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"O controle social no processo de certificação de grupo por auditoria externa: o caso APROVE pela AAOCERT." ; The social control in the third party smallholder organic certification process: the APROVE’s case by AAOcert

Brito, Paulo Roberto Borges de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
O presente trabalho aborda as perspectivas de certificação que se abrem para a agricultura orgânica familiar, através dos processos alternativos de certificação, a certificação participativa em rede – CPR, e a certificação de grupo por auditoria externa. Os objetivos gerais do trabalho foram contribuir para um melhor entendimento sobre o potencial dos processos participativos na certificação de produtos orgânicos. Avaliar em que medida a certificação pode ser associada a um processo pedagógico, para os produtores familiares paulistas, no qual a possibilidade de fortalecimento do controle social pode levar à redução dos processos burocráticos no Sistema de Controle Interno - SCI. O objetivo específico foi verificar se o processo de certificação de grupo da APROVE, proposto pela AAOcert, baseado nas diretrizes da IFOAM, abre maiores possibilidades de construção de processos mais participativos para os produtores, tomando-se a CPR como embasamento para busca de um referencial teórico, por ser uma proposta construída com este propósito. O trabalho é orientado pela seguinte pergunta: é possível um sistema de certificação reconhecido internacionalmente, como a certificação de grupo por auditoria de terceira parte...

Denunciação da lide no direito brasileiro; Implead in Brazilian law.

Fornaciari, Fernando Hellmeister Clito
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/05/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
O objetivo central do presente trabalho é contribuir para o aprimoramento da aplicação da denunciação da lide, que é instituto valorizado, especialmente porque é modalidade de intervenção de terceiro que se ajusta aos princípios da economia e da celeridade processuais. Além disso, evita decisões contraditórias, facilita o cumprimento de provimentos jurisdicionais e vincula o terceiro à coisa julgada. O instituto já era aplicado no direito romano, mudando radicalmente seus contornos no direito germânico primitivo. As características da denunciação da lide nesses dois sistemas são marcantes e influenciaram as demais legislações. A depender da preferência que se lhe pretenda conferir, o instituto estará mais associado ao caráter de assistência, auxiliando o terceiro na defesa do denunciante, ou de efetividade do processo, resolvendo duas demandas por meio de uma única instrução processual e sentença e possibilitando o reembolso do denunciante no mesmo feito. Pretendeu-se, com esse trabalho, destacar a importância do instituto, que possui traços modernos no direito brasileiro, sendo tratado por disposições de direito processual, de direito material e de direito consumerista. Apesar dessas diversas previsões legais...

Sistematização da assistência litisconsorcial no processo civil brasileiro: conceituação e qualificação jurídica; A system for third-party joinder intervention in Brazilian civil procedure: concepts and legal classification

Coelho, Gláucia Mara
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/05/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.55%
Com a presente tese de doutoramento procurou-se sustentar que o ingresso voluntário do terceiro nas hipóteses hoje tratadas pela doutrina como sendo de assistência litisconsorcial revela, na realidade, a intervenção de um verdadeiro litisconsorte, o qual, com a sua admissão no processo em curso, assume a qualidade de parte para todos os fins. Para demonstração da tese proposta, iniciou-se com um exame histórico do instituto, por meio do qual foi possível localizar suas raízes mais remotas no direito italiano medieval até ser positivado pelo §69 da ZPO alemã em 1877. Esse mesmo estudo histórico foi realizado em face do ordenamento brasileiro, apresentando-se a evolução do instituto nos sucessivos diplomas legais, culminando com o artigo 54 do atual Código de Processo Civil (Capítulo 2). Na sequência, foram examinadas as figuras de intervenção de terceiros naqueles ordenamentos estrangeiros considerados mais relevantes para o estudo da assistência litisconsorcial no Brasil (Capítulo 3). Prosseguiu-se com a análise do tratamento conferido ao instituto pela doutrina brasileira contemporânea, objetivando elencar as principais características que são costumeiramente atribuídas à (assim conhecida) modalidade qualificada da assistência (Capítulo 4). Esse estudo...

As implicações do curso de formação continuada sobre consumo de álcool: uma proposta de intervenção breve aplicada por professores

Cruz, Luciana Aparecida Nogueira da
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 158 f. : il. color.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.98%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Pós-graduação em Educação - FFC; O consumo de álcool entre o público jovem tem se iniciado em idade cada vez mais precoce e com frequência cada vez maior. Por essa razão buscou-se realizar uma pesquisa com adolescentes, matriculados no ensino médio público, por profissionais da própria escola com apoio de um grupo de pesquisadores da UNESP (e não por pessoal externo à escola) em uma escola pública estadual de ensino médio de uma cidade do noroeste paulista, Brasil. Realizou-se um curso de formação continuada no local de trabalho com um grupo de professores e a fim de habilitá-los a desenvolver pesquisa sobre o padrão de beber de adolescentes e aplicar uma intervenção breve baseada no procedimento Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS). Essa intervenção é usada para a redução de danos e diminuição do consumo de álcool. O objetivo dessa pesquisa de doutorado foi avaliar as implicações que o curso de formação continuada teve na efetivação da pesquisa (levantamento e intervenção breve) dos profissionais da escola e na prática escolar desses profissionais, e a eficácia da intervenção breve aplicada por profissionais da educação. Os resultados apontam que a realização da pesquisa contribuiu significativamente para a prática docente e na autovalorização profissional. Notou-se que o vínculo entre professor e alunos facilitou a realização da intervenção breve alcançando índices significativos na redução de consumo de álcool...

Prevention of construction falls by organizational intervention

Becker, P; Fullen, M; Akladios, M; Hobbs, G
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
Objectives—Determine if a university based (third party) intervention can improve construction contractor organizational performance to increase use of fall prevention practices and technologies.

Opportunities for Early Intervention Based on Theory, Basic Neuroscience, and Clinical Science

Ulrich, Beverly D.
Fonte: American Physical Therapy Association Publicador: American Physical Therapy Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.85%
Therapeutic approaches in the pediatric population have generally been less aggressive than those implemented for younger and older adults. Several factors contribute to this, starting with the challenge of engaging infants in the “goal” of therapy, their resistance to initiating behaviors that are uncomfortable or fatiguing, the desire to make therapy as functionally relevant as possible when many functional skills have yet to emerge, and residual history of outdated theoretical concepts. On the practical side of who will pay for this more aggressive approach, there is limited empirical evidence based on randomized controlled trials to convince third-party payers to fund more extensive services. This article outlines a theoretical perspective prominent in developmental science that argues not only for the importance of frequent bouts of functionally relevant activity on the self-organization of behavioral patterns, but also for the impact that should be expected from the use of rigorous interventions on underlying subsystems, such as neural organization, that support these outcomes. In order to propose some future opportunities for clinical research and application, examples from recent activity-based clinical studies are presented...

Third Party Involvement in Barroom Conflicts

Parks, Michael J.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Felson, Richard B.; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
This study examines the effect of situational variables on whether third parties intervene in conflicts in barroom settings, and whether they are aggressive or not when they intervene. Based on research on bystander intervention in emergencies, we hypothesized that third parties would be most likely to become involved in incidents with features that convey greater danger of serious harm. The situational variables indicative of danger were severity of aggression, whether the aggression was one-sided or mutual, gender, and level of intoxication of the initial participants in the conflict. Analyses consist of cross-tabulations and three-level Hierarchical Logistic Models (with bar, evening, and incidents as levels) for 860 incidents of verbal and physical aggression from 503 nights of observation in 87 large bars and clubs in Toronto, Canada. Third party involvement was more likely during incidents in which: (1) the aggression was more severe; (2) the aggression was mutual (vs. one-sided) aggression; (3) only males (vs. mixed gender) were involved; and (4) participants were more intoxicated. These incident characteristics were stronger predictors of nonaggressive third party involvement than aggressive third party involvement. The findings suggest that third parties are indeed responding to the perceived danger of serious harm. Improving our knowledge about this aspect of aggressive incidents is valuable for developing prevention and intervention approaches designed to reduce aggression in bars and other locations.

Overcoming division in Bosnia and Cyprus : the limits of international intervention

RUGE, Majda
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%
The thesis provides a critical assessment of international involvement in the task of postconflict state consolidation of Bosnia and Cyprus. It aims to account for the inconsistent record of success of international actors in their attempts to institute and implement powersharing agreements in Bosnia and Cyprus. In particular, the thesis focuses on the impact of international incentives on the policies and discourse of the Bosnian Serb and the Turkish Cypriot secessionist elite in respect to the post-conflict state unification agenda. Much of the literature on third-party sponsored conflict management is optimistic about the possibility for conflict resolution through external intervention, especially in states offered the prospect of EU membership. The confidence in the transformative power of international incentives relies on the presumption that there is sufficient willingness and ability on the ‘external’ side to apply its leverage in support of policies that would promote more consensual inter-ethnic relations in aspiring member states. A further presumption posited by the literature, is that domestic socialisation into international/EU normative framework can yield discursive and identity changes in aspiring member states...

The Choice to Protect. Rethinking Responsibility for Humanitarian Intervention

RAO, Neomi
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
This Essay reexamines the responsibility to protect (“R2P”) from the perspective of states called to intervene—explaining the novelty of a third-party duty to help people in other states and the insufficiency of justifications offered for this moral responsibility. The Essay concludes that R2P will ultimately be defined by states contemplating intervention, in part because there are no agreed standards for responsibility and the doctrine has various triggering conditions that must be assessed by states, including the seriousness of the humanitarian crimes and the proportionality of any response. Moreover, domestic bureaucratic competition and conflict may make it difficult for a state to make a decision to intervene on primarily humanitarian grounds.

A theory of third-party intervention in disputes in international politics

Wohlander, Scott Barry
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.33%
The occurrence of third-party intervention is a hallmark of many of the most devastating conflicts in world history, because the entrance of third parties into a conflict expands the scope of the violence, amplifies the severity and duration of the fighting, and increases the overall amount of death and destruction. Even in international conflicts in which intervention does not occur, the possibility that third parties may intervene can affect the behavior of disputants and therefore shape the way disputes evolve and are eventually resolved. This dissertation develops a theory of intervention by laying out a story about how strategic third parties and disputants make interdependent decisions in the context of an ongoing militarized dispute, and then formalizing this story into a simple-game theoretic model. The theory produces a general, causal explanation for third-party intervention that specifies the precise conditions under which it does and does not occur. Overall, the theory predicts approximately two-thirds of cases correctly when subjected to rigorous empirical tests. In addition, the theory produces theoretically-interesting, empirically-supported insights about the relationships between the resources of the actors involved in a militarized dispute and the likelihood that intervention occurs. The dissertation concludes with an application of the theory to the debate in the international relations literature over whether balancing or bandwagoning is the more common form of intervention. The application shows that the theory produces a more powerful explanation for the occurrence of balancing and bandwagoning than the existing literature offers...

Private motive, humanitarian intent: a theory of ethically justified private intervention

Morton, Edwin D.,III
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The usual instruments of humanitarian military intervention are the regular armed forces of a state, or a group of states, but even when gross crimes such as genocide are committed and an intervention becomes morally obligatory, states are reluctant to risk the lives of their own soldiers. This moral tension is at the root of the international communitys failure to act in most cases. However, for states to fulfill the duty to prevent crimes against humanity, and at the same time protect their soldiers in the interests of national defense, a third party could be employed. In this thesis, the case will be made that the use of private military companies (PMCs) for humanitarian intervention is morally preferable to the employment of a states armed forces. To serve as a moral guideline for the concept, a theory of ethically justifiable private intervention has been formulated based on elements of Just War Theory and James Pattisons Moderate Instrumentalist Approach to humanitarian intervention. Three case studies are analyzed to conclude that, under certain conditions, humanitarian intervention conducted by PMCs is a morally permissible option.

An investment game with third-party intervention

Gary, Charness; Cobo-Reyes, Ram??n; Jim??nez, Natalia
Fonte: Universidad de Granada. Departamento de Teor??a e Historia Econ??mica Publicador: Universidad de Granada. Departamento de Teor??a e Historia Econ??mica
Tipo: Relatório
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.37%
This paper explores the effect of the possibility of third-party intervention on behavior in a variant of the Berg, Dickhaut, and McCabe (1995) ???Investment Game???. A third-party???s material payoff is not affected by the decisions made by the other participants, but this person may choose to punish a responder who has been overly selfish. The concern over this possibility may serve to discipline potentially-selfish responders. We also explore a treatment in which the third party may also choose to reward a sender who has received a low net payoff as a result of the responder???s action. We find a strong and significant effect of third-party punishment, in both punishment regimes, as the amount sent by the first mover is more than 60% higher when there is the possibility of third-party punishment. We also find that responders return a higher proportion of the amount sent to them when there is the possibility of punishment, with this proportion slightly higher when reward is not feasible. Finally, third parties punish less when reward is feasible, but nevertheless spend more on the combination of reward and punishment when these are both permitted than on punishment when this is the only choice for redressing material outcomes.

NATO and conflict resolution

Matei, Floriana Cristiana
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 71 p.
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; Since the end of the Cold War, the Balkan Peninsula has been witnessing various conflicts. The Former Republic of Yugoslavia has become a theater of atrocious confrontations between people with common history and traditions. The wars in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo, two components of the Former Republic of Yugoslavia, have entailed the involvement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in the multinational efforts to stop violence in this region. Since 1990, NATO's new objectives are reducing the risk of conflict, building increased mutual understanding and confidence among all European states, helping to manage crises affecting the security of the Allies, and expanding the opportunities for a genuine partnership among all European countries in dealing with common security problems. This thesis describes the characteristics of conflict and conflict resolution, with an emphasis on the factors that make a third party intervention in conflict "ideal." It will elaborate on NATO's diplomatic efforts to resolve conflict situations, providing an overview, analysis and evaluation of NATO's intervention as a third party in the conflicts in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo. Emphasis will be placed on whether or not NATO meets the factors/criteria for an "ideal third party."; Civilian...

External Interventions and the Duration of Civil Wars

Elbadawi, Ibrahim A.; Sambanis, Nicholas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
The authors combine an empirical model of external intervention, with a theoretical model of civil war duration. Their empirical model of intervention allows them to analyze civil war duration, using "expected" rather than "actual" external intervention as an explanatory variable in the duration model. Unlike previous studies, they find that external intervention is positively associated with the duration of civil war. They distinguish partial third-party interventions that extend the length of war, from multilateral "peace" operations, which have a mandate to restore peace without taking sides - and which typically take place at war's end, or at least when both sides have agreed to a cease-fire. In a future paper, the authors will examine whether partial third-party interventions - whatever their effect on a war's duration - increase the risk of war's recurrence. If that proves true, then even if interventions reduce the length of civil war, they may do so at the cost of further destabilizing the political system...

La fonction de l'intervention des tiers en droit judiciaire privé québécois

Blondin Stewart, Daniel
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
Cette étude présente une caractérisation du mécanisme procédural de l'intervention des tiers en droit judiciaire privé québécois. Développée en trois volets, elle aborde successivement l'origine historique de l'intervention des tiers, qui révèle sa pérennité et sa longévité (première partie). Un modèle conceptuel de sa forme contemporaine selon lequel son bien-fondé repose sur sa légitimité et son utilité est proposé (deuxième partie). Enfin, une étude critique, dans une perspective sociologique et comparative, de la place de l'intervention des tiers dans les projets de réforme de la procédure civile, expose son incompatibilité avec les modes alternatifs de résolution des conflits et trouve, dans le pouvoir judiciaire de l'ordonner d'office présent la législation étrangère, une assurance contre l'iniquité à laquelle le droit québécois devrait souscrire (troisième partie).; This study is a characterization of the procedural mechanism allowing intervention or joinder of third parties in Quebec's civil procedure law. Consisting of three parts, it traces the history of this procedure, revealing its perennial longevity (Part one). A theory of its contemporary function is proposed, according to which its legal validity rests on its legitimacy and usefulness (Part two). Finally...

Both Loved and Feared: Third Party Punishers Are Viewed as Formidable and Likeable, but These Reputational Benefits May Only Be Open to Dominant Individuals

Gordon, David S.; Madden, Joah R.; Lea, Stephen E. G.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/10/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Third party punishment can be evolutionarily stable if there is heterogeneity in the cost of punishment or if punishers receive a reputational benefit from their actions. A dominant position might allow some individuals to punish at a lower cost than others and by doing so access these reputational benefits. Three vignette-based studies measured participants' judgements of a third party punisher in comparison to those exhibiting other aggressive/dominant behaviours (Study 1), when there was variation in the success of punishment (Study 2), and variation in the status of the punisher and the type of punishment used (Study 3). Third party punishers were judged to be more likeable than (but equally dominant as) those who engaged in other types of dominant behaviour (Study 1), were judged to be equally likeable and dominant whether their intervention succeeded or failed (Study 2), and participants believed that only a dominant punisher could intervene successfully (regardless of whether punishment was violent or non-violent) and that subordinate punishers would face a higher risk of retaliation (Study 3). The results suggest that dominance can dramatically reduce the cost of punishment, and that while individuals can gain a great deal of reputational benefit from engaging in third party punishment...

War and Peace

Mautner, Thomas
Fonte: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
This paper develops a simple sequential-move game to characterize the endogeneity of third-party intervention in conflict. We show how a third party's "intervention technology" interacts with the canonical "conflict technologies" of two rival parties in a

The Third-Party Complaint in Action for Damage Against Physicians; A denunciação da lide nas ações indenizatórias contra médicos

Campos, Roberto Augusto de Carvalho; Butti, Fabricio Ferrari; Camargo, Rosmari Aparecida Elias
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2007 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
A utilização do instituto da denunciação da lide nas ações indenizatórias, nas quais se discute a responsabilidade dos prestadores de serviços médicos, não raro é feita de forma inadequada e desvirtuada de seus princípios e natureza jurídica. Ao ingressar em uma demanda em curso, previamente estabelecida entre consumidor e pessoa jurídica prestadora de serviços médicos, o médico litisdenunciado se defrontará com duas discussões distintas, quais sejam, eventuais vícios acerca do serviço médico, objeto da demanda originária, e também a natureza da relação jurídica havida com o denunciante. O estabelecimento de argumentações dessa natureza pode se tornar prejudicial aos interesses do autor da demanda, além de afrontar vedação expressa contida na legislação consumerista. A análise de decisões proferidas em Tribunais pátrios direciona para o entendimento da inaplicabilidade do instituto da denunciação da lide em ações fundadas na responsabilidade civil por prestação de serviços médicos.; It is not at all rare that the use of the established laws of third-party complaint in action for damages, where the accountability on services rendered by physicians is discussed is carried out inadequately and misinterpreted in its principles and legal nature. When joining an ongoing litigation that was previously established between the consumer and the legal entity rendering medical services...

Partes e terceiros na arbitragem; Parties and third parties in arbitration

Costa, Guilherme Recena
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/03/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
A tese discute o problema dos terceiros na arbitragem. Ela distingue os planos substantivo (contratual) e processual (jurisdicional) da arbitragem e, portanto, o status de parte e terceiro com relação, respectivamente, à convenção de arbitragem e ao processo arbitral. Depois de desenvolver as premissas teóricas na Parte 1, a Parte 2 expõe as teorias contratuais e societárias por meio das quais um não-signatário pode ficar vinculado à convenção de arbitragem, com destaque para a extensão a todos os acionistas da companhia da cláusula compromissória estatutária, bem como para a aplicação do princípio da boa-fé objetiva (teoria dos atos próprios, estoppel) para impedir com que determinados signatários burlem a convenção de arbitragem ao incluir terceiros no polo passivo da demanda ou, ainda, para impor a arbitragem a não-signatários que derivaram um benefício do contrato inter alios. Na Parte III, a atenção volta-se para o processo e a sentença arbitral. Expõe-se uma teoria dos efeitos da sentença, buscando-se explicar a sua potencial eficácia ultra partes com base: a) na necessidade de realizar o direito da contraparte à tutela jurisdicional (adquirente do direito litigioso, sucessores post rem judicatam); e b) na identificação de nexos de prejudicialidade-dependência permanente entre as relações jurídicas no plano do direito material (terceiro titular de situação dependente). Refutam-se...

International court of justice: The position of third parties reconsidered.

Koray, Bashirideen Iddrisu
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
This thesis seeks to investigate the impact of the decisions of the International Court of Justice on third parties from the perspective of the general and specific guarantees available for the protection of their interests under the Court's Statute. In the first chapter, the general protection extended to third parties is considered from the viewpoint of the general principle of the relative effect of judicial decisions, their value as building blocks of the Court's jurisprudence and their role as a subsidiary legal source. The second and third chapters are devoted to a critical analysis of the nature, scope, effect and conditions for the operation of the specific third party guarantees, namely, intervention for the purpose of the protection of the interest of a third party and intervention when the construction of a convention is in issue in a pending case. The fourth chapter examines the position of third parties in relation to the Court's advisory jurisdiction by considering the nature and effect of advisory opinions, by defining and identifying "third parties" in the context of the advisory procedure, by assessing the nature and extent of their participation in advisory proceedings and by undertaking a brief empirical survey of the impact of advisory opinions on them. Finally...