke is the main determinant of hair nicotine concentrations in bar and restaurant workers

Droppelmann, Andrea; Peruga, Armando; Erazo Bahamondes, Marcia Del Carmen; Navas Acien, Ana; Aceituno, Paulina; Orellana Pozo, Cecilia; Acuña, Marisol; Steenland, Kyle; Breysse, Patrick N.; Iglesias Álamos, Verónica Paz
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.72%
Artículo de publicación ISI; Objective To evaluate the relative contribution of occupational vs. non-occupational secondhand tobacco smoke exposure to overall hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking bar and restaurant employees. Method We recruited 76 non-smoking employees from venues that allowed smoking (n=9), had mixed policies (smoking and non-smoking areas, n=13) or were smoke-free (n=2) between April and August 2008 in Santiago, Chile. Employees used personal air nicotine samplers during working and non-working hours for a 24-h period to assess occupational vs. non-occupational secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and hair nicotine concentrations to assess overall secondhand tobacco smoke exposure. Results Median hair nicotine concentrations were 1.5 ng/mg, interquartile range (IQR) 0.7 to 5.2 ng/mg. Time weighted average personal air nicotine concentrations were higher during working hours (median 9.7, IQR 3.3–25.4 µg/m3) compared to non-working hours (1.7, 1.0–3.1 µg/m3). Hair nicotine concentration was best predicted by personal air nicotine concentration at working hours. After adjustment, a 2-fold increase in personal air nicotine concentration in working hours was associated with a 42% increase in hair nicotine concentration (95% confidence interval 14–70%). Hair nicotine concentration was not associated with personal air nicotine concentration during non-working hours (non-occupational exposure). Conclusions Personal air nicotine concentration at working hours was the major determinant of hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees from Santiago...

Reducing exposure of pre-school children to environmental tobacco smoke: Feasibility of a program for parents and other caregivers

Robles,Elias; Vargas,Perla A.; Perry,Tamara T.; Feild,Charles R.
Fonte: Sociedad Mexicana de Análisis de la Conducta Publicador: Sociedad Mexicana de Análisis de la Conducta
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54%
The aim of this study was to assess the viability and potential efficacy of an environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure reduction intervention for at-risk children. The study consisted of a 12-week behavioral intervention and a 6-month follow-up, conducted on a convenience sample (N=43) of low-income, self-identified, adult smokers who were caregivers of 3-5 year old children. The intervention included a manualized program, plus nicotine replacement therapy, and monetary reinforcement of abstinence. Outcome measures included breath carbon monoxide (CO), self-reported smoking practices, level of nicotine dependence, and depression symptoms. Significant reductions were observed in CO concentration, frequency of smoking around children, and nicotine dependence and depression scores. Sixty-one percent of the participants attended 8 or more weekly sessions, and one third remained smoke-free at follow-up. Those who did not quit reported not changing their smoking behavior patterns in vehicles or indoors. The cessation intervention compared well with other interventions for treatment-seeking smokers, suggesting that implementing evidence-based cessation and education programs for caregivers at school sites may be effective in reducing daily exposure to ETS of pre-school children.

The need for gender specific tobacco control strategies: KAP survey findings on environmental tobacco smoke exposure among women in the reproductive age group

Brown,E; Maharaj,S; James,K
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.63%
OBJECTIVE: The study was done to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of women within the child bearing age with regard to smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on children's health. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study with quantitative and qualitative components was designed to collect data from women in the child-bearing age. The sample comprised of persons from the two largest combined family planning and antenatal clinics in Kingston, Jamaica. RESULTS: The women surveyed had a fair level of knowledge about ETS health risks, negative attitudes to smoking in general, and most supported a ban on smoking in public places. Significant knowledge differences existed between young and older women and between smokers and non-smokers. CONCLUSION: Women with the highest level of knowledge were the non-smokers: of the low knowledge score group (current smokers), 50% were in the 15-24-year age range. There is a need for more public education on smoking and the consequences ofenvironmental tobacco smoke exposure on children s health.

Developing asthma in childhood from exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke: insights from a meta-regression

Vork,Kathleen; Broadwin,Rachel; Blaisdell,Robert
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
Studies have shown links between household secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and induction of childhood asthma. But the true nature of this link remains unclear in many studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies published from 1970 to 2005 to uncover consistent patterns of relative risk estimates (RRs), and found substantial heterogeneity within initial summary RRs of 1.48 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.32-1.65], 1.25 (1.21-1.30), and 1.21 (1.08-1.36), for ever, current, and incident asthma, respectively. Lack of control for type of atopy history (familial or child) and child's own smoking status within studies and age category altered summary RRs in separate metaregressions. After adjustments, consistent patterns of association emerged between SHS exposure and childhood asthma induction. Our summary RR of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.14-1.56) from studies of incident asthma among older children (618 years old) is 1.27 times the estimate from studies of younger children and higher than estimates from earlier meta-analyses. This showns that exposure duration may be a more important factor than previously understood, and suggests that SHS could be a more fundamental cause of childhood asthma than some previous meta-analyses have indicated.