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Thermoregulatory constraints on behavior: patterns in a neotropical dragonfly assemblage

De Marco Jr,Paulo; Latini,Anderson O.; Resende,Daniela C.
Fonte: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Odonate species are classified in terms of their thermoregulatory behavior into flier and percher categories. Larger perchers could be more efficient thermoregulators in sunny sites and smaller perchers depend more on air temperature. In this paper, an analysis of the behavioral temporal budget of an odonate neotropical assemblage was performed to determine the role of body size on territorial defense and general behavioral strategies. This analysis revealed three groups based on time budget. The first and second groups contained the species that remained perched for most of the activity time, but species of the first group differ from the second group by the larger proportion of transition flights. The third group contained species which were usually observed patrolling or in reproductive activities. The larger species spent more time in patrol and territorial defense activities, while smaller species remained perched. Larger dragonflies, with better thermoregulatory abilities could spend more time in reproductive activities. The behavioral classification of fliers and perchers is considered extremely useful but could oversimplify the behavioral patterns among species that have a wide body size variation. It is proposed that a behavioral continuum associated with the body size variation in perchers could explain some patterns of species interactions in odonate communities.

Time budget-, behavioral synchrony- and body score development of a newly released Przewalski’s horse group Equus ferus przewalskii, in the Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area in SW Mongolia

Souris, Anne-Camille; Kaczensky, Petra; Julliard, Romain; Walzer, Christian
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
The Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) became extinct in the wild in the 1960s, but survived as a species due to captive breeding. There have been several initiatives to re-introduce the species in central Asia, but until now only two projects in Mongolia establish free-ranging populations. Data on basic ecology and behavior of the species prior to extinction is largely lacking and a good documentation of the re-introduction process is essential. Between 13 May and 2 September 2003 we documented the time budget-, group synchrony and body score development of a newly released Przewalski’s horse group in the Gobi area of SW Mongolia.

Activity Time Budget during Foraging Trips of Emperor Penguins

Watanabe, Shinichi; Sato, Katsufumi; Ponganis, Paul J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/11/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
We developed an automated method using depth and one axis of body acceleration data recorded by animal-borne data loggers to identify activities of penguins over long-term deployments. Using this technique, we evaluated the activity time budget of emperor penguins (n = 10) both in water and on sea ice during foraging trips in chick-rearing season. During the foraging trips, emperor penguins alternated dive bouts (4.8±4.5 h) and rest periods on sea ice (2.5±2.3 h). After recorder deployment and release near the colony, the birds spent 17.9±8.4% of their time traveling until they reached the ice edge. Once at the ice edge, they stayed there more than 4 hours before the first dive. After the first dive, the mean proportions of time spent on the ice and in water were 30.8±7.4% and 69.2±7.4%, respectively. When in the water, they spent 67.9±3.1% of time making dives deeper than 5 m. Dive activity had no typical diurnal pattern for individual birds. While in the water between dives, the birds had short resting periods (1.2±1.7 min) and periods of swimming at depths shallower than 5 m (0.25±0.38 min). When the birds were on the ice, they primarily used time for resting (90.3±4.1% of time) and spent only 9.7±4.1% of time traveling. Thus...

Influences of Mating Group Composition on the Behavioral Time-Budget of Male and Female Alpine Ibex (Capra ibex) during the Rut

Tettamanti, Federico; Viblanc, Vincent A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
During the rut, polygynous ungulates gather in mixed groups of individuals of different sex and age. Group social composition, which may vary on a daily basis, is likely to have strong influences on individual’s time-budget, with emerging properties at the group-level. To date, few studies have considered the influence of group composition on male and female behavioral time budget in mating groups. Focusing on a wild population of Alpine ibex, we investigated the influence of group composition (adult sex ratio, the proportion of dominant to subordinate males, and group size) on three behavioral axes obtained by Principal Components Analysis, describing male and female group time-budget. For both sexes, the first behavioral axis discerned a trade-off between grazing and standing/vigilance behavior. In females, group vigilance behavior increased with increasingly male-biased sex ratio, whereas in males, the effect of adult sex ratio on standing/vigilance behavior depended on the relative proportion of dominant males in the mating group. The second axis characterized courtship and male-male agonistic behavior in males, and moving and male-directed agonistic behavior in females. Mating group composition did not substantially influence this axis in males. However...

Vigilance and Activity Time-Budget Adjustments of Wintering Hooded Cranes, Grus monacha, in Human-Dominated Foraging Habitats

Li, Chunlin; Zhou, Lizhi; Xu, Li; Zhao, Niannian; Beauchamp, Guy
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
Due to loss and degradation of natural wetlands, waterbirds increasingly rely on surrounding human-dominated habitats to obtain food. Quantifying vigilance patterns, investigating the trade-off among various activities, and examining the underlying mechanisms will help us understand how waterbirds adapt to human-caused disturbances. During two successive winters (November-February of 2012–13 and 2013–14), we studied the hooded crane, Grus monacha, in the Shengjin Lake National Nature Reserve (NNR), China, to investigate how the species responds to human disturbances through vigilance and activity time-budget adjustments. Our results showed striking differences in the behavior of the cranes when foraging in the highly disturbed rice paddy fields found in the buffer zone compared with the degraded natural wetlands in the core area of the NNR. Time spent vigilant decreased with flock size and cranes spent more time vigilant in the human-dominated buffer zone. In the rice paddy fields, the birds were more vigilant but also fed more at the expense of locomotion and maintenance activities. Adult cranes spent more time vigilant and foraged less than juveniles. We recommend habitat recovery in natural wetlands and community co-management in the surrounding human-dominated landscape for conservation of the hooded crane and...

Reducing the Transaction Costs of Development Assistance : Ghana’s Multi-Donor Budget Support (MDBS) Experience from 2003 to 2007

Cavalcanti, Carlos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
This paper examines whether the structure of the Multi-Donor Budget Support (MDBS) in Ghana evolved over time to minimize transaction costs commonly found in accessing and delivering development assistance in multi-donor settings. While the MDBS was expected to reduce the transaction costs involved in dealing with multiple development agencies, it created three additional sources of transaction costs: coordination failures, the costs of collective action, and measurement costs. The answer that emerges from this paper is that the structure of the MDBS evolved to mitigate these transaction costs. The problems associated with coordination was addressed by delegating the policy dialogue to sector-specific groups aimed at reaching agreements over a narrower set of issues and amongst a smaller group of participants. Also, the MDBS reduced the cost of collective action by devising rules that allowed all the participating agencies to have a role in the decision-making process, and, in doing so, encouraged these agencies to increase the share of their contribution coming through the MDBS...

M&E Systems and the Budget

Krause, Philipp
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) are means to multiple ends. Measuring government activities, constructing and tracking performance indicators across sectors and over time, evaluating programs, these activities can be carried out and tied together with different objectives in mind. It will certainly be possible to use M&E purely as a way to improve transparency and accountability, by making more information on the workings and results of government programs available to the public. One can also focus M&E on managerial purposes, to reward performance inside ministries and agencies. But surely a crucial element of running an effective public sector will be missing if M&E were not used to inform the spending of public money. This briefing note will introduce the main issues surrounding M&E as a tool for budgeting, a system usually referred to as performance budgeting, to help policy makers make strategic decisions about their M&E systems by outlining different design choices and their respective advantages and pitfalls.

The Republic of Uganda - Public Expenditure Review : Report on the Progress and Challenges of Budget Reforms

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
This PER emphasizes the importance of the government and its development partners developing a systematic program and a sequenced approach to address identified concerns to allow Uganda to achieve macrostability, fiscal sustainability, and poverty reduction. The report is organized in seven chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the macro challenges Uganda faces and how these are linked to fiscal considerations. Macrostability has largely been achieved with satisfactory growth rates higher than in the previous year. But the unprecedented terms of trade shock has resulted in the decline of total receipts from exports. The reduction of foreign exchange revenues in combination with lower revenue collections has led to fiscal constraints. Chapter 2 notes the need to ensure stakeholder contribution to the budget process and to improve quality of budget planning, choices, and predictability. Chapter 3 analyzes the health, education, and water and sanitation sectors and describes the great progress made in aloocative efficiency --although these sectors are experiencing major challenges in achieving operational efficiency. Chapter 4 discusses how the government has "commitment control systems (CCSs)" to address the problem of arrears. Chapter 5 identifies how Uganda uses tracking systems to identify problems in flow of funds. Chapter 6 discusses the growing challenges for budget preparation...

Population Age Structure and the Budget Deficit

Chen, Derek H. C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
The author focuses on the effects of age structure changes on the size of budget deficits of national governments. More specifically, he determines whether differences in age structure can account for the observed differences in budget deficits across countries as well as across time. By way of an extension of the untested theory of negative bequest motives advocated by Cukierman and Meltzer (1989), the author argues that the commonly accepted notion that population aging tends to increase the budget deficits of economies is theoretically consistent. However, preliminary results from country and time fixed-effects panel regressions, estimated from 1975 to 1992 over 55 industrial and developing countries, indicate statistical evidence for this postulation is present only in the developing countries but not in the industrial countries.

Political Budget Cycles and the Organization of Political Parties

Hanusch, Marek; Keefer, Philip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
This paper introduces a new explanation for political budget cycles: politicians have stronger incentives to increase spending around elections in the presence of younger political parties. Previous research has shown that political budget cycles are larger when voters are uninformed about politician characteristics and when politicians are less credible. The effects of party age can be traced to organizational differences between younger and older parties that also affect voter information and politician credibility. Parties organized around particular individuals, rather than around policy labels or a party machine, are less likely to survive the departure of party leaders, to adopt organizational attributes that promote voter information and political credibility, and to limit political budget cycles. Previous research has also shown larger political budget cycles in younger democracies. Evidence presented here indicates that party age accounts for this effect.

Intertemporal Excess Burden, Bequest Motives, and the Budget Deficit

Chen, Derek Hung Chiat
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
The author aims to empirically determine the significant factors that affect the levels of budget deficits of central governments across time and across countries. He empirically tests two prominent theories of budget deficits-the Barro (1979) tax-smoothing approach, and the still-untested theory of negative bequest motives advocated by Cukierman and Meltzer (1989). The author uses econometric techniques including fixed-effects (both country and time) panel regressions spanning 87 countries over the period 1975 to 1992, and the Griliches treatment of missing data. The author finds relatively stronger statistical support for the tax-smoothing approach among developing countries but not in industrial countries. The existence of empirical evidence supporting the theory of negative bequest motives is indeterminate. The author also conducted post-regression analyses to assess the proportion of observed differences in budget deficits the factors were actually able to explain. These reveal that both theories are generally weak in accounting for inter-temporal changes in budget deficit shares for both industrial and developing countries. The theories performed significantly better in accounting for cross-section differences. The author has many contributions to the literature. First...

Brazil - Toward a More Inclusive and Effective Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre : Volume 1. Main report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: City Development Strategy (CDS); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
This report is about effective participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre. The process was initiated during the early years of re-democratization and decentralization in Brazil, following the end of the military dictatorship in 1985. The 1988 constitution initiated a process of decentralization and tax reforms that created the fiscal space for municipalities to make more significant public investment decisions. A plethora of participatory governance institutions have since proliferated in Brazil, most importantly, municipal policy councils and participatory budgeting bodies. The Participatory Budget (OP) was formally introduced in Porto Alegre under the leadership of the Workers' Party in coalition with pro-democracy social movements. Although initially fraught with difficulties due to fiscal constraints, the OP in Porto Alegre became gradually more systematic over time. Today, the OP has a complex methodology for organizing participation in a city of over 1.4 million inhabitants, as well as for prioritizing public investments based on three main criteria: unmet basic needs...

Brazil - Toward a More Inclusive and Effective Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre : Volume 2. Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: City Development Strategy (CDS); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
This report is about effective participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre. The process was initiated during the early years of re-democratization and decentralization in Brazil, following the end of the military dictatorship in 1985. The 1988 constitution initiated a process of decentralization and tax reforms that created the fiscal space for municipalities to make more significant public investment decisions. A plethora of participatory governance institutions have since proliferated in Brazil, most importantly, municipal policy councils and participatory budgeting bodies. The Participatory Budget (OP) was formally introduced in Porto Alegre under the leadership of the Workers' Party in coalition with pro-democracy social movements. Although initially fraught with difficulties due to fiscal constraints, the OP in Porto Alegre became gradually more systematic over time. Today, the OP has a complex methodology for organizing participation in a city of over 1.4 million inhabitants, as well as for prioritizing public investments based on three main criteria: unmet basic needs...

Gender and the Allocation of Adult Time : Evidence from the Peru LSMS Panel Data

Ilahi, Nadeem
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
Ilahi analyzes the determinants of intra-household time use in Peru in 1994 and 1997. She tests whether sickness, unemployment, the provision of water and energy services, and other factors affect the time use of men and women differently. The results show that women work up to a fifth more than men do and that women in poor households work more than those in rich ones, while there is no difference for men. Women's work is concentrated in housework and men's in income-generating activities. Sickness does not affect the work burdens of men or women, but it alters the composition: men work more in income-generating activities, and women tend the sick. Men bear a greater burden from female unemployment than do women from male unemployment. Improvements in the provision of water and energy services affect the time use of both men and women. And finally, demographic and life-cycle variables are as important as gender in explaining differences in time use.

Brazil : Toward a More Inclusive and Effective Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: City Development Strategy (CDS); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
This report is about effective participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre. The process was initiated during the early years of re-democratization and decentralization in Brazil, following the end of the military dictatorship in 1985. The 1988 constitution initiated a process of decentralization and tax reforms that created the fiscal space for municipalities to make more significant public investment decisions. A plethora of participatory governance institutions have since proliferated in Brazil, most importantly, municipal policy councils and participatory budgeting bodies. The Participatory Budget (OP) was formally introduced in Porto Alegre under the leadership of the Workers' Party in coalition with pro-democracy social movements. Although initially fraught with difficulties due to fiscal constraints, the OP in Porto Alegre became gradually more systematic over time. Today, the OP has a complex methodology for organizing participation in a city of over 1.4 million inhabitants, as well as for prioritizing public investments based on three main criteria: unmet basic needs...

Brazil : Toward a More Inclusive and Effective Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre, Volume 2. Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: City Development Strategy (CDS); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
This report is about effective participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre. The process was initiated during the early years of re-democratization and decentralization in Brazil, following the end of the military dictatorship in 1985. The 1988 constitution initiated a process of decentralization and tax reforms that created the fiscal space for municipalities to make more significant public investment decisions. A plethora of participatory governance institutions have since proliferated in Brazil, most importantly, municipal policy councils and participatory budgeting bodies. The Participatory Budget (OP) was formally introduced in Porto Alegre under the leadership of the Workers' Party in coalition with pro-democracy social movements. Although initially fraught with difficulties due to fiscal constraints, the OP in Porto Alegre became gradually more systematic over time. Today, the OP has a complex methodology for organizing participation in a city of over 1.4 million inhabitants, as well as for prioritizing public investments based on three main criteria: unmet basic needs...

Indonesia : Public Spending in a Time of Change

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
The study identifies strategic priorities for restoring sound public finances, emphasizing the need to maintain fiscal sustainability, under a constrained budget, and the need to improve the processes for making budgetary allocations, and budget implementation, towards greater fiscal transparency. It reviews Indonesia's public spending during the crisis, and the unavoidable build-up of fiscal pressure, its indebtedness, and fiscal risks, coupled with policy implications. Improvements to the budget allocation process are examined, focusing on budgetary management processes, across levels of government, and on the impact of decentralization - which could possibly reinforce civil society participation. A shift in the fiscal policy focus, towards maintaining fiscal sustainability, and ensuring economic recovery is recommended. Nonetheless, risks may threaten fiscal sustainability, namely, macroeconomic fluctuations, contingent liabilities, and decentralization. To minimize risks, the study suggests a combination of domestic revenue generation efforts...

The Quality of Budget Execution and Its Correlates

Addison, Douglas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
What determines the quality of budget execution around the world, measured in terms of a government's ability to accurately hit its own revenue and expenditure targets? The answers could be relevant to the topics of macroeconomic stability, national development, public service delivery, and political reputation. This paper takes a step toward finding answers through the exploration of a new database of budgets and budget outcomes and potential cross-country correlates of budget execution in levels and in composition. Few countries within the data sample execute their budgets well, in levels or in composition. Expenditure deviations are positively but rather loosely correlated with revenue deviations. Within this broad tendency, there is considerable variation in behavior not only across countries, but also across time within countries. In explaining the cross-country variations, the data confirm traditional drivers for common pool behavior while also supporting constructive roles for political institutions and the technical capacity for public financial management. This is good news for reform minded governments.

The Effect of Risk Misstatement on the Propensity to Commit Reduced Audit Quality Acts under Time Budget Pressure

Coram, Paul; Ng, Juliana; Woodliff, David
Fonte: American Accounting Association Publicador: American Accounting Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
This paper examines the effects of time budget pressure and risk of mis-statement on the propensity of auditors to commit reduced audit quality (RAQ) acts. Understanding the different conditions under which time budget pressure can impact on auditors' behavior is important because of the emphasis on meeting budgets in practice. A 2 × 2 × 2 mixed design was used with two between-subjects variables for time budget pressure and risk and a repeated measure for the type of RAQ (accepting doubtful audit evidence and truncating a selected sample). The dependent variable was the propensity to commit RAQ. The results support the contention that, undertime budget pressure, the likelihood of RAQ is lower when the risk of misstatement is higher. However, this effect was observed for only one of the two RAQ acts examined, suggesting that these RAQ acts are not seen to be the same by auditors. Different risk responses conditioned on the type of RAQ may be indicative of a strategic response to use of RAQ under time budget pressure.

Stochastic simulation for budget prediction for large surface mines in the South African mining industry

Hager,J.; Yadavalli,V.S.S.; Webber-Youngman,R.
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
This article investigates the complex problem of a budgeting process for a large mining operation. Strict adherence to budget infers that financial results align with goals. In reality, the budget is not a predetermined entity but emerges as the sum of the enterprise's operational plans. These are highly interdependent, being influenced by unforeseeable events and operational decision-making. Limitations of stochastic simulations, normally applied in the project environment but not in budgeting, are examined and a model enabling their application is proposed. A better understanding of budget failure in large mines emerges, showing that the budget should be viewed as a probability distribution rather than a single deterministic value. The strength of the model application lies with the combining of stochastic simulation, probability theory, financial budgeting, and practical scheduling to predict budget achievement, reflected as a probability distribution. The principal finding is the interpretation of the risk associated with, and constraints pertaining to, the budget. The model utilizes a four-dimensional (space and time) schedule, linking key drivers through activity-based costing to the budget. It offers a highly expressive account of deduction regarding fund application for budget achievement...