by Diane Massam.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Linguistics and Philosophy, 1985.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND HUMANITIES; Bibliography: leaves 390-407.
by Bruce Philip Hayes.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Linguistics and Philosophy, 1980.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND HUMANITIES.; Vita.; Bibliography: leaves 333-339.
by Yukio Otsu.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Linguistics and Philosophy, 1981.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND HUMANITIES.; Vita.; Bibliography: leaves 195-202.
by Cheng-Teh James Huang.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Linguistics and Philosophy, 1982.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND HUMANITIES.; Vita.; Bibliography: leaves 587-597.
Juliette Levin.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Linguistics and Philosophy, 1985.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND HUMANITIES; Includes bibliographical references.
by Naoki Fukui.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Linguistics and Philosophy, 1986.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND HUMANITIES.; Bibliography: leaves 270-281.
The dissertation argues for the necessity of a morphosemantic theory of number, that is, a theory of number serviceable both to semantics and morphology. The basis for this position, and the empirical core of the dissertation, is the relationship between semantically based noun classification and agreement in Kiowa, an indigenous, endangered language of Oklahoma. The central claim is that Universal Grammar provides three number features, concerned with unithood, existence of homogeneous subsets, and properties of those subsets. The features are used to analyze a wide variety of data. Semantic topics include the difference between granular and non-granular mass nouns, collective, non-collective and distributive plurals, and cardinality. Syntactic topics include the structure of DP, noun marking, agreement and suppletion. Morphological topics include the inventory of morphological operations, the featural basis of complex syncretisms, the difference between agreement and suppletion, whether features are privative or binary, and the nature of the Kiowa/Tanoan inverse. Keywords: Kiowa-Tanoan, number, morphology, semantics, agreement, suppletion, inverse, noun class, singular, dual, plural, features, binary, privative.; by Daniel Harbour.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...
by Mark Cleland Baker.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Linguistics and Philosophy, 1985.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND HUMANITIES; Bibliography: v.3, leaves 680-691.
In this thesis I examine some of the fundamental questions surrounding inversion structures. I first provide an analysis of Locative Inversion. I show that the mixed A- and A- syntactic behavior of the fronted PP in English could be derived once we understand how the featural composition of locative phrases influences on the Probe-Goal relation between C and the postverbal DP. In particular, I argue that there is a correlation between syntactic categories of locative phrases and typological differences in the syntactic patterns in Locative Inversion: in Mandarin Chinese, Chichewa, Kinande and Gungbe, locatives are (or can be) represented by nominal categories (i.e. equipped with complete cp-features) and these locatives exhibit pure A-properties in Locative Inversion; in English and Sesotho, however, they are characteristically represented by non-nominal categories and the locative phrases are thus forced to undergo two-step movement from an Aposition to an A-position as avoidance of intervention effects in the Agree system.I also discuss a variety of (generalized) inversion constructions, including English Quotative Inversion, Sentential Subject and French Stylistic Inversion. In these constructions I show that since a cp-deficient constituent moves to [Spec...
Fundamental to the philosophy of Buddhism, is the insight that there is
"unsatisfactohness" (dukkha) in the world and that it can be eliminated through the
practice of the Noble Eight Fold Path. Buddhism also maintains that the world as we
experience and entities that exist are bereft of any substantiality. Instead existence
is manifest through dependent origination. All things are conditional; nothing is
permanent. However, inherent in this dependent existence is the
interconnectedness of all beings and their subjection to the cosmic law of karma.
Part of cultivating the Eight Fold path includes a deep compassion for all other living
things, 'trapped' within this cycle of dependent origination. This compassion or
empathy (karuna) is crucial to the Buddhist path to enlightenment. It is this
emphasis on karuna that shows itself in Mahayana Buddhism with respect to the
theory of the boddhisatva (or Buddha-to-be) since the boddhisatva willingly
postpones his/her own enlightenment to help others on the same path. One of the
ramifications of the theory of dependent origination is that there is no
anthropocentric bias placed on humans over the natural world. Paradoxically the
doctrine of non-self becomes an ontology within Buddhism...
The goal of this paper is examine the recent literature on the intersection between philosophical pragmatism and International Relations (IR), including IR theory and IR research methodology. One of the obstacles to motivating pragmatist IR theories and research methodologies, I contend, is the difficulty of defining pragmatism, particularly whether there is a need for a more generic definition of pragmatism or one narrowly tailored to the goals of IR theorists and researchers. Even though philosophical pragmatism does not fit nicely into any of the traditional theoretic frameworks in International Relations, I sketch of a philosophically-inspired pragmatist IR theory based on the writings of John Dewey and Richard Rorty. On the topic of IR research methodology, I show how the cross-pollination of philosophical pragmatism and IR research methods has benefited immensely from the contributions of several leading IR pragmatists, and there are hopeful signs that the relationship can be further enriched.; Este artículo examina la literatura reciente sobre la intersección entre pragmatismo filosófico y relaciones internacionales (RI), incluyendo la teoría y la metodología de investigación de las RI. Se sostiene que uno de los obstáculos que motivan las teorías y metodologías pragmatistas de las RI es la dificultad de definir el pragmatismo...
This dissertation proposes a new reading and appraisal of an important theory of distributive justice, Ronald Dworkin's "Equality of Resources" (ER). ER is traditional in holding that choices made by rational, ignorant and purely self-interested beings are relevant to distributive justice. ER is novel both in its use of such choices and in incorporating the (previously exclusively conservative) idea that one's success is largely one's own responsibility into liberal egalitarianism. I argue that the tax-and-redistribution scheme Dworkin proposes to make actual distributions just is flawed because he misconceives the role of choice. He errs in thinking that the conditions for person X to receive compensation depend on the choices of such beings, although he is right, I argue, insofar as the relevant choices include X's hypothetical choices. (Further, Dworkin's critics err in thinking, that, according to him, these conditions wholly depend on X's actual choices.) Dworkin errs in that ER implies that whether X meets these conditions can depend on X's irrational choices, although he is right that whether X meets these conditions can depend on some of X's actual choices. ER becomes flawed, I argue, when Dworkin derives a tax-and-redistribution scheme designed to achieve distributive justice in reality from the auction he proposes for making hypothetical distributions just. I then consider whether ER withstands stock objections and how plausible it is relative to rival Theories. Dworkin argues that ER...
This dissertation consists of three chapters in which I address metaphysical and epistemological issues that arise in psychiatry, with particular attention paid to anti-psychiatric concerns. In Chapter 1, I consider three versions of anti-realism about psychiatric illness. I argue that Szasz's version of anti-realism should be rejected because it rests on a misunderstanding of illnesses more generally. Although I do not offer any clear refutations of labeling theory or cultural relativism, I point out the serious disadvantages of holding either view. I argue that in the absence of compelling reasons to endorse either labeling theory or cultural relativism, we are within our rights to remain realists about psychiatric illness. In Chapter 2, I address an epistemological concern that the scientific legitimacy of psychiatric taxonomy is compromised by the role that value judgments play in the study of mental disorders. I claim that this worry presupposes a view of science according to which objective observation and theory construction would not even be possible. I argue that, on a revised understanding of science proposed by Helen Longino, a scientifically legitimate psychiatric taxonomy is within our reach. Finally, in Chapter 3, I turn to the metaphysical problem of providing an account of disorders. An important part of a realist view of mental disorders includes an account of disorders. I claim that in light of available evidence of the heterogeneity of disorders...
Chapter 1 (Distance and Morality): This chapter is a response toFrances Kamm's "Faminine Ethics: the Problem of Distance in Morality and Singer's Ethical Theory". I argue that Kamm fails to produce a pair of cases in which a moral difference is present that is not attributable to factors other than distance. I claim that all of Kamm's pairs of cases that purportedly show that distance per se matters in morality, and in which Kamm's moral intuitions seem plausible, can be subdivided into two categories: (1) the cases are not, contrary to first appearances, properly equalized for all non-distance factors that might reasonably be expected to play a moral role; and (2) the cases are properly equalized, but only in virtue of stipulations that are very hard to believe or even fully comprehend; thus our intuitions refuse to reflect those stipulations even if we seem to accept them. I also point out that Kamm's attempts at explaining why distance could possibly matter in morality fall far short, as she herself admits. I conclude that there is no reason for us to believe that distance matters in morality, and offer an explanation of why it might nevertheless appear to us that it does - there are numerous factors that apparently are of moral significance...
The aim of this research essay is to examine the structural nature of theory in Information Systems. Despite the importance of theory, questions relating to its form and structure are neglected in comparison with questions relating to epistemology. The es
The objective of this article is to present general lines of a negative theory of media and its methodological approach. Every efort of a negative theory of media is based on risking the impossible to somehow extract such exhibition of its own mediatization and becoming the visible medial in itself as medial.; O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar as linhas gerais de uma teoria negativa dos media e sua abordagem metodológica. A partir desta perspectiva teórica, o medium é exposto em seu paradoxo. A sua marca é sua impenetrabilidade estrutural, porque os media possuem a peculiaridade de esconder a sua medialidade na medida em que se esforçam para produzir, representar ou mediar alguma coisa. No instante em que faz algo aparecer, o medium sofre a perda da sua própria aparição. Sua presença tem o formato de uma ausência. Como princípio de uma teoria negativa dos media dá-se então que a estrutura do medial não pode ser co-mediatizada – ela se mostra. Portanto, todo esforço de uma teoria negativa dos media se baseia em arriscar o impossível para de alguma forma extrair tal mostrar-se das próprias mediatizações e tornar o medial visível nele mesmo como medial.
Fonte: The Centre for Philosophy of Natural and Social Science (CPNSS), London School of EconomicsPublicador: The Centre for Philosophy of Natural and Social Science (CPNSS), London School of Economics
This paper provides an introductory review of the theory of judgment aggregation. It introduces the paradoxes of majority voting that originally motivated the field, explains several key results on the impossibility of propositionwise judgment aggregation, presents a pedagogical proof of one of those results, discusses escape routes from the impossibility and relates judgment aggregation to some other salient aggregation problems, such as preference aggregation, abstract aggregation and probability aggregation. The present illustrative rather than exhaustive review is intended to give readers new to the field of judgment aggregation a sense of this rapidly growing research area.