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Evaluation of the theory of mind in autism spectrum disorders with the Strange Stories test

Velloso,Renata de Lima; Duarte,Cintia Perez; Schwartzman,Jose Salomao
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2013 EN
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95.69%
Objective To evaluate the theory of mind in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and control individuals by applying the Strange Stories test that was translated and adapted to the Portuguese language. Method Twenty-eight children with ASD and 56 controls who were all male and aged between 6 and 12 years participated in the study. Results There were significant differences between the median scores of the groups for each of the 12 stories of the test and for the sum total of all the median scores. The median scores for all stories were significantly greater in the control group than those in the experimental group (children with ASD). In addition, the protocol had excellent internal consistency. Conclusion The theory of mind skills assessed with the Strange Stories test indicated alterations in children with ASD compared with children in the control group.

Social cognition and Theory of Mind: controversies and promises for understanding major psychiatric disorders

Martins-Junior,Flavio Eduardo; Sanvicente-Vieira,Breno; Grassi-Oliveira,Rodrigo; Brietzke,Elisa
Fonte: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.69%
The term "social cognition" generally refers to the mental operations that underlie social interactions including the perception and interpretation of the intentions, dispositions, and behaviors of others and the generation of a response to these behaviors. Social cognition has been considered a valuable and promising field that strives to understand the nature and outcome of major mental disorders. This article discusses the concept of social cognition and its relationship to Theory of Mind (ToM). Theory of Mind in autistic spectrum disorders has been studied since the 1980s, and cognitive impairments in these disorders may be restricted to ToM deficits because other cognitive domains and nonsocial intelligence are preserved. This article addresses the issues of human ontogeny, reviews the main findings from research on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and summarizes the tools commonly used in the assessment of these illnesses.

Translation and adaptation of Theory of Mind tasks into Brazilian portuguese

Sanvicente-Vieira,Breno; Brietzke,Elisa; Grassi-Oliveira,Rodrigo
Fonte: Associação de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Associação de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.68%
BACKGROUND: Theory of mind (ToM) is a field of social cognition that deals with the individual’s cognitive ability to interpret or infer the mental states of others based on previous knowledge. Recently, research has shown that this ability is compromised in patients with some psychopathologies, e.g., schizophrenia and autistic disorder. Investigators have also shown that deficits in ToM have impacts on social functioning and, consequently, on quality of life. Even though ToM studies have recently grown in number, some problems still remain (e.g., the difficulty of standardized tools to assess ToM in different languages). OBJECTIVES: To describe the translation and adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese of two of the most important and widely used ToM tasks, namely, the Theory of Mind Stories and the Hinting Task. METHOD: The process included the following steps: 1) translation; 2) production of a single translated version and review by specialists; 3) back-translation into English; 4) review by an English-speaking specialist; 5) adaptation of marked corrections; and 6) pilot application in a group representative of the target population (people with schizophrenia). RESULTS: A final translated version was obtained for each of the tasks. Both instruments were well understood by participants and can now be used in the Brazilian experimental setting. CONCLUSION: The availability of two major ToM tasks in Brazilian Portuguese facilitates the conduction of research on the topic in Brazil. In the future...

Theory of Mind in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case Study Describing an Intervention to Teach ToM Concepts

Vieira, Michelle C L
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.72%
Individuals with autism have been shown to have specific delays in the development of a theory of mind (ToM), which refers to the process of attributing mental states to self and to others in order to explain and predict behaviour. The overall purpose of this project is to provide an accessible account of a multi-year intervention, based on strategies consistent with applied behavior analysis (ABA), designed to improve the social development and theory of mind functioning of an 11-year old male student with autism spectrum disorder. An ethnographic account introduces readers to Kenny, a boy diagnosed with autism, and provides the context for understanding how the intervention was individualized to both consider his strengths and to address his needs. Based on the analysis of interview, questionnaire, and direct observational data obtained during a three week study period, four themes emerged as significant for reporting on the participant’s development. First, findings support the conclusion that it is critical for ToM interventions to be tailored to individuals in order to maintain motivation and ensure participation. Second, data supports that through the use of ABA techniques, the participant was able to develop social language skills...

The theory of mind module in evolutionary psychology

Gerrans, P.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.71%
Evolutionary Psychology is based on the idea that the mind is a set of special purpose thinking devices or modules whose domain-specific structure is an adaptation to ancestral environments. The modular view of the mind is an uncontroversial description of the periphery of the mind, the input-output sensorimotor and affective subsystems. The novelty of EP is the claim that higher order cognitive processes also exhibit a modular structure. Autism is a primary case study here, interpreted as a developmental failure of a module devoted to social intelligence or Theory of Mind. In this article I reappraise the arguments for innate modularity of TOM and argue that they fail. TOM ability is a consequence of domain general development scaffolded by early, innately specified, sensorimotor abilities. The alleged Modularity of TOM results from interpreting the outcome of developmental failures characteristic of autism at too high a level of cognitive abstraction.; Philip Gerrans; The original publication can be found at www.springerlink.com

Neuronale Grundlagen sozialer Kognition - fMRT Untersuchungen zur Theory of Mind; Neuronal basics of social cognition - a fMRI study on Theory of Mind

Atique, Mohammed Naushad Bijoy
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.8%
Die soziale Kognition ist seit Jahren Gegenstand intensiver neurowissenschaftlicher Forschung. Dabei subsummiert der Begriff der sozialen Kognition eine Vielzahl verschiedener kognitiver Prozesse, die zur erfolgreichen Interaktion in einer sozialen Umgebung notwendig sind. Eine sehr wichtige Komponente der sozialen Kognition ist die Fähigkeit, sich in eine andere Person hineinzuversetzen und so deren mentalen Zustand – dies kann z. B. eine Überzeugung, Intention oder Emotion sein – zu erkennen. Diese Fähigkeit wird als mentalizing oder Theory of Mind (ToM) bezeichnet (Frith und Frith 1999; Saxe et al. 2003). Die ToM ist entscheidend für eine angemessene Reaktion auf die Menschen in unserer Umgebung; denn je besser wir Vorraussagen über den nächsten Schritt einer Person machen können, desto besser können wir mit ihr interagieren (Frith 2007). Funktionelle Bildgebungsstudien haben eine Reihe von Hirnarealen identifiziert, die an der ToM beteiligt sind. Zu diesen Hirnarealen zählen der posteriore Sulcus temporalis superior (STS), die Poli temporales, der Precuneus, die temporo-parietale Junktion (TPJ) und der mediale präfrontale Kortex (MPFC) (Amodio und Frith 2006; Frith und Frith 2003; Gallagher und Frith 2003). Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht am Beispiel der Intentions- und der Emotionserkennung mithilfe der funktionellen Magnetresonanztomographie (fMRT)...

Affectionate Contact and Theory of Mind Abilities of Parent-Child Dyads

Christopher, Anastasia
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.8%
This study was conducted to investigate the extent to which affectionate physical contact (i.e., cuddling) affects preschoolers’ and parents’ abilities to engage in theory-of-mind reasoning. We explored the hypothesis that if affectionate contact affected theory-of-mind, then preschoolers and parents who cuddled would outperform those who did not. To test this hypothesis, we recruited 44 preschool aged children (3.8-4.6-year-olds) and their primary caregivers. We found that children who cuddled with their primary caregiver during a storybook reading task performed significantly better on theory-of-mind tasks compared to children who did not receive a cuddle. Importantly, our findings support the contention that affectionate contact affected children’s performance on theory-of-mind related tasks specifically, but not performance on executive functioning or non-mental representation tasks. A secondary goal of this study was to explore whether any effects of affectionate contact would be mediated by functional polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Although we were unable to obtain a sample size that was sufficient to directly test this hypothesis, we found that parents homozygous for the G allele at rs2254298 were significantly better at decoding the affective mental states of others compared to those who carried at least one A allele. Thus...

Maternal Depression and Children's Theory of Mind Understanding

Shamblaw, Amanda
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.72%
This study examined group differences in theory of mind understanding of children with versus without a maternal history of major depressive disorder (MDD) and potential mechanisms underlying these differences, in particular, maternal mental state talk and physical touch. Children of depressed mothers have been shown to experience a number of negative outcomes; however, little is known about the effects of maternal MDD on children’s theory of mind understanding. In this study, children with (n= 19) and without (n= 44) a maternal history of MDD were administered a battery of four false belief tasks and a theory of mind scale. Children with a maternal history of MDD performed significantly poorer on the false belief battery compared to children without a maternal history of MDD. Regardless of diagnostic status, less maternal mental state talk was also related to poorer child performance on the false belief battery. Similarly, children experiencing little or moderate physical touch performed significantly poorer on the false belief battery compared to those receiving high physical touch. A lack of maternal vocal inflection was significantly related to less mother-child physical touch. The results remained while controlling for child language ability. Finally...

Theory of Mind Decoding and Reasoning Abilities in Depression, Social Phobia, and Comorbid Conditions

Washburn, DUSTIN
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.78%
Vulnerability to major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by extensive interpersonal dysfunction. A framework that has been used to understand this impairment is theory of mind, or the ability to decode and reason about others’ mental states. Previous research has identified a mental state decoding advantage in individuals with a past history of MDD, which has been explained in terms of an enhanced social orientation in those with depression vulnerability. Although social phobia is highly comorbid with MDD, there is no research investigating theory of mind abilities in individuals with social phobia, nor has there been research examining how social anxiety may better account for the relation of depression to heightened theory of mind ability. Furthermore, there is a paucity of research investigating whether evidence of such a relation extends to the more complex task of reasoning about others’ mental states. Thus, the goals of the current investigation were to examine whether heightened ToM accuracy in those with a history of MDD is better accounted for by social phobia, and whether superior ToM skills in those with past MDD are seen across tasks that tap the domains of decoding and reasoning. Participants (N = 109) were assigned to one of four groups based on a structured diagnostic interview: (a) past MDD only (n = 36); (b) social anxiety disorder only (n = 9); (c) comorbid past MDD and social anxiety disorder (n = 23); and (d) no psychiatric history (n = 41). Results show that having a history of MDD is associated with heightened mental state reasoning abilities only in the presence of current social phobia. However...

A aquisição de verbos perceptivos e causativos e a Teoria da Mente; The acquisition of perception and causative verbs and the Theory of Mind

Gustavo Andrade Nunes Freire
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.75%
Este trabalho busca investigar, do ponto de vista da Gramática Gerativa, a aquisição linguística de complementos sentenciais de verbos perceptivos e causativos em português brasileiro (doravante, PB) e inglês e sua interação com o desenvolvimento da Teoria da Mente. Investiga-se qual a relação fundamental entre linguagem e cognição extralinguística, como essa relação é desenvolvida e o que falta nesse mapeamento linguístico no decorrer do desenvolvimento da criança. Mais especificamente, investigamos como as crianças adquirem os verbos perceptivos e causativos e seus complementos sentenciais e mostramos que o lugar ideal para explicá-la é na interface entre Aquisição da Linguagem e Teoria da Mente. Partimos da hipótese de que existe uma correlação entre as propriedades do evento percebido e a aquisição da linguagem e para sustentá-la destacamos as diferenças entre os complementos finitos e infinitivos. A partir delas, prevê-se que a aquisição dos complementos infinitivos de verbos perceptivos e causativos é anterior à aquisição dos complementos finitos, dada a complexidade desse último tipo. Examinamos também os verbos perceptivos não-agentivos ver e ouvir e atestamos que, além de nomearem o modo sensorial como auditivo ou visual...

O contexto experimental e a teoria da mente; The experimental context and the theory of mind

Jou, Graciela Inchausti de; Sperb, Tania Mara
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.69%
Para investigar a aquisição e desenvolvimento da teoria da mente de 58 pré-escolares, entre 3 e 5 anos, de classe alta de Porto Alegre, foram aplicadas 3 tarefas: crença falsa, aparência-realidade e crença, em duas modalidades. Usou-se uma modalidade 2 de cada tarefa para obter melhor desempenho das crianças. Criou-se, também, para a tarefa de crença falsa, uma categoria de justificativa, que permitiu às crianças corrigir as suas respostas iniciais. ANOVA com medidas repetidas mostrou que as crianças de 3 e 4 anos apresentaram um desempenho similar nas 3 tarefas aplicadas, excetuando-se a modalidade 1 de aparência-realidade e de crença falsa, quando consideradas as justificativas das crianças às respostas. Quanto às tarefas utilizadas, estas classificaramse de forma hierárquica em relação à dificuldade: a crença falsa foi a mais difícil, seguida pela aparência-realidade e finalmente a crença. Os resultados são discutidos com relação às exigências cognitivas de cada tarefa e à metodologia.; Fifty-eight middle-class 3 to 5 preschool children of Porto Alegre were given 3 tasks in order to examine the acquisition and development of the Theory of mind: false-belief, appearance-reality, and belief, standard and facilitated. The last one was introduced in order to investigate children's best performance on the tasks. Children's justifications to their answers were considered as another modality for the false-belief task...

¿ENGAÑAN LOS NIÑOS ANTES DE LOS 3 AÑOS? UNA PERSPECTIVA DESDE EL DESARROLLO DE LA TEORÍA DE LA MENTE/ DECEPTION BEFORE THREE-YEARS-OLD? A VIEW FROM THEORY OF MIND DEVELOPMENT

Jacqueline Benavides Delgado; UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES
Fonte: Psicología desde el Caribe Publicador: Psicología desde el Caribe
Tipo: article; publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.7%
El uso frecuente de las falsas creencias como tareas que permiten conocer el nivel de comprensión que los niños tienen de la mente de los otros, ha recibido importantes criticas (Bloom & German, 2000). Nuevas alternativas metodológicas surgieron en los 80´s (p.e., Chandler, Frtiz & Hala, 1989) con el fin de comprobar que los niños, a través de la capacidad genuina de engañar, demuestran que pueden no sólo tomar la perspectiva del otro sino, producir estados mentales. El debate es vigente (Newton, Reddy & Bull, 2000; Reddy, 2008) aunque ha tomado rumbos diferentes, tanto desde el punto de vista metodológico como, teórico. El artículo busca recrear este debate y demostrar cómo ciertas metodologías han impedido ver claramente el desarrollo mental en la primera infancia.Palabras claves: teoría de la mente, desarrollo cognitivo, primera infancia, engañoThe frequent use of false beliefs, as tasks that account for the level of understanding that children have the mind of others, has received significant criticism (Bloom & German, 2000).New methodological alternatives emerged in the 80's (e.g., Chandler, Fritz & Hala, 1989) in order to ensure that children through genuine capacity to deceive, demonstrating a level of understanding of the mind of others. Currently...

Teoria da mente : diferentes abordagens; Theory of Mind: different approaches

Jou, Graciela Inchausti de; Sperb, Tania Mara
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.74%
A capacidade de compreender os estados mentais (i.e. sentimentos, desejos, crenças e intenções) dos outros e de si mesmo é uma das características sociais do ser humano. Quando essa habilidade emerge e como se desenvolve são aspectos que têm sido pesquisados por psicólogos desenvolvimentistas e cognitivistas sob o nome de Teoria da Mente das crianças. Nesse trabalho, procura-se relacionar os diferentes enfoques teóricos acerca da natureza, gênese e desenvolvimento da teoria da mente com os achados empíricos e as metodologias empregadas. Questões referentes à idade em que os pesquisadores entendem que emerge uma teoria da mente nas crianças e a necessidade de desenvolver uma visão que englobe os diferentes níveis de compreensão que elas têm da mente, à luz das teorias existentes, são discutidas.; The ability to understand mental states (feelings, desires, beliefs, and intentions) is a characteristic of human beings. In the last few years, several studies have been carried out to understand the development of children’s ability to interpret others’ behavior or of what has been named children's theory of mind. In this paper we discuss the relationship among theoretical approaches to theory of mind, empirical findings and methodology. Two issues are discussed: the age children’s theory of mind emerges and the need to develop an approach which will allow for the inclusion of different levels of children’s understanding of mind in the light of current theories.

Individual Differences in Theory of Mind from Preschool to Adolescence: Achievements and Directions

Hughes, Claire; Devine, Rory T.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.8%
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Wiley at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cdep.12124/abstract.; In this article, we provide a state-of-the-science overview of research on normative individual differences in theory of mind. We begin by examining achievements in research on individual differences in theory of mind in the preschool years and more recent work on middle childhood and adolescence. In doing so, we outline several converging lines of evidence for social influences on individual differences in theory of mind, and assess the claim that individual differences in theory of mind matter for children?s social lives. We then evaluate two conceptualizations of individual differences in theory of mind: the developmental lag and genuine differences accounts. By placing the study of individual differences in theory of mind center stage, we aim to highlight fruitful avenues for research on normative variation in theory of mind both within and beyond the preschool years.; Rory T. Devine was funded by a grant from the Isaac Newton Trust, Cambridge.

Measuring Theory of Mind in Middle Childhood: Reliability and Validity of the Silent Films and Strange Stories Tasks

Devine, Rory T.; Hughes, Claire
Fonte: Centre for Family Research, University of Cambridge Publicador: Centre for Family Research, University of Cambridge
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
105.79%
This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication of the final version.; Recent years have seen a growth of research on the development of children?s ability to reason about others? mental states (or ?theory of mind?) beyond the narrow confines of the preschool period. The overall aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a task battery comprised of items from Happ??s (1994) Strange Stories task and Devine and Hughes? (2013) Silent Film task. 460 ethnically and socially diverse children (211 boys) aged between 7 and 13 years old completed the task battery at two time points separated by 1 month. The Strange Stories and Silent Film tasks were strongly correlated even when verbal ability and narrative comprehension were taken into account and all items loaded onto a single theory-of-mind latent factor. The theory-of-mind latent factor provided reliable estimates of performance across a wide range of theory of mind ability and showed no evidence of differential item functioning across gender, ethnicity or SES. The theory-of-mind latent factor also exhibited strong one-month test retest reliability and this stability did not vary as a function of child characteristics. Taken together these findings provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the Strange Stories and Silent Film task battery as a measure of individual differences in theory of mind suitable for use in middle childhood. We consider the methodological and conceptual implications of these findings for research on theory of mind beyond the preschool years.; R.T. Devine was funded by the Isaac Newton Trust...

Theory of mind and executive function in middle childhood across cultures

Wang, Zhenlin; Devine, Rory T.; Wong, Keri K.; Hughes, Claire
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.78%
This is the final version of the article. It was first available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2015.09.028; Previous studies with preschoolers have reported ?East-West? contrasts in children?s executive function (East > West) and theory of mind (East < West). This cross-cultural study with two samples of older children from the UK and Hong Kong aimed to test competing accounts of these contrasts that focus on either global effects of culture or more specific effects of pedagogical experience. Both groups of children in Hong Kong outperformed the British children on executive function tasks. That is, with respect to executive function, general cultural influences appear salient. In contrast, compared with their UK counterparts, children attending local schools in Hong Kong (but not those attending British-based international schools in Hong Kong) performed poorly on age-appropriate tests of theory of mind. With respect to theory of mind, pedagogical experiences therefore appear more salient than factors related to the broad contrast between individualist and collectivist cultures. Our findings also contribute to the debate surrounding the relationship between theory of mind and executive function: while scores on these two sets of tasks were robustly correlated within each country...

Esquizotipia, habilidades "Teoria da Mente" e vulnerabilidade à psicose: uma revisão sistemática; Schizotypy, "Theory of Mind" abilities and vulnerability to psychosis: a systematic review

Tonelli, Hélio Anderson; Alvarez, Cristiano Estevez; Silva, André astete da
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Psiquiatria Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Psiquiatria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2009 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.72%
CONTEXTO: A capacidade de inferir estados mentais de terceiros (também chamada habilidade "Teoria da Mente" ou "ToM") desenvolveu-se em decorrência de uma pressão evolutiva exercida por sociedades progressivamente mais complexas e parece estar comprometida na esquizofrenia e em portadores de transtorno esquizotípico de personalidade. Tal comprometimento poderia explicar o aparecimento de sintomas psicóticos nestes indivíduos. OBJETIVO: Revisar criticamente a literatura sobre alterações ToM em indivíduos esquizotípicos ou portadores de sintomas psicóticos subsindrômicos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se uma busca na base MedLine por trabalhos publicados em inglês e português, entre 1990 e 2008, utilizando a frase "Schizotypal Personality Disorder [MeSH] AND "Theory of Mind" OR "Mentalising". RESULTADOS: Foram selecionados 15 artigos, os quais utilizaram diversos desenhos experimentais e instrumentos para avaliação de traços esquizotípicos, propensão à psicose e habilidades ToM. CONCLUSÕES: Os trabalhos revisados visaram estabelecer relações entre vulnerabilidade à psicose e alterações ToM. Alguns artigos também abordaram o caráter traço ou estado dependente das alterações ToM. A maioria dos trabalhos selecionados sugeriu que indivíduos com escores altos para esquizotipia e familiares de esquizofrênicos apresentam problemas no processamento ToM (este teria...

Theory of Mind and understanding of graphical depictions of mental content ("thought bubbles"); Teoria da Mente e compreensão da representação gráfica de conteúdos mentais ("balões de pensamento")

Ottoni, Eduardo B.; Rodriguez, Cláudia Fernanda; Barreto, Janaína Corazza
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; avaliado por pares; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/03/2007 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.68%
Estudou-se a ontogênese da Teoria da Mente (atribuição de pensamentos e conteúdos mentais a outros indivíduos) por meio da representação gráfica de “balões de pensamento”, examinando-se indicadores de diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento, como a compreensão de “falsas crenças” (conteúdos mentais conflitantes entre si ou com a realidade) e de ordens mais complexas de representação (pensamentos sobre pensamentos). Crianças de 3 a 13 anos de idade responderam a questões associadas aos tópicos: “pensamento X realidade” (contraste entre as propriedades dos objetos reais e a privacidade dos pensamentos), pensamentos diferentes sobre o mesmo objeto (possibilidade de pessoas diferentes terem idéias distintas sobre algo cuja real natureza é desconhecida), “falsa crença” (entendimento de que outros podem ter uma representação incorreta, quando é conhecida a correta) e representações de 2ª e 3ª ordem. Uma compreensão da representação gráfica de conteúdos mentais começa a aparecer de forma significativa por volta dos 5 anos e se consolida aos 7 anos de idade. A compreensão da situação envolvendo “falsa crença” surge...

Theory of Mind in Autistic Family: A Literature Review; Teoria da Mente em Familiares de Autistas: Uma Revisão da Literatura

Andrade, Aline Abreu e; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais; Junior, Walter Camargos; Fundação Hospitalar do Estado de Minas Gerais; Teodoro, Maycoln Leôni Martins; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.72%
Teoria da mente consiste na habilidade de compreensão das pessoas sobre seus próprios estados mentais e dos outros. Pessoas com autismo possuem déficit nesta habilidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura sobre os estudos de teoria da mente realizados com familiares de pessoas com transtornos do espectro autístico. Utilizou-se as bases de dados BVS Medline, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier e Psy Articles na busca dos artigos. Foram selecionados nove artigos e os resultados indicaram inconclusibilidade dos dados sobre a existência de déficits de teoria da mente em familiares de pessoas com transtornos do espectro autístico. Desta forma, são apontados possíveis estudos futuros que possibilitem lançar luz sobre o tema.; Theory of mind is the people ability to understand their own mental states and the others. People with autism have significant deficit in this ability. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review about theory of mind studies conducted with relatives of people with autistic spectrum disorders. We used as databases BVS Medline, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier and Psy Articles in search of articles. Nine articles were selected and the results indicated inconclusive data on the existence of theory of mind deficits in relatives of people with autistic spectrum disorders. Thus...

The wandering mind: Mental time travel, theory of mind, and language

Corballis,Michael C.
Fonte: Instituto de Ciências Sociais da Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto de Ciências Sociais da Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.73%
Mental time travel includes the ability to bring to mind past events (episodic memory) and imagine future ones. Theory of mind is the ability to understand what others are thinking or feeling. Together, these faculties are dependent on the so-called “default mode network” in the brain, which is active when the mind is not engaged in interaction with the immediate environment. They enable us to mentally escape the present, and wander into past and future and into the minds of others. Language evolved out of gestural systems, probably during the Pleistocene, to enable people to share their mind wanderings, and tell stories, including fictional ones.