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A experiência do estranho no romance Die Aufzeichnungen des Malte Laurids Brigge, de Rainer Maria Rilke; The Foreigners/Stranger´s Experience in Rainer Maria Rilke's Die Aufzeichnungen des Malte Laurids Brigge

Martins, Renata de Freitas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/10/2011 PT
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36.1%
Inserida nos estudos da Germanística Interdisciplinar no Brasil, a presente dissertação, A experiência do estranho no romance Die Aufzeichnungen des Malte Laurids Brigge, de Rainer Maria Rilke, tem como objetivo analisar na mencionada obra literária, considerada o primeiro romance moderno em língua alemã do século XX, o conceito do estranho. Os diversos elementos ficcionais que compõem cada um de seus setenta e um fragmentos permitem ao protagonista-narrador, Malte Laurids Brigge, ter acesso à abrangente configuração da semântica do estranho que se apresenta aqui por meio de três vertentes: a experiência de vida em uma metrópole estrangeira com a qual ele não se identifica, mas que, dialeticamente, lhe serve como uma ponte para a descoberta de seu mundo interior; a revelação de recordações de sua infância, até então não manifestadas, e regidas por acontecimentos particulares que reconstituem a busca precoce por sua identidade; e a afirmação de seu Eu através de leituras de narrativas alheias que projetam camufladamente sua identidade. Com esse conjunto semântico multifacetário, Rilke logra articular com a experiência do estranho diversas possibilidades e tentativas de Malte Laurids Brigge em buscar e redefinir sua identidade.; Inscribed within Interdisciplinary Germanic Studies in Brazil...

A função epistemológica do estrangeiro no espaço semiótico da máquina comunicacional tanguera; The epistemological function of the stranger in the semiotic space of tango´s communicational machine

Masella Lopes, Paulo Roberto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/04/2014 PT
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45.88%
A partir da interpretação do conceito de semiosfera formulado por Iúri Lótman, a comunicação é entendida como um processo de tradução semiótica que ocorre na fronteira entre sistemas culturais. Consiste na transformação da informação em que os códigos são antes recodificados que decodificados, propiciando uma dinâmica também cultural na medida em que nesse processo tradutório estejam envolvidos mais do que simples códigos ou signos, senão padrões culturais que compreendem uma dimensão espaciotemporal em que se inserem as diversas linguagens. O mecanismo que propicia essa dinâmica parte de uma concepção epistemológica do espaço porquanto suponha uma fronteira que atue como filtro tradutor dos textos que se encontram fora de um determinado sistema que esteja sendo observado, modificando seu sentido ao torná-los próprios. Como o espaço semiótico compreende diversos sistemas de signos estruturados em diversas linguagens e submetidos a diversos contextos culturais, essa passagem de um meio a outro pode implicar em níveis de intraduzibilidade e imprevisibilidade que, apesar da resistência que possam suscitar à memória do sistema, uma vez traduzidos, asseguram um ganho qualitativo ao sistema cultural introduzindo informação nova e diversificada. O estrangeiro trata justamente dessa condição de ambiguidade da fronteira em que os textos podem ou não ser traduzidos. A hipótese é que a diversidade constitua-se na situação ideal de manutenção e de desenvolvimento do sistema ao permitir um número maior de interações e semioses...

Al di là del Piave: italianos e estrangeiros na comunicação mediada por computadores

Menegazzo, Elson Costa
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 169 f. : il.
POR
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36.02%
Pós-graduação em Ciências Sociais - FFC; Com o desenvolvimento da Comunicação Mediada por Computadores (CMC), tornaram-se possíveis outras formas de interação social e, apesar de essas possibilitarem a formação de grupos sociais no ciberespaço, também podemos encontrar algumas formas de exclusão. O fenômeno do estrangeiro se apresenta na CMC em língua italiana como uma relação ao mesmo tempo de proximidade e distância, além de algumas barreiras para o desenvolvimento de uma sociabilidade entre italianos e estrangeiros. Na aproximação feita ao fenômeno do estrangeiro, em um dos sistemas mais usados na CMC, o webchat, verificou-se que apesar da possibilidade técnica de se construírem e de se utilizarem diversas identidades nos sistemas de CMC analisados, a identidade nacional se destaca na interação entre italianos e estrangeiros, acompanhada muitas vezes de hostilidades ou de um discurso retórico em relação aos imigrantes na Itália.; With the development of Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC), new forms of social interaction became possible and, despite of the fact that they are responsible for the creation of social groups in the cyberspace, we can also find some forms of exclusion. The “stranger phenomenon” presents itself...

O mundo resplandecente, de Margaret Cavendish : estudo e tradução; The blazing world, by Margaret Cavendish : study and translation to Portuguese

Milene Cristina da Silva Baldo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/08/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
O objetivo desse trabalho de mestrado é traduzir e estudar The Description of a New World, Called The Blazing-World, de autoria da filósofa natural e Duquesa de Newcastle Margaret Lucas Cavendish, e cuja publicação ocorreu pela primeira vez em 1666 acompanhando seu outro livro Observations upon Experimental Philosophy. A obra estudada é considerada a primeira no gênero literário utópico escrita por uma mulher e apresenta a história do descobrimento de um novo mundo por um estrangeiro que, após atravessar os mares, ali desembarca. O Mundo Resplandecente possui uma organização das leis, do estado, da religião etc. que permite uma vida em perfeita harmonia. Porém, diferentemente da estrutura paradigmática do texto de Thomas Morus, após sua chegada, o estrangeiro passa a interferir nesse mundo provocando-lhe mudanças substanciais, principalmente no que se refere à criação de sociedades científicas. Pertencendo às utopias produzidas ao longo do século XVII, como algumas delas, este texto possibilita a observação de um ideal pautado no contexto político e histórico que circunda o autor, bem como, e principalmente, apresenta ao leitor diferentes ideias presentes nos debates filosóficos dessa época. Esse caráter ocorre...

O pensamento contrafactual e a atribuição de culpa a vítimas de violação em cenários de stranger e acquaintance rape

Silva , Daniela Maria Da Costa Ferreira Muro E
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
Dissertação de mestrado apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário; Cada vez mais a violação é perspetivada como o trauma que efectivamente constitui (Vidal & Petrak, 2007; Krahé, 1991). Ao impacto do crime per se, acresce o feedback da sociedade, que, se negativo, desencadeia um processo de vitimização secundária (Strómwall, Landstrom & Alfredsson, 2014), nomeadamente, a atribuição de culpa pelo crime à vítima. Uma das teorias que tem sido empregue na compreensão dos julgamentos de culpabilidade imputados a vítimas de violação é a teoria do pensamento contrafactual (Levy & Ben-David, 2008, pp. 7, 8) que concebe estes julgamentos como resultado do contraponto que se estabelece entre a realidade e as alternativas imaginadas (Roese, 1994; Roese, 2005, p. 17). O presente documento discute o fundamento e a viabilidade de implementação de uma investigação que enquadre a problemática dos julgamentos de culpa imputados a vítimas do crime de violação à luz do pensamento contrafactual, com uma metodologia que faz uso de vinhetas escritas e de listas de contrafactuais ascendentes focados na vítima. Adicionalmente, incorporamos a variável «tipo de relacionamento entre vítima e agente do crime» que, segundo nos constou...

Manipulation of the oxytocin system alters social behavior and attraction in pair-bonding primates, Callithrix penicillata

Smith, Adam S.; Ågmo, Anders; Birnie, Andrew K.; French, Jeffrey A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
The establishment and maintenance of stable, long-term male-female relationships, or pair bonds, are marked by high levels of mutual attraction, selective preference for the partner, and high rates of sociosexual behavior. Central oxytocin (OT) affects social preference and partner-directed social behavior in rodents, but the role of this neuropeptide has yet to be studied in heterosexual primate relationships. The present study evaluated whether the OT system plays a role in the dynamics of social behavior and partner preference during the first three weeks of cohabitation in male and female marmosets, Callithrix penicillata. OT activity was stimulated by intranasal administration of OT, and inhibited by oral administration of a non-peptide OT-receptor antagonist (L-368,899; Merck). Social behavior throughout the pairing varied as a function of OT treatment. Compared to controls, marmosets initiated huddling with their social partner more often after OT treatments but reduced proximity and huddling after OT antagonist treatments. OT antagonist treatment also eliminated food sharing between partners. During the 24-h preference test, all marmosets interacted more with an opposite-sex stranger than with the partner. By the third-week preference test...

Exploiting Statistical Methodologies and Controlled Vocabularies for Prioritized Functional Analysis of Genomic Experiments: the StRAnGER Web Application

Chatziioannou, Aristotelis A.; Moulos, Panagiotis
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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StRAnGER is a web application for the automated statistical analysis of annotated gene profiling experiments, exploiting controlled biological vocabularies, like the Gene Ontology or the KEGG pathways terms. Starting from annotated lists of differentially expressed genes and gene enrichment scores, regarding the terms of each vocabulary, StRAnGER repartitions and reorders the initial distribution of terms to define a new distribution of elements. Each element pools terms holding the same enrichment score. The new distribution thus derived, is reordered in a decreasing order to the right, according to the observation score of the elements, while elements with the same score, are sorted again in a decreasing order of their enrichment scores. By applying bootstrapping techniques, a corrected measure of the statistical significance of these elements is derived, which enables the selection of terms mapped to these elements, unambiguously associated with respective significant gene sets. The selected terms are immunized against the bias infiltrating statistical enrichment analyses, producing technically very high statistical scores, due to the finite nature of the data population. Besides their high statistical score, another selection criterion for the terms is the number of their members...

Human Analogue Safe Haven Effect of the Owner: Behavioural and Heart Rate Response to Stressful Social Stimuli in Dogs

Gácsi, Márta; Maros, Katalin; Sernkvist, Sofie; Faragó, Tamás; Miklósi, Ádám
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/03/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
The secure base and safe haven effects of the attachment figure are central features of the human attachment theory. Recently, conclusive evidence for human analogue attachment behaviours in dogs has been provided, however, the owner’s security-providing role in danger has not been directly supported. We investigated the relationship between the behavioural and cardiac response in dogs (N = 30) while being approached by a threatening stranger in separation vs. in the presence of the owner, presented in a balanced order. Non-invasive telemetric measures of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) data during the threatening approaches was compared to periods before and after the encounters. Dogs that showed distress vocalisation during separation (N = 18) and that growled or barked at the stranger during the threatening approach (N = 17) were defined as behaviourally reactive in the given situation. While characteristic stress vocalisations were emitted during separations, the absence of the owner did not have an effect on dogs’ mean HR, but significantly increased the HRV. The threatening approach increased dogs’ mean HR, with a parallel decrease in the HRV, particularly in dogs that were behaviourally reactive to the encounter. Importantly...

Childhood Maternal Support and Social Capital Moderate the Regulatory Impact of Social Relationships in Adulthood

Coan, James A.; Beckes, Lane; Allen, Joseph P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
For this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we assessed the impact of early social experiences on the social regulation of neural threat responding in a sample of 22 individuals that have been followed for over a decade. At 13 years old, a multidimensional measure of neighborhood quality was derived from parental reports. Three measures of neighborhood quality were used to estimate social capital—the level of trust, reciprocity, cooperation, and shared resources within a community. At 16 years old, an observational measure of maternal emotional support behavior was derived from a mother/child social interaction task. At 24 years old, participants were asked to visit our neuroimaging facility with an opposite-sex platonic friend. During their MRI visit, participants were subjected to the threat of electric shock while holding their friend’s hand, the hand of an anonymous opposite-sex experimenter, or no hand at all. Higher adolescent maternal support corresponded with less threat-related activation during friend handholding, but not during the stranger or alone conditions, in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus and left insula. Higher neighborhood social capital corresponded with less threat-related activation during friend hand-holding in the superior frontal gyrus...

Social exclusion modulates fairness consideration in the ultimatum game: an ERP study

Qu, Chen; Wang, Yuru; Huang, Yunyun
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
Previous neuroimaging research has identified brain regions activated when people’s fairness consideration changes under conditions of social exclusion. The current study used EEG data to examine the temporal process of changes in fairness consideration under social exclusion. In this study, a Cyberball game was administered to manipulate participants’ social exclusion or inclusion. Then, in the following Ultimatum game (UG), participants’ brain potentials were recorded while they received fair/unfair offers from someone who previously excluded them, someone who previously included them, or a stranger. Results showed that feedback-related negativity (FRN) after onset of distribution outcome was more pronounced for unfair offers compared to fair offers. Moreover, the FRN was more negative-going in response to unfair offers from people who previously excluded them than from the includer and the stranger. Fair offers elicited a larger P300 than unfair offers. In addition, P300 was more positive-going for unfair offers from the stranger than from the excluder and the includer. This study reveals a temporal process in which the effects of social exclusion on fair consideration are reflected in FRN in the early stage of outcome evaluation. These data also suggest that the FRN is modulated by the subjective evaluation of outcome events in a social context.

Regulation of Gene Expression in Autoimmune Disease Loci and the Genetic Basis of Proliferation in CD4+ Effector Memory T Cells

Hu, Xinli; Kim, Hyun; Raj, Towfique; Brennan, Patrick J.; Trynka, Gosia; Teslovich, Nikola; Slowikowski, Kamil; Chen, Wei-Min; Onengut, Suna; Baecher-Allan, Clare; De Jager, Philip L.; Rich, Stephen S.; Stranger, Barbara E.; Brenner, Michael B.; Raychaudh
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.63%
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and subsequent dense-genotyping of associated loci identified over a hundred single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants associated with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes (T1D), and celiac disease (CeD). Immunological and genetic studies suggest a role for CD4-positive effector memory T (CD+ TEM) cells in the pathogenesis of these diseases. To elucidate mechanisms of autoimmune disease alleles, we investigated molecular phenotypes in CD4+ effector memory T cells potentially affected by these variants. In a cohort of genotyped healthy individuals, we isolated high purity CD4+ TEM cells from peripheral blood, then assayed relative abundance, proliferation upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, and the transcription of 215 genes within disease loci before and after stimulation. We identified 46 genes regulated by cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), the majority of which we detected in stimulated cells. Eleven of the 46 genes with eQTLs were previously undetected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Of 96 risk alleles of RA, T1D, and/or CeD in densely genotyped loci, eleven overlapped cis-eQTLs, of which five alleles completely explained the respective signals. A non-coding variant...

Clinical trial informed consent: Outsiders and the love-justice correlation

Wilson, John Robert, Jr
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
Clinical trial informed consent is one of the most pressing issues of research ethics. As the Western world moves toward a harmonization of clinical research practices, scholars and clinical researchers have begun to discuss methods that can adequately assure a more valid clinical research informed consent process. One resource for insight and guidance on the issue of clinical trial informed consent is the theologically trained medical ethicist. Because of the theological and philosophical explications on love and justice that are emphasized in their training, such individuals are uniquely qualified to address the institutional and individual parameters inherent in the clinical trial informed consent process. These parameters are grounded in the clinical trial informed consent paradigm categories of recruitment of potential subjects, the "stranger" or "outsider" status of the potential subject, and the notion of clinical trials as endeavors of human experimentation. The argument for a unique qualification in this field relies upon the affinity found between these component categories of the clinical trial informed consent paradigm and the love and justice explications of Paul Ramsey and John Rawls. Specifically, these explications are concerned with the notions of care for the stranger and justice in institutional structures.

Love and the stranger: intimate relationships between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in a very remote Aboriginal town, northern Australia

Dalley, Cameo
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
Intimate relationships between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people have generally been pursued within the transactional modalities afforded by economy and kinship (e.g. Hamilton 1972; Tonkinson 1990; Redmond 2005). A parallel anthropological literature (e.g. Myers 1979; Venkatesan et al. 2011), however, has critiqued these emphases, and has instead highlighted the need to consider the emotional experiences of individuals. One of the types of individuals considered here is the stranger, a figurative character that Simmel (1950: 403) described as ‘no owner of soil’. In this paper I explore the experiences of one of these strangers, ‘Andrew’, a non-Aboriginal man who was the partner of an Aboriginal woman and living in the remote Aboriginal town of Mornington Island in the southern Gulf of Carpentaria. In interpreting Andrew's experiences, I argue for an analytic frame based on understanding how transformative personal encounters including love can bring together and sustain relationships between those of (sometimes) vastly different socio-cultural backgrounds.

Stranger to Familiar: Wild Strepsirhines Manage Xenophobia by Playing

Antonacci, Daniela; Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/10/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
The power of play in limiting xenophobia is a well-known phenomenon in humans. Yet, the evidence in social animals remains meager. Here, we aim to determine whether play promotes social tolerance toward strangers in one of the most basal group of primates, the strepsirhines. We observed two groups of wild lemurs (Propithecus verreauxi, Verreaux's sifaka) during the mating season. Data were also collected on nine visiting, outgroup males. We compared the distribution of play, grooming, and aggressive interactions across three conditions: OUT (resident/outgroup interactions), IN (resident/resident interactions in presence of outgroups) and BL-IN (baseline of resident/resident interactions in absence of outgroups). Play frequency between males was higher in OUT than in IN and BL-IN conditions; whereas, grooming was more frequent in IN than in OUT and BL-IN conditions. Aggression rates between resident and outgroup males were significantly higher than those between residents. However, aggressions between resident and outgroup males significantly decreased after the first play session and became comparable with resident-resident aggression levels. The presence of strangers in a well-established group implies the onset of novel social circumstances...

Evaluating the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to Assess the Bond between Dogs and Humans

Rehn, Therese; McGowan, Ragen T. S.; Keeling, Linda J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/02/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
The Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) is increasingly being used to study attachment between dogs and humans. It has been developed from the Ainsworth Strange Situation Procedure, which is used extensively to investigate attachment between children and their parents. In this experiment, 12 female beagle dogs were tested in two treatments to identify possible order effects in the test, a potential weakness in the SSP. In one treatment (FS), dogs participated together with a ‘familiar person’ and a ‘stranger’. In a control treatment (SS), the same dogs participated together with two unfamiliar people, ‘stranger A’ and ‘stranger B’. Comparisons were made between episodes within as well as between treatments. As predicted in FS, dogs explored more in the presence of the familiar person than the stranger. Importantly, they also explored more in the presence of stranger A (who appeared in the same order as the familiar person and followed the same procedure) than stranger B in SS. Furthermore, comparisons between treatments, where a familiar person was present in FS and stranger A was present in SS, showed no differences in exploration. In combination, these results indicate that the effect of a familiar person on dogs' exploratory behaviour...

Baumann, strangerhood and attitudes towards immigrants among the Australian population

Pietsch, Juliet; Marotta, Vince
Fonte: Sage Publications Inc Publicador: Sage Publications Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.89%
Through an investigation of the idea of the stranger, this article seeks to blend theory with empirical research. It does this in three ways. First, it engages with a social theory of the stranger articulated in the work of Zygmunt Bauman. Second, it exam

O estranho na transcriação cinematográfica de Luchino Visconti para O estrangeiro, de Albert Camus: uma análise da abertura fílmica; The stranger in the cinematografic transcreation by Luchino Visconti for The stranger by Albert Camus: an analysis of filmic opening scene

Martins, Ana Cláudia Sampaio
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Centro de Letras e Comunicação; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Letras; UFPel; Brasil Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Centro de Letras e Comunicação; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Letras; UFPel; Brasil
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
This study discusses the differents representation of alien in the narratives L’Étranger by Albert Camus and Lo straniero by Luchino Visconti. Therefore, our reflection is based on the precepts chosen by Tiphane Samoyault about the concept of intertextuality in order to understand how the works relate. We also consider the meaning of adaptation by the proposition of Linda Hutcheon. Under this perspective, we discuss the issues concerning the theory of alien of Julia Kristeva and Bernhard Waldenfels in the narratives thematic focus – the incipit from the novel and the opening scenes of Visconti’s film. Thereby, we analysis the alien behavior of the main character in the literary and filmic narratives, Meursault, in order to discuss the hypothesis of the research that seeks to understand if the filmic narrative is able to repay the strangeness of the novel since the opening.; Sem bolsa; Esse trabalho discute as diferentes representações de estranho nas narrativas L’Étranger, de Albert Camus, e Lo straniero, de Luchino Visconti. Para tanto, nossa reflexão baseia-se nos preceitos elencados por Tiphane Samoyault sobre o conceito de intertextualidade de modo a entender como as obras artísticas se relacionam. Pensamos, ainda...

The Origin of Prosociality Toward Strangers

Tan, Jingzhi
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%

Humans are champions of prosociality. Across different cultures and early in life, humans routinely engage in prosocial behaviors that benefit others. Perhaps most strikingly, humans are even prosocial toward strangers (i.e. xenophilic). This is an evolutionary puzzle because it cannot be explained by kinship theory, reciprocal altruism or reputation. The parochialism hypothesis proposes that this extreme prosociality is unique to humans, is motivated by unselfish motivation and evolved through group selection made possible by human culture and warfare. The first impression hypothesis, on the other hand, proposes that xenophilia can evolve to promote the selfish benefits that accrue from extending one's social network. It predicts that 1) nonhuman species can evolve prosociality toward strangers when the benefit of forming new relations is higher than the cost, 2) the motivation for prosociality can be selfish, and 3) encounters with strangers can be a positive social event since strangers represent potential social partners. This dissertation presents three sets of experiments designed to test these predictions with bonobos (Pan paniscus), a species known for reduced xenophobia. These experiments showed, first, that bonobos voluntarily shared monopolizable food with a stranger and helped the stranger to obtain out-of-reach food. Second...

DISTANCED BY DEFAULT OR THE MANDATES OF MARGINALIZATION IN CAMUS’ L’ÉTRANGER

Muratore, Mary Jo
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/12/2004 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.62%
For many readers, Camus’ L’Etranger traces the protagonist’s evolution from a state of self-indulgent unawareness to one of metaphysical lucidity. This article exposes the shortcomings of such readings by focusing rather on Meursault’s fundamentally static nature. In fact, this infamous character’s intellectual perspective and situational reality remain virtually unchanged from beginning to end. The sole evolution in evidence is in the “vision” of others, who fall prey to the prevailing prejudices of a dominant group. In consequence, an unremarkable but well-liked man is transformed into a social pariah via a tidal wave of condemnation – while the man himself is unchanged, victimized by conceptual deformations that are imposed upon him. The anti-hero’s status as an outsider signals, then, not merely the force of public opinion, but the flawed nature of the existentialist endeavor (a movement from which Camus wished ostensibly to be disassociated). The novel comes to represent, not the phenomenon of auto-determined or self-altered identity, but the unstable contingencies imposed from without and from which there is no exit.

The stranger in God's land - foreigner, stranger, guest: what can we learn from Israel's attitude towards strangers?

Wuench,Hans-Georg
Fonte: Old Testament Essays Publicador: Old Testament Essays
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
This article concentrates on the Hebrew terms used for "stranger" in the OT, especially the three most used terms zar (•-), nochri (-•-•) and ger (•-). The research methodology used is based on a canonical and literary critical approach to the OT. While the term •- is more or less neutral in its meaning, the terms -•-• and •- invoke stronger emotions: the term -•-• (foreigner) denotes a more or less dangerous stranger (due to strange gods and/or strange ways of living), whereas the term •- (guest) is used very positively. The latter is by far the most common word used for "stranger" in the OT. This article looks into the relation between these three words and then asks how a •- could become a •- and avoid being a -•-•. Finally, what we can learn from this for our modern society is explored in the conclusion.