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Distribuição do tempo das enfermeiras: identificação e análise em unidade médico-cirúrgica; Nursery time distribution: identification and analysis in a medical-surgical unit

Bordin, Luiz Carlos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/06/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.78%
Diante do impacto da distribuição do tempo de trabalho da profissional enfermeira na determinação de parâmetros adequados para a operacionalização do processo de dimensionar pessoal de enfermagem, este estudo teve por objetivo identificar e analisar a distribuição do tempo de trabalho das enfermeiras em uma unidade de internação médico-cirúrgica. Trata-se de uma pesquisa de campo, prospectiva, de abordagem quantitativa, do tipo exploratório-descritiva, realizada em um Hospital geral, privado, de grande porte da cidade de São Paulo. Para a consecução dos objetivos da pesquisa considerou-se, como população estatística, as atividades de enfermagem realizadas pelas enfermeiras durante os turnos de trabalho. O tamanho da amostra e o período amostral foram estabelecidos a partir da determinação de critérios relacionados à probabilidade mínima de ocorrência das atividades realizadas pelas enfermeiras, bem como do número de enfermeiras por turno e do intervalo estipulado para a realização das observações das atividades executadas pelas enfermeiras. A identificação das atividades de enfermagem realizadas pelas enfermeiras ocorreu mediante solicitação de que cada enfermeira relacionasse, por escrito, as atividades executadas no cotidiano de trabalho da Unidade...

Distribuição do tempo de trabalho das enfermeiras em unidade de emergência; Nurses´ time distribution in emergency unit

Garcia, Eliana de Araujo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.58%
As dificuldades encontradas para a operacionalização dos métodos de dimensionamento de pessoal de enfermagem nas unidades de emergência estão diretamente relacionadas à escassez de estudos e de parâmetros que instrumentalizem as enfermeiras para a determinação do quadro de pessoal. Diante deste cenário, este estudo teve por objetivo identificar e analisar a distribuição do tempo de trabalho das enfermeiras em uma unidade de emergência, bem como calcular o tempo médio despendido por estas profissionais na execução das intervenções/atividades de enfermagem. Trata-se de uma pesquisa de natureza quantitativa, descritiva, do tipo estudo de caso, realizada em um Hospital geral, universitário, localizado no município de São Paulo. Para alcançar os objetivos do estudo foi utilizado o método de amostragem de trabalho. A identificação das atividades de enfermagem, realizadas pelas enfermeiras, ocorreu mediante avaliação das fichas de atendimento dos pacientes e da observação direta das enfermeiras no cotidiano do trabalho na Unidade, que foram, posteriormente, categorizadas de acordo com um sistema padronizado de linguagem (NIC) e classificadas em intervenções de cuidado direto, intervenções de cuidado indireto...

Aplicação de diferentes promotores de crescimento em Mirindiba (Lafoensia glyptocarpa Koehne): avaliação do desenvolvimento das mudas, em fases distintas do ciclo de produção; Application of different growth promoters in Mirindiba (Lafoensia glyptocarpa Koehne): avaliationt of plant growth in different stages of the production cycle

Machado, Ronan Pereira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/08/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.65%
Os avanços obtidos na política ambiental e a conscientização da população em relação aos problemas do meio ambiente têm levado a uma crescente demanda por espécies florestais nativas. A presença no mercado de viveiros, com alta tecnologia, e as exigências cada vez mais rígidas de padrão, fazem com que haja grande procura por alternativas que visem reduzir os custos de manejo, aumentar a taxa de crescimento e melhorar a qualidade das mudas produzidas. A produção pode ser comprometida pelo pouco conhecimento do comportamento silvicultural da espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento da espécie arbórea nativa Mirindiba (Lafoensia glyptocarpa Koehne), submetida a quatro diferentes tratamentos com promotores de crescimento, em duas fases distintas de seu ciclo de produção, nas condições específicas de um viveiro de mudas arbóreas, inclusive em relação à época de aplicação. O experimento foi conduzido em um viveiro localizado no município de Amparo-SP. Os tratamentos foram: Testemunha, Orgasol semanal, Biogain Max, Orgasol 15 dias e Biogain Plus. Os tratos culturais realizados habitualmente nos viveiros e as condições ambientais foram similares para todos. Os parâmetros quantitativos de vigor...

Organização das rotinas em contexto de creche e jardim-de-infância

Bairos, Ana Filipa Oliveira
Fonte: Repositório Comum de Portugal Publicador: Repositório Comum de Portugal
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /04/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.76%
O presente relatório tem como tema a organização das rotinas em contexto de creche e jardim-de-infância. Representando um estudo subjetivo das realidades observadas em dois contextos distintos, pretende articular os fundamentos teóricos da investigação em educação com as vivências realizadas em creche e jardim-de-infância no âmbito do Mestrado em Educação Pré-Escolar. De acordo com o paradigma interpretativo e tendo como metodologia a investigação-ação, o principal objetivo deste estudo foi a compreensão da importância pedagógica das rotinas, quer para as crianças, quer para o trabalho da equipa. Através dos dispositivos e procedimentos de investigação escolhidos, bem como da minha própria interpretação relativamente às situações observadas e, maioritariamente, vividas, serão descritos interpretados os ambientes educativos, no que diz respeito à sua rotina, e as conceções da educadora cooperante do contexto de jardim-de-infância. Por fim serão tecidas algumas considerações gerais sobre a investigação e intervenção, dando enfase aos sentimentos vivenciados ao longo de todo o processo.; The subject of this report is the organization of the rotines in the contexto of nursery school and kindergarten. Representing a subjective study of the realities observed in two diferente contexts...

Ecology of the juveniles of the soles, Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758) and Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858, in the Tagus estuary

Vinagre, Catarina Maria Batista, 1978-
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.69%
Tese de doutoramento em Biologia (Biologia Marinha), apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2007; Os linguados Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758) e Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858, estão entre os peixes com maior valor comercial, em Portugal. Os indivíduos adultos destas espécies habitam a plataforma continental, enquanto que os juvenis se concentram em áreas costeiras e em particular em estuários. Duas importantes áreas de viveiro para os juvenis destas espécies foram identificadas no estuário do Tejo: a área de Vila Franca de Xira e a de Alcochete. Enquanto que S. solea apenas coloniza a área de viveiro de Vila Franca de Xira, S. senegalensis coloniza ambas as áreas de viveiro. O presente trabalho tem como objectivo aprofundar o conhecimento no que se refere à ecologia de juvenis destas espécies nas áreas de viveiro do estuário do Tejo. O uso do habitat pelos juvenis destas espécies foi analisado em diferentes escalas espaciais, recorrendo a técnicas de análise espacial, análises isotópicas e a um programa de amostragem na zona intertidal que teve em conta os ciclos circum-diário e lunar.Foram desenvolvidos modelos espaciais de qualidade do habitat para ambas as espécies de forma investigar quais as variáveis que definem as áreas onde os juvenis se concentram e que...

Management of pregnancy in a University Hospital: a 6-year study

Schupp,Tânia Regina; Miyadahira,Seizo; Kahhale,Soubhi; Zugaib,Marcelo
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / Universidade de São Paulo - FM/USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / Universidade de São Paulo - FM/USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.59%
In order to evaluate the obstetric care in the Obstetric Clinic of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department of University of São Paulo, the authors present a survey of the management of pregnancy during the 6-year period from 1993 to 1998. The number of deliveries increased during the study by 45% over the 6 years. During this same period the number of fetal deaths was 526 (4.48%), but there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the incidence of fetal death. However, there was no concomitant increase in the proportion of pregnant women with prenatal care that could explain this improvement. Incidence of premature labor also decreased considerably. The authors believe that the increment in the number of deliveries was due mainly to the increasing number of pregnant women referred to our service. The efforts made by the service towards decreasing the time of hospitalization of both newborns in the nursery and the mothers in the hospital made this possible. Despite the increasing number of deliveries, there was a significant improvement in the management of pregnancy during the period of study. This improvement may be a consequence of the standardization of a protocol of management of pregnancy based on the recent progress in scientific and technological knowledge.

Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Habitat Use by Juveniles of a Small Coastal Shark (Mustelus lenticulatus) in an Estuarine Nursery

Francis, Malcolm P.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/02/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.74%
Juvenile rig (Mustelus lenticulatus) were internally tagged with acoustic transmitters and tracked with acoustic receivers deployed throughout two arms of Porirua Harbour, a small (7 km2) estuary in New Zealand. Ten rig were tracked for up to four months during summer–autumn to determine their spatial and temporal use of the habitat. The overall goal was to estimate the size of Marine Protected Areas required to protect rig nursery areas from direct human impacts. Rig showed clear site preferences, but those preferences varied among rig and over time. They spent most of their time in large basins and on shallow sand and mud flats around the margins, and avoided deep channels. Habitat range increased during autumn for many of the rig. Only one shark spent time in both harbour arms, indicating that there was little movement between the two. Rig home ranges were 2–7 km2, suggesting that an effective MPA would need to cover the entire Porirua Harbour. They moved to outer harbour sites following some high river flow rates, and most left the harbour permanently during or soon after a river spike, suggesting that they were avoiding low salinity water. Rig showed strong diel movements during summer, although the diel pattern weakened in autumn. Persistent use of the same day and night sites indicates that diel movements are directed rather than random. Further research is required to determine the sizes of rig home ranges in larger harbours where nursery habitat is more extensive. Marine Protected Areas do not control land-based impacts such as accelerated sedimentation and heavy metal pollution...

Relevance of Vṛkṣāyurveda and other traditional methods for organic production of nursery seedlings of useful plants

Suresh, Geetha; Haridasan, K.; Krishnamurthy, Kulithala Viswanathan
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.78%
Plant propagation is critical to augment the resource and has been the main concern for farmers and planters through history. India has evolved the science of Vṛkṣāyurveda to address the above issue. An effort is made here to review Vṛkṣāyurveda literature related to nursery techniques. Different libraries were visited and relevant review material obtained by hand search and from databases. Interaction with Sanskrit scholars and eminent scientists working in the field of Vṛkṣāyurveda, as well as the efforts of the authors of this paper, helped in the selection of pertinent literature. In the absence of original texts, authentic translations of the publications were referred. A conscious decision was made to limit the search to the fields of seed storage, pretreatment and nutrition of seedlings. To have a comparative account recent trends and literature on nursery technology were also examined. This was supplemented by interviews with traditional organic farmers. Our survey revealed that the time period of the literature pertaining to Vṛkṣāyurveda ranges from BCE 1200 to the present times. The subject has evolved from morphological descriptions and uses of plants, in texts such as Ṛgveda and Atharvaveda, to treatises dedicated solely to the art of growing plants like Kṛṣi-Parāśara and Vṛkṣāyurveda. It is also evident that there were important periods when more works appeared across subjects such as water divining...

The Seascape of Demersal Fish Nursery Areas in the North Mediterranean Sea, a First Step Towards the Implementation of Spatial Planning for Trawl Fisheries

Colloca, Francesco; Garofalo, Germana; Bitetto, Isabella; Facchini, Maria Teresa; Grati, Fabio; Martiradonna, Angela; Mastrantonio, Gianluca; Nikolioudakis, Nikolaos; Ordinas, Francesc; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Tserpes, George; Tugores, M. Pilar; Valavanis, V
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.76%
The identification of nursery grounds and other essential fish habitats of exploited stocks is a key requirement for the development of spatial conservation planning aimed at reducing the adverse impact of fishing on the exploited populations and ecosystems. The reduction in juvenile mortality is particularly relevant in the Mediterranean and is considered as one of the main prerequisites for the future sustainability of trawl fisheries. The distribution of nursery areas of 11 important commercial species of demersal fish and shellfish was analysed in the European Union Mediterranean waters using time series of bottom trawl survey data with the aim of identifying the most persistent recruitment areas. A high interspecific spatial overlap between nursery areas was mainly found along the shelf break of many different sectors of the Northern Mediterranean indicating a high potential for the implementation of conservation measures. Overlap of the nursery grounds with existing spatial fisheries management measures and trawl fisheries restricted areas was also investigated. Spatial analyses revealed considerable variation depending on species and associated habitat/depth preferences with increased protection seen in coastal nurseries and minimal protection seen for deeper nurseries (e.g. Parapenaeus longirostris 6%). This is partly attributed to existing environmental policy instruments (e.g. Habitats Directive and Mediterranean Regulation EC 1967/2006) aiming at minimising impacts on coastal priority habitats such as seagrass...

Irrigation management in real time for arugula crop in Sergipe.

VASCO, A. N. do; AGUIAR-NETTO, A. de O.; MANN, R. S.; BASTOS, E. A.
Fonte: Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, B 1, p. 1161-1167, 2011. Publicador: Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, B 1, p. 1161-1167, 2011.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.7%
The management of the irrigation is fundamental for success of leaves vegetables production. The work was carried out aiming to evaluate the production response of the arugula (Eruca sativa Mill.) under different irrigation levels at 25, 31, 37 and 43 days after sowing. The treatments were distributed in randomized blocks design with four replication, and evaluated in split-plot The management of the irrigation is fundamental for success of leaves vegetables production. The work was carried out aiming to evaluate the production response of the arugula (Eruca sativa Mill.) under different irrigation levels at 25, 31, 37 and 43 days after sowing. The treatments were distributed in randomized blocks design with four replication, and evaluated in split-plot scheme of 4 x 4, with the plots constituted by four irrigation levels equivalent to reference evapotranspiration (ET0) at 50%, 75%, b100% and 125% estimated by Penman-Monteith equation; and the split-plot constituted by days after sowing. The arugula planting was established in November of 2008 with direct sowing in nursery with 0.1 m x 0.2 m per plant, using the cv. ?Folha Larga?. After the germination phase was carried out crop management necessary to the crop production. It was analyzed: plant height (cm)...

Temporal and spatial dynamics of hake Merluccius merluccius recruitment in the Tyrrhenian and Ligurian Sea (Mediterranean)

BARTOLINO, VALERIO
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.54%
The present doctoral thesis investigated fundamental aspects of temporal and spatial dynamics of hake (Merluccius merluccius) recruitment in the Tyrrhenian and Ligurian Sea (Mediterranean). We identified recruit and post-recruit as two well distinct phases of hake juvenile life stage according to a marked bathymetric segregation. Hake juveniles enter the post-recruit stage at a length range between 13.2 cm and 15.8 cm through a sharp migration from the margin of the shelf-break and upper slope to the shallower continental shelf waters. Spatial models provided accurate identification of the main areas of aggregation of hake recruits before their migration and spreading on the shelf. We found that nurseries in the Tyrrhenian and Ligurian Sea are characterised by some of the highest densities of recruits observed in the Mediterranean, suggesting these areas could play an important role for the dynamics of hake population at a larger scale far beyond the study area. The analysis of time series data for two different periods of the year demonstrated an inter-annual and seasonal stability in the spatial location of the main nursery areas and a strong association for specific habitats of the shelf-break. Together with these main nurseries...

Evidence of connectivity between juvenile and adult habitats for mobile marine fauna: an important component of nurseries

Gillanders, B.; Able, K.; Brown, J.; Eggleston, D.; Sheridan, P.
Fonte: Inter-Research Publicador: Inter-Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.69%
A critical link missing from our understanding of the nursery role of specific marine habitats is the evidence of connectivity between juvenile and adult habitats. This paper reviews and evaluates evidence of, and spatial scales for, movements from juvenile to adult habitats and it summarises the methods used to study movements. Examples include many fish families but few invertebrate taxa, and most are species of economic importance for USA and Australia. The types of juvenile habitat range from the entire estuary or shallow open coastal waters to specific habitats within estuaries or coastal waters; in some cases juvenile habitats include habitats not traditionally regarded as nursery areas (e.g. the surf zone). The duration of time spent in juvenile habitats averages 13 mo (range 8 d to 5 yr). The majority of organisms move distances of kilometres to hundreds of kilometres from juvenile to adult habitats, although the scale of movements ranged from metres to thousands of kilometres. Changes in abundance among separate habitats and the progression of size classes among separate habitats are the main methods used to infer movement and habitat connectivity. Spatial partitioning of stages of maturity, natural parasites, and a variety of artificial tagging methods have also been used. The latter will become more useful with continued developments in the miniaturisation of artificial tags. More recent studies have used natural tags (e.g. trace elements and stable isotopes) and these methods show great promise for determining movements from juvenile to adult habitats. Few studies provide good evidence for movement from specific juvenile habitats to adult habitats. Future studies need to focus on this movement to supplement data on density...

Connectivity between estuarine and coastal fish populations: Contributions of estuaries are not consistent over time

Reis Dos Santos, P.; Tanner, S.; Vasconcelos, R.; Elsdon, T.; Cabral, H.; Gillanders, B.
Fonte: Inter-research Publicador: Inter-research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.69%
Otolith elemental signatures (Li:Ca, Mg:Ca, Mn:Ca, Cu:Ca, Sr:Ca, Ba:Ca and Pb:Ca) of Age-0 juveniles of flounder Platichthys flesus and sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, collected from estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast in 2006 and 2009, were used as baseline signatures to identify the estuarine nursery of Age-3+ and 2+ coastal fish matching the juvenile year classes. Otolith elemental signatures were determined via Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, and successfully identified the estuarine origin of the majority of coastal fish to characterized baseline estuaries. Relative contributions of individual estuaries to coastal areas, quantified using maximum likelihood estimation, varied over time for the 2 year classes analysed. However, some general patterns were discernible in terms of important estuaries versus those with minor or negligible contributions. Assigned nursery origins varied among species and suggested large scale movements along the coast. For P. flesus the main source for recruits changed between year classes from Ria de Aveiro (69%) to the Douro estuary (59%). The Mondego estuary, located near the latitudinal limit of P. flesus, contributed moderate numbers to coastal populations. The Tejo estuary was the most important estuary for D. labrax in both years sampled (55 and 50%...

Immersion in water in the first stage of labor: A randomized controlled trial

Eckert, K.; Turnbull, D.; MacLennan, A.
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.49%
Background:Current forms of analgesia often have significant side effects for women in labor. Bathing in warm water during labor has been reported to increase a woman's comfort level and cause a reduction in painful contractions. The objective of this trial was to compare immersion in warm water during labor with traditional pain management for a range of clinical and psychological outcomes.Methods:A prospective randomized controlled trial of 274 pregnant women, who were free from medical and obstetric complications and expecting a singleton pregnancy at term, was conducted at the Women's and Children's Hospital, a maternity tertiary referral center in Adelaide, South Australia. Women in labor were randomized to an experimental group who received immersion in a bath or to a nonbath group who received routine care. Pharmacological pain relief was the primary outcome that was measured, and secondary outcomes included maternal and neonatal clinical outcomes, factors relating to maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity, psychological outcomes, and satisfaction with care.Results:The use of pharmacological analgesia was similar for both the experimental and control groups; 85 and 77 percent, respectively, used major analgesia. No statistical differences were observed in the proportion of women requiring induction and augmentation of labor or in rates of perineal trauma...

Children's and Youth Vulnerability : Poverty, Exclusion and Social Risk in Five Brazilian States; Vulnerabilidade entre criancas e jovens : pobreza, exclusao e risco social em cinco estados Brasileiros

Junho Pena, Maria Valeria; Rodrigues dos Santos, Maria Magdalena
Fonte: Brasilia: World Bank Publicador: Brasilia: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.54%
This book seeks to contribute to knowledge in two areas that are key to poverty reduction and social development: education and youth vulnerability. Specifically, the book focuses on the relationship between poverty, ethnicity, gender, and educational exclusion in four Northeast states in Brazil: Maranhao, Paraiba, Pernambuco, and Rio Grande do Norte; and in the Southeast state of Rio de Janeiro. Brazil has vigorously sought to expand the coverage and quality of education, and has achieved rapid results over the past decade. Progress has been achieved on important indicators, and the quality of education is now undoubtedly better than it was in the past. But social background, either as insufficient family income or low parental schooling, persists as a determinant of children's lagging educational achievement. Rural, indigenous, and Quilombola (descendants of fugitive slaves) students have precarious access to education, with schools often not offering the last four years of the mandatory eight in the fundamental cycle. Dropout and repetition rates remain key areas of concern for policymakers. Thus this book includes what youth think about themselves...

Education in the Republic of South Sudan : Status and Challenges for a New System

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.54%
This education status report (ESR), prepared at the request of the Government of South Sudan (GoSS), provides a comprehensive snapshot of an education sector that is emerging from a long period of civil strife. It confirms the strong appetite among the people for education; in turn, more educated citizens are needed to provide the bedrock of the new country and its prospects. The purpose of this report is to enhance the knowledge base for policy development in the education sector and, more broadly, create a platform for engaging a diverse audience in dialogue on education policies in the new country. The ultimate aim is to help develop a shared vision for the future of the education system among government, citizens, and partners in Africa's newest nation. The report clearly shows that the education system in South Sudan faces all the challenges of a new nation that is making a visible effort to catch up quickly from a very low base by rapidly increasing student enrollment. These challenges include a concentration of students in the early grades; a high proportion of overage students, repetition, and dropout; and weak levels of student learning. Further, the report indicates that South Sudan is beginning to feel the effects of its success at increasing enrollment at the primary level with growing demand for secondary and higher education. The report also highlights the low overall quality of education...

Achieving Better Service Delivery through Decentralization in Ethiopia

Garcia, Marito; Rajkumar, Andrew Sunil
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.54%
This report seeks to identify changes in human development outcomes in a period of deepening decentralization and to suggest how the country's decentralized governance structure will be improved to increase access to, as well as the quality of, relevant services. The report states decentralized governance structure helped facilitate improvements in service delivery and human development outcomes. The report argues that while policymakers, providers, and citizens must work together to strengthen accountability mechanisms, there is a particular need to strengthen local government and enhance the role of service. The report focuses on key actors and their roles in accelerating progress toward achieving the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) in Ethiopia. The report provides feedback from users of public services on access to, quality of, and adequacy of services. Improvements in health and education outcomes in the past 15 years occurred at a time of massive decentralization in Ethiopia.

LARGE-SCALE EXOGENOUS FORCING OF LONG-TERM PACIFIC SALMON PRODUCTION AND ECOSYSTEM INTERACTIONS IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA

Selbie, DANIEL
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 15368688 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.77%
Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) production strongly influences the ecosystems, cultures and economies of the Northeast Pacific. Historical variability in population sizes is complex, reflecting natural and human drivers. The nature and extent of such ‘exogenous’ controls on salmon and their nursery ecosystems are poorly understood, a significant impediment to sustainable fisheries management. Novel applications of paleolimnology demonstrate that past sockeye salmon abundances and nursery system ecology can be reconstructed from lake sediments. This thesis focuses on employing these techniques to establish the forcing mechanisms underlying salmon population and ecosystem dynamics, and determine the effects and interactions of fisheries management. I provided the first reconstruction for a southern North American stock, which demonstrated the influences of both conspicuous (e.g. commercial fishery, main-stem damming) and uncertain human impacts (e.g. local damming) on endangered salmon declines. By reconstructing ecological variability at multiple trophic levels, I established that rehabilitative management (e.g. fish stocking) may have permanently altered nursery lake rearing capacity, a change potentially reinforced by recent atmospheric changes. This work highlights significant impediments to ongoing recovery efforts. I extended my analysis of salmon management by exploring the interactive impacts of exotic salmon stocking on a remote northern lake. I demonstrated the utility of long-term data in pre-emptively understanding the complex impacts of stocking by documenting the long-term trajectories in limnological conditions. Integrating modeling...

Management of slips and its effect on growth and production of 'Pérola' pineapple plants

Reinhardt,Domingo Haroldo; Souza,Ana Patrícia Mascarenhas; Caldas,Ranulfo Correa; Alcântara,José dos Prazeres; Almeida,Alberto Alves de
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Fruticultura Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Fruticultura
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.65%
The lack of good quality planting material has limited the expansion and contributed to yield reduction of the Brazilian pineapple culture. Alternatives of 'Pérola' pineapple slips management were studied aiming at obtaining superior planting material within a shorter time period and making good use of healthy slips of low vigor, that are commonly discarded by growers. Two experiments were carried out at the Experimental Field of Embrapa Cassava & Fruits, Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil, and another one in a commercial plantation in the region of Itaberaba, BA, using blocks or entirely randomized designs with at least four replications. In the first one, the development of slips of different initial sizes (6 to 20 cm long), when grown on mother plants after fruit harvest, was compared with that of slips grown in a nursery after their removal from the mother plants. It became clear that larger slips grow more vigorously and that the removal from the mother plant delays their growth. However, results from the second study showed that those slips grown in nursery had vegetative and agronomic performance similar to that of conventional slips and close to that of plantlets produced from plant stem sections. Independently from the type of planting material used...

Lake St Lucia, Africa's largest estuarine lake in crisis: combined effects of mouth closure, low levels and hypersalinity

Cyrus,Digby; Jerling,Hendrik; MacKay,Fiona; Vivier,Leon
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.49%
The Lake St Lucia estuarine system is the most important nursery ground for juvenile marine fish and prawns along the KwaZulu-Natal coast. The estuary mouth closed in June 2002 because of drought and remained so for 4 years and 9 months. A study to determine the impacts of extended mouth closure, hypersalinity and low lake levels on the mesozooplankton, macrobenthic invertebrates and fish fauna was initiated in 2004. Zooplankton and benthic invertebrate diversity declined, benthic invertebrate community composition changed and the diversity and abundance of fish decreased between 2004 and 2007. In the case of fish, the declines were related to die-offs in the lake and the failed recruitment of post-larvae and juveniles from the marine environment as a result of the mouth having been closed. Options for management intervention under closed-mouth conditions are limited at this time, particularly in the short term, to breaching the mouth and facilitating the inflow of sea water. In the medium term, as was the historical situation, the reconnection of the Mfolozi system to St Lucia should be viewed as a major priority.