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Greenhouse air temperature control using the particle swarm optimisation algorithm

Coelho, J.P.; Cunha, José Boaventura; Oliveira, Paulo
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.72%
The particle swarm optimisation algorithm is proposed as a new method to design a model based predictive controller subject to restrictions. Its performance is compared with the one obtained by using a genetic algorithm for the environmental temperature control of a greenhouse. Controller outputs are computed in order to optimise future behaviour of the greenhouse environment, regarding set-point tracking and minimisation of the control effort over a prediction horizon of one hour with a one-minute sampling period.

Controle simultâneo de temperatura e estequiometria aplicado em um secador vertical de revestimentos cerâmicos alimentado com gás natural; Simultaneous control of temperature and stoichiometric applied to a vertical dryer ceramic feeded with natural gas

Mota Neto, João
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Este trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento de um protótipo para o controle em malha fechada da temperatura e estequiometria de um secador vertical cerâmico alimentado a gás natural, instalado na linha de produção de revestimentos cerâmicos da empresa Eliane Revestimentos Cerâmicos - Unidade II, em Cocal do Sul - SC. É apresentada a fundamentação teórica da combustão e os dados experimentais do comportamento do protótipo aplicado no secador, com o objetivo de reduzir a emissão de poluentes e aumentar a eficiência de queima do gás natural, tendo como conseqüência a diminuição do consumo do mesmo. Foi aproveitada a estrutura do secador referente à instrumentação e aos mecanismos de combustão. Sendo concluído o sensoriamento, com a adição do sensor de oxigênio em um tubo fixado ao queimador. A interface de potência do protótipo foi realizada com a inclusão do inversor de freqüência para o controle da rotação do ventilador de combustão. Com a conclusão da implementação da instrumentação, e interfaces de potência do protótipo, foi inserido o sistema de supervisão desenvolvido com a ferramenta Delphi no computador industrial do secador, o qual contém as telas referentes às monitorações dos sensores e parametrização do controlador Com o estudo do comportamento do processo em questão...

Avaliação de duas tecnologias de controle para acionamento de sistema de aquecimento resistivo em creche suína; Evaluation of two control technologies for activation of resistive heating system in swine nursery

Juliana de Souza Granja Barros
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/02/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.86%
O uso de sistemas de aquecimento em creches suínas é necessário para proporcionar conforto térmico e bem-estar aos animais dentro das instalações. A maioria dos equipamentos de fornecimento de calor utilizados na suinocultura demanda energia elétrica; cujo custo é sempre crescente. Portanto, há a necessidade de ajustes nos sistemas de aquecimento hoje empregados, com o intuito de viabilizar o uso racional de energia elétrica pelo setor. Deste modo, por meio da aplicação de um sistema eletrônico de controle da temperatura dentro das creches é possível manter o bem-estar e o desempenho produtivo do animal, com maior eficiência do uso de energia elétrica, em relação a dispositivos de controle tradicionais, como por exemplo, o termostato. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar duas tecnologias de controle de temperatura quanto ao uso racional de energia elétrica, manutenção das condições de conforto térmico e de desempenho produtivo dos animais em fase de creche. Os tratamentos estudados foram: resistências elétricas suspensas controladas por termostato digital simples, que representou a testemunha, e resistências elétricas suspensas controladas por controlador PID (Proporcional, integral e derivativo). Os tratamentos foram analisados quanto ao consumo de energia elétrica (kWh)...

Temperature Control Methods in a Laser Tweezers System

Mao, Hanbin; Arias-Gonzalez, J. Ricardo; Smith, Steven B.; Tinoco, Ignacio; Bustamante, Carlos
Fonte: Biophysical Society Publicador: Biophysical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
Two methods of temperature control of a dual-beam optical-tweezers system are compared. In the first method, we used a 975 nm infrared laser to raise the temperature 5.6°C/100mW in a nonheating (830 nm) optical trap. The temperature increment logarithmically decreases toward the periphery of the heating beam, causing a fluid convection of 8 μm/s inside a 180 μm thick microchamber. In the second method, heating or cooling fluid was pumped through copper jackets that were placed on the water immersion objectives on both sides of the microchamber to control its temperature from 4.5°C to 68°C. The temperature controlled by the second method was both stable and homogeneous, inducing little fluid convection that would disturb single-molecule applications. An analysis of the power spectrum of the thermal force on a trapped bead showed no detectable vibration due to the liquid circulation. In both methods, force was measured directly by sensors of the momentum flux of light, independent of environmental disturbances including refractive index changes that vary with temperature. The utility of the second method was demonstrated in single-molecule experiments by measuring the mechanical stretch of a 41 kbp λ double-stranded DNA at temperatures ranging from 8.4°C to 45.6°C.

Temperature control in very low birthweight infants during first five days of life

Lyon, A; Pikaar, M; Badger, P; McIntosh, N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.84%
AIM—To determine ranges for skin temperatures in infants weighing under 1000 g in the first five days of life.
METHOD—Abdominal skin and foot temperatures were automatically collected each second, averaged over 1 minute and stored on computer. A computer program analysed the data in 83 babies weighing under 1000 g at birth over the first five days of life and expressed the temperatures as means and standard deviation. The temperature patterns seen in these babies were also visually analysed. The relation between an increasing abdominal skin-foot temperature difference and other signs of hypovolaemia was also studied.
RESULTS—These babies all had similar temperature patterns. Just after birth there was little ability to vasoconstrict in the presence of cold stress and the babies behaved more like poikilothermic animals. Vasomotor tone developed in the first three days, resulting in a stabilisation of the abdominal skin temperature to a mean of 36.90C and a widening of the central-peripheral temperature difference (Td) to a mean of 1.00 C. A Td of > 20 C was associated with other evidence of hypovolaemia for only 11% of the time.
CONCLUSIONS—Infants weighing under 1000 g have poor vasomotor control at birth and are at increased risk from cold stress. After the first two to three days of life...

Incubator temperature control: effects on the very low birthweight infant.

Ducker, D A; Lyon, A J; Ross Russell, R; Bass, C A; McIntosh, N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1985 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
We studied temperature stability in 22 infants of birthweight less than 1500 g in the first four days of life. Infants were nursed in incubators using either air mode control or skin temperature servo control. Data were collected continuously using a computer linked monitoring system. Skin temperature control resulted in a less stable thermal environment than air mode control. Increased thermal stability in the incubator on air mode control may well be beneficial, particularly to sick, very low birthweight infants.

Development and Clinical Application of a Precise Temperature-Control Device as an Alternate for Conventional Moxibustion Therapy

Takayama, Shin; Takashima, Shigeru; Okajima, Junnosuke; Watanabe, Masashi; Kamiya, Tetsuharu; Seki, Takashi; Yamasaki, Miyako; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Shigenao
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.82%
Moxibustion therapy has been used in East Asian medicine for more than a thousand years. However, there are some problems associated with this therapy in clinical practice. These problems include lack of control over the treatment temperature, emission of smoke, and uneven temperature distribution over the treatment region. In order to resolve these problems, we developed a precise temperature-control device for use as an alternate for conventional moxibustion therapy. In this paper, we describe the treatment of a single patient with paralytic ileus that was treated with moxibustion. We also describe an evaluation of temperature distribution on the skin surface after moxibustion therapy, the development of a heat-transfer control device (HTCD), an evaluation of the HTCD, and the clinical effects of treatment using the HTCD. The HTCD we developed can heat the skin of the treatment region uniformly, and its effect may be equivalent to conventional moxibustion, without the emission of smoke and smell. This device can be used to treat ileus, abdominal pain, and coldness of abdomen in place of conventional moxibustion in modern hospitals.

Tools for Physiology Labs: An Inexpensive Means of Temperature Control

Krans, Jacob L.; Hoy, Ronald R.
Fonte: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Publicador: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.83%
We describe a simple means of modulating preparation temperature, which may be useful in undergraduate physiology laboratories. The device was developed in an effort to make teaching exercises that involve temperature modulation accessible at low cost. Although we were interested in using the device specifically with the larval fruit fly preparation, it is applicable to many preparations and temperature sensitive phenomena. Feedback driven thermoregulators offer superior precision in experiments requiring temperature control, but can be prohibitively expensive, require power supplies and circuitry, and often generate large switching transients (artifacts) during physiological recording. Moreover, many interesting exercises involving temperature control can be carried out with a slightly reduced level of temperature precision.

Infrared Sensor-Based Temperature Control for Domestic Induction Cooktops

Lasobras, Javier; Alonso, Rafael; Carretero, Claudio; Carretero, Enrique; Imaz, Eduardo
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.84%
In this paper, a precise real-time temperature control system based on infrared (IR) thermometry for domestic induction cooking is presented. The temperature in the vessel constitutes the control variable of the closed-loop power control system implemented in a commercial induction cooker. A proportional-integral controller is applied to establish the output power level in order to reach the target temperature. An optical system and a signal conditioning circuit have been implemented. For the signal processing a microprocessor with 12-bit ADC and a sampling rate of 1 Ksps has been used. The analysis of the contributions to the infrared radiation permits the definition of a procedure to estimate the temperature of the vessel with a maximum temperature error of 5 °C in the range between 60 and 250 °C for a known cookware emissivity. A simple and necessary calibration procedure with a black-body sample is presented.

Avaliação da influência da temperatura de junção no desempenho de um módulo IGBT empregando sensores a fibra ótica

Bazzo, João Paulo
Fonte: Pato Branco Publicador: Pato Branco
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.82%
This study aims to evaluate the temperature influence on power losses of an IGBT module (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor), monitoring the temperature through direct measurement, using optical sensors. The direct monitoring of temperature is accomplished by means of optical sensors based on fiber Bragg grating installed inside the module, positioned on the semiconductor wafer, which forms the IGBT structure. For the experimental analysis to be performed under controlled temperature conditions, a digital temperature control system based on a Peltier effect thermoelectric module was developed, which can regulate the temperature in a range between -16 °C to 150 °C, with an percentage error of 0.1%. The drive of the IGBT module is done by a test circuit that can vary the device electrical parameters, such as pulse width, voltage and load current. A digital oscilloscope, providing verification of device performance during the switching and conduction of electrical current, obtains the waveforms that describe the IGBT behavior. The drive of the IGBT under controlled temperature allows checking the temperature ranges that have significant influence on the device power losses. The use of optical sensor provided to identify the heat generated on the device junction due to the power losses. The direct measurement of junction temperature also contributed to the development of a simple technique with great precision to obtain the thermal parameters of the IGBT structure. The parameters obtained were the basis for developing a precise thermal model that faithfully simulates the device thermal behavior...

Instrumentação e análise térmica do processo de produção de carvão vegetal; Instrumentation and Thermal Analysis of the Process of the Charcoal Production.

Oliveira, Rogério Lima Mota de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
A qualidade do carvão vegetal produzido em um forno é dependente dos procedimentos de controle de sua temperatura interna. Porém, na maioria das aplicações práticas, existem poucos modelos térmicos e o controle do processo, muitas vezes, é determinado pelas verificações visuais da fumaça por carbonizadores. Além disso, o tempo de secagem da madeira, o tempo da previsão de produção e homogeneidade da carbonização são também variáveis a serem controladas pelos carbonizadores. Isto significa que o controle da qualidade do carvão é diretamente dependente da experiência dos carbonizadores, mostrando-se ineficiente. No presente trabalho, os valores de temperaturas do processo de carbonização em fornos de alvenaria do tipo RAC 220 foram obtidos por sensores de temperatura pt100 localizados em vários pontos do forno e enviados para um sistema supervisório de monitoramento de temperatura desenvolvido, com o objetivo de se estabelecer uma relação entre a temperatura e a qualidade do carvão, para que futuramente seja desenvolvido um procedimento de controle automático. Os dados de temperatura coletados, são enviados para um sistema supervisório através uma comunicação sem fio, devido às condições adversas do meio. Este procedimento de medição com uma análise estatística representa uma ferramenta importante para a redução do tempo de secagem...

Modelling and control of direct steam generation in solar cavity receivers powered by paraboloidal dish concentrators

Zapata, José
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
The control of steam temperature in direct steam generation plants is challenging due to the complex physical process involved in turning water into steam, and the variable nature of solar radiation. This thesis explores the control of steam temperature at the outlet of a mono-tube cavity receiver powered by a 500m2 dish concentrator, using state feedback control. The dish concentrator, receiver and ancillary equipment constitute the SG4 once-through steam generation system at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. The control of temperature in the receiver employs a linear full state feedback control strategy. The controller manipulates the feed-water mass flow entering the receiver, to maintain constant steam temperature at the receiver outlet under variations in solar radiation, inlet flow conditions and ambient temperature. To implement the temperature controller, this thesis develops a dynamic model of the steam generation process in the receiver. The mono-tube cavity receiver consists of a single path of steel tubing coiled to form a cylindrical cavity with a frustum opening. The cavity side of the tube intercepts concentrated radiation from the dish concentrator and heats up. Water passes through the inside of the tube and absorbs heat...

Wireless sensing platform for remote monitoring and control of wine fermentation

Ranasinghe, D.; Falkner, N.; Pan, C.; Wu, H.
Fonte: IEEE; CD Publicador: IEEE; CD
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
Predictable winemaking depends upon the control of all the factors that affect fermentation, including the grape varieties, yeast selection, enzyme addition, the size and type of the vats, the temperature control regime, nutrient selection, and pumping regimes. The relationship between yeast behaviour and temperature control is well understood, forming the fundamental basis of winemaking. Temperature control in fermentation is crucial to the development of desirable flavours, alcohol levels and colour in all wine making grape varieties. Continuing issues in winemaking include the problems in measuring temperature across a vat, with the existence of large temperature gradients in vats as well as the inability of a single temperature reading to identify temperature differentials across fermentation vats leading to fermentation issues. A seemingly accurate measurement of temperature may be completely incorrect, at potentially high cost. Furthermore, we cannot have the most experienced winemakers everywhere at the same time; therefore, we must depend upon automated measurement and temperature control systems in a number of cases. In this paper we propose a low cost sensor array capable of measuring temperature gradients across vats for real time monitoring of wine fermentation processes and the development of a decision support system based on fuzzy logic to aid winemaking decisions. We have built and tested (both through simulations and in a wine fermentation tank) our system.; Damith C. Ranasinghe...

Temperature control instrumentation for scanning tunnelling microscopy

Visser, Jason Willem
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 8658393 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
This thesis describes three different design projects that are intellectually connected by the fact that they all involve the development of apparatus to facilitate the precise control of sample temperature in modern microscopes. The first project is a low-temperature sample stage, for a beetle-type scanning tunnelling microscope. The design for this sample stage, and images taken on it with atomic resolution at 114 K are presented. This stage has the capability for variable-temperature sample cooling, which is also discussed. The second project is a set of low- and variable-temperature isothermal radiation shields for a new microscope that is currently being designed and assembled by our research group. These shields provide temperature control between 5 K and room temperature, with measured stability better than +/- 0.1 K. Controlled and stable temperature changes at rates up to 1.5 K per minute have been produced. The shields are modular and can easily accommodate future modifications. The design for the shields, along with their cooling and temperature control capabilities, is presented. The third project is a new stage design for heating, cleaning, and transferring metal and semiconductor samples. Also for use with the new microscope...

Controle preditivo baseado em modelo neuro-fuzzy de sistemas não-lineares aplicado em sistema de refrigeração = : Model predictive control based on neuro-fuzzy nonlinear systems applied to a refrigeration plant; Model predictive control based on neuro-fuzzy nonlinear systems applied to a refrigeration plant

Ivan Carlos Franco
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/07/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.84%
Os sistemas de refrigeração estão presentes em diferentes ramos da indústria e caracterizam-se como grandes consumidores de energia com considerável comportamento não-linear. Inúmeros trabalhos vêm sido desenvolvidos para promover a redução dos gastos energéticos e a minimização dos efeitos das não-linearidades nestes sistemas. A aplicação da automação e do controle de processos, particularmente o uso de técnicas avançadas de controle, são estratégias amplamente utilizadas para esta finalidade. O Controle Preditivo baseado em Modelos (MPC) é capaz de estabilizar processos onde há não-linearidades, sendo promissora a sua aplicação em sistemas de refrigeração. Neste trabalho, foi desenvolvido um SIStema de MOnitoramento e Controle Avançado para Refrigeração (SISMOCAR) capaz de monitorar, em tempo real, através da comunicação OPC (OLE for Process Control), todas as variáveis envolvidas no ciclo de refrigeração e também realizar o controle das variáveis de interesse. Modelos Takagi-Sugeno (SISO) para a predição das temperaturas de evaporação (Te) e do fluido secundário (Tp) foram desenvolvidos e validados, a partir da técnica ANFIS (Adaptative Network based Fuzzy Inference Systems), com análise de desempenho baseado no cálculo do VAF (Variance accounted for). Os modelos Takagi-Sugeno validados foram utilizados como base para Controladores Preditivos...

Controle de aquecedores de passagem a gás com chama modulante

Gutterres, Leonardo Maraschin
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
Este trabalho aborda o desenvolvimento de um sistema de controle de temperatura para um aquecedor de passagem de água a gás. O sistema de controle Controlgás é apresentado e comparado ao sistema de controle típico, usado em aquecedores de passagem convencionais. São apresentadas as características e objetivos do projeto Controlgás, o qual serviu de base para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho. É apresentada uma fundamentação teórica sobre técnicas de controle para compensação de variações paramétricas e de atrasos de transporte, bem como uma revisão sobre as principais soluções já desenvolvidas para o controle de temperatura da água em aquecedores de passagem. A bancada experimental, contendo o aquecedor e o sistema de controle, utilizada em trabalhos anteriores, foi reestruturada e instrumentada com sensores de temperatura na entrada e na saída de água e com sensores que detectam a presença de chama e de fluxo de água. Foi desenvolvida uma servo-válvula que permite a regulagem automática da vazão de gás. Desenvolveu-se um circuito de potência para o acionamento dos atuadores (solenoides e servo-válvula) da bancada, assim como algoritmos que geram os sinais adequados para seu funcionamento. Foi feita a identificação do processo e o modelo da servo-válvula foi obtido por meio da análise de ensaios experimentais. O modelo do sistema completo foi desenvolvido no programa Simulink...

Fiber optic sensors and self-reference techniques for temperature measurements in different industrial sectors

Tapetado Moraleda, Alberto
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
El objetivo de este trabajo se centra especialmente en el desarrollo de sensores de fibra óptica y técnicas de autoreferencia para la medida de la temperatura en diferentes entornos industriales. El primer objetivo de este trabajo consiste en el diseño y desarrollo de un sensor de fibra óptica de bajo coste para la medida de la temperatura en transformadores de potencia y aplicaciones biomédicas. En estas aplicaciones, el uso de sensores de temperatura tradicionales resulta inadecuado debido a la presencia de fuertes interferencias electromagnéticas que pueden perturbar la lectura de la temperatura. Uno de los requisitos fundamentales para diseñar un sensor de temperatura que pueda usarse en aplicaciones biomédicas es el uso de materiales biocompatibles en su fabricación. En este sentido, una configuración simple que permite cumplir con los requisitos mencionados anteriormente es la modulación por intensidad en fibras poliméricas. Este tipo de sensores basan la lectura de la temperatura en medir las variaciones de potencia óptica en función de los cambios de temperatura que se aplican sobre el sensor. En este contexto, el uso de la tecnología asociada con la fibra óptica de plástico ofrece ventajas competitivas frente a otros materiales...

Temperature Control using Fuzzy Logic

Singhala, Piyush; Shah, Dhrumil; Patel, Bhavikkumar
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/02/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.86%
The aim of the temperature control is to heat the system up todelimitated temperature, afterwardhold it at that temperature in insured manner. Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is best way in which this type of precision control can be accomplished by controller. During past twenty yearssignificant amount of research using fuzzy logichas done in this field of control of non-linear dynamical system. Here we have developed temperature control system using fuzzy logic. Control theory techniques are the root from which convention controllers are deducted. The desired response of the output can be guaranteed by the feedback controller.; Comment: 10 pages

On-Chip Hotplate for Temperature Control of Cmos Saw Resonators

Nordin, Anis; Voiculescu, Ioana; Zaghloul, Mona
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/05/2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
Due to the sensitivity of the piezoelectric layer in surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators to temperature, a method of achieving device stability as a function of temperature is required. This work presents the design, modeling and characterization of integrated dual-serpentine polysilicon resistors as a method for temperature control of CMOS SAW resonators. The design employs the oven control temperature stabilization scheme where the device's temperature is elevated to higher than Tmax to maintain constant device temperature. The efficiency of the polysilicon resistor as a heating element was verified through a 1-D partial differential equation model, 3-D CoventorWare finite element simulations and measurements using Compix thermal camera. To verify that the on-chip hotplate is effective as a temperature control method, both DC and RF measurements of the heater together with the resonator were conducted. Experimental results have indicated that the TCF of the CMOS SAW resonator of -97.2 ppm/deg C has been reduced to -23.19 ppm/deg C when heated to 56 deg C.; Comment: Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/16838)

Minimizing temperature droop and power line flicker in a lamp heated xerographic fusing system

Swing, Jeffrey
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.88%
Fuser roll temperature is one of the most important parameters affecting the performance of a xerographic fusing system. Temperature must be tightly controlled to ensure consistency of image permanence and quality, usually with a heating lamp. To reduce lighting flicker, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) regulations limit the effects that the heating lamp can have on a mains power system. To meet these constraints, power delivery to the lamp is slowed down and transient performance of the temperature control system is reduced. This is especially prevalent at the start of a print job where the thermal system transitions from a low power state to a high one. An existing thermal model of a fusing system is extended to cover a range of printable media. The thermal and electrical behaviors of the heating lamp and power system are modeled. The fast power system model is solved ahead of time and results stored in a lookup table for use with the slower lamp and fuser thermal models. With a complete thermal and electrical model, the variability of the temperature transients observed experimentally is replicated. With the system characterized and with the development of a validated model, an open loop optimal control boundary value problem is formulated to minimize temperature transients while meeting the electrical constraints. After finding the solution for the nominal startup sequence...