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Os Guarani e a Redução Jesuítica: tradição e mudança técnica na cadeia operatória de confecção dos artefatos cerâmicos do sítio Pedra Grande e entorno; The Guarani people and the Jesuit Settlement: tradition and technological change on Operation Sequence of ceramic artifact confection of Pedra Grande site and its surroundings

Zuse, Silvana
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/06/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
Nesse trabalho buscou-se compreender como ocorreu a ocupação da Pedra Grande e o entorno, na região central do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, pelos Guarani desde o período inicial até o momento do contato, quando estes são inseridos em uma Redução Jesuítico-Guarani no início do século XVII. Com ênfase no estudo das escolhas técnicas inseridas na cadeia operatória de confecção dos artefatos cerâmicos, buscou-se perceber as permanências e as mudanças técnicas ocorridas a partir do contato nas diferentes etapas de sua confecção em relação a: a aquisição da argila, tratamento da pasta, técnicas de confecção, forma do artefato, acabamento de superfície e queima, quando as vasilhas estão prontas ao uso. Foram analisadas as coleções cerâmicas do sítio Ibm 4 Pedra Grande, onde se instalou a Redução, em comparação com os vasilhames do sítio Ibm 14 Rodolfo Mariano pertencentes a um contexto funerário datado do século XI da nossa era. A percepção da continuidade e da mudança técnica se deu pelas recorrências e variabilidades na cultura material, percebidas através de atributos técnicos aplicados a cada fragmento de artefato e com auxílio de análises de Microscopia Óptica, Fluorescência de Raios X e Difratometria de Raios X. Dessa forma...

A dinamica da produção tecnologica : integrando as analises da sociologia e da economia; The dynamics of technological production : integrating the analyses of sociology and economics

Cristiane Rodrigues Vianna Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/08/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
A proposta dessa dissertação vai ao encontro do reconhecimento recente por parte dos autores das mais diversas tendências de que os enfoques disciplinares para tratar a produção do conhecimento em ciência e tecnologia, em geral, e a mudança tecnológica, em particular, são insuficientes. Como resposta a esse problema, propõe a multidisciplinaridade (ou interatividade) como forma de análise para esse fenômeno. Particularmente parece existir dificuldade de diálogo entre aqueles que estudam a produção do conhecimento científico e tecnológico com abordagens sociológicas e aqueles que o fazem a partir de enfoques econômicos. Aproximar essas duas vertentes de análise, identificando suas diferenças e, principalmente, seus pontos convergentes é do que se trata essa dissertação. Enquanto a Economia tende a não incorporar elementos importantes para a compreensão desse processo, como os determinantes sociais deste tipo de produção - entre eles, os interesses dos atores envolvidos, as estruturas de poder e a influência dos aspectos políticos -, a Sociologia, em contrapartida, desconsidera muitas das características fundamentais para a estrutura econômica de produção tecnológica, como agências, instituições e sistemas econômicos. Esses diferentes aspectos enfocados por cada uma dessas linhas de pensamento permitem que surjam...

Macroeconomic Implications of Investment-Specific Technological Change

Hercowitz, Zvi ; Krusell, Per ; Greenwood, Jeremy (1953 - )
Fonte: Universidade de Rochester Publicador: Universidade de Rochester
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
This work spawned the "Long-Run Implications of Investment-Specific Technological Change" (American Economic Review, 1997) and "The Role of Investment-Specific Technological Change in the Business Cycle" (European Economic Review, 2000). It contains some unpublished material on the vintage-capital structure of the models presented in these two papers.; A quantitative investigation of investment-specific technological change for the U.S. postwar period is undertaken, analyzing both long-term growth and business cycles within the same framework. The premise is that the introduction of new, more efficient capital goods is an important source of productivity change, and an attempt is made to disentangle its effects from the more traditional Hicks-neutral form of technological progress. The balanced growth path for the model is characterized and calibrated to the U.S. National Income and Product Account data. The long- and short-run U.S. data are then interpreted through the eyes of this framework. The analysis suggests that investment-specific change accounts for a large part of U.S. growth and is a significant factor in U.S. business cycle fluctuations.

The Role of Technological Change in Green Growth

Popp, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
By reducing the costs of environmental protection, technological change is important for promoting green growth. This entails both the creation of new technologies and more widespread deployment of existing green technologies. This paper reviews the literature on environmentally friendly technological change, with a focus on lessons relevant to developing countries. It begins with a discussion of the data available for measuring the various steps of technological change. It continues with a discussion of sources of environmental innovation. Given that most innovation is concentrated in a few rich countries, this leads to a discussion of the remaining role for lower-income countries, followed by a discussion of technology transfer. Because of the importance of market failures, the paper discusses the role of both technology policy and environmental policy for promoting environmentally friendly technological change. The review concludes with a discussion of what environmental economists can learn from other fields.

Closing the Gap in Education and Technology

De Ferranti, David; Perry, Guillermo E.; Gill, Indermit; Guasch, J. Luis; Maloney, William F.; Sanchez-Paramo, Carolina; Schady, Norbert
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
This report focuses not only on the gaps facing Latin America in both education and technology, but especially on the interactions between the two. The central premise of the report is that skills and technology interact in important ways, and this relationship is a fundamental reason for the large observed differences in productivity and incomes across countries. This report argues that skills upgrading technological change, and their interaction are major factors behind total factor productivity growth. Skill-biased technological change is indeed being transferred today at faster speeds to LAC countries, as elsewhere. Technological change has been complementary with skill levels in Latin America in the last two decades. It is further estimated that firms have substantially increased the demand for educated workers in the region, particularly workers with tertiary education. This technological transformation appears to be intimately related to patterns of integration in the world economy. Firms in sectors with higher exposure to trade are subject to more competitive pressures. Adopting and adapting more advanced technologies and hiring and training more educated workers is one way to respond to this pressure to become more productive. The increased potential demand for education offers the possibility to accelerate productivity growth in the economy by closing the educational and technological gaps that Latin American countries exhibit with respect to their peers.

Global Production Networking and Technological Change in East Asia

Yusuf, Shahid; Altaf, M. Anjum; Nabeshima, Kaoru
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
This book examines the effects of the changing global geography of production for the growth prospects of East Asian economies. The authors conclude that in the face of a global environment, economies in East Asia need to adapt to the changing character of global production networks and to nurture and develop technological capabilities in order to sustain their growth prospects. This is the third volume in a series of publications from a study co-sponsored by the Government of Japan and the World Bank to examine the sources of economic growth in East Asia. The study was initiated in 1999 with the objective of identifying the most promising path to development in the light of global and regional changes.

The impacts of trade liberalisation and technological change on GDP growth in Indonesia: a meta regression analysis

Permani, R.
Fonte: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG Publicador: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Twelve selected studies investigating effects of trade liberalisation in Indonesia resulting in 25 point estimates are included in the Meta Regression Analysis to assess the growth-enhancing effects of trade liberalisation and technological change. Given high variation across studies, this study finds no robust evidence of the positive impacts of a tariff cut on economic growth rates. However, it finds robust evidence of the growth-enhancing effects of technological change. This study also finds that studies which are published assuming increasing return to scale, focusing on non-agricultural sectors, using pre-1997 databases and with more disaggregated sectors tend to report higher growth effects of trade liberalisation. Compared to results reported by Indonesian researchers, non-Indonesian academic researchers report lower growth effects of trade liberalisation. Overall, this study suggests that providing assistance to developing countries to improve their productivity might be a better approach to multilateral negotiations than putting pressures on these countries to remove their trade barriers.; Risti Permani

Environmental policy and directed technological change : evidence from the European carbon market

CALEL, Raphael; DECHEZLEPRÊTRE, Antoine
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
This paper investigates the impact of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) on technological change. We exploit installations-level inclusion criteria to estimate the impact of the EU ETS on firms patenting. We find that the EU ETS has increased low-carbon innovation among regulated firms by as much as 10%, while not crowding out patenting for other technologies. We also find evidence that the EU ETS has not impacted patenting beyond the set of regulated companies. These results imply that the EU ETS accounts for nearly a 1% increase in European lowcarbon patenting compared to a counterfactual scenario.

Economic development and income inequality: the role of political institutions and directed technological change in modern economies.

Sochirca, Elena
Fonte: Universidade Portucalense Publicador: Universidade Portucalense
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.17%
Supervised by Óscar João Atanásio Afonso and Sandra Maria Tavares da Silva; The process of economic growth and its distributional e ects have major welfare consequences, creating advanced and developing economies. Modern growth theory highlights the role of capital ac- cumulation, human capital and technology in explaining cross-country economic and income variations. Forefront research exploring these questions emphasizes the primary importance of the institutional factor in determining technological progress and leading to di erent economic growth outcomes. This thesis aims at bringing its feasible contribution to the on-going research on income inequality and eco- nomic growth by considering the fundamental causes of structural, technological and political features of economic organisation. The rst part of the thesis investigates how institutions and policies, as important determinants of economic incentives, may condition economic growth and income inequality. Based on a comprehensive critical assessment of related literature, we rst develop a conceptual discussion on how institutional quality may in uence the e ciency of redistribution policy speci cally associated with human capital accumulation. We identify political rivalry as the main factor negatively a ecting the decisive role of political institutions and consequently distorting e cient redistribution policy. Given these theoretical insights...

Closing the Gap in Education and Technology

Perry, Guillermo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
The note looks at what it takes for countries, and firms to "learn how to learn". Education is vital, for at least two reasons. First, it has always been a critical complement to technological advance. Emerging evidence suggests that the knowledge transfer benefits of foreign direct investment (FDI), and trade liberalization, for example, are enhanced by higher stocks of human capital. Second, technological change in the twentieth century has been increasingly biased in favor of skilled workers, and appears to be the strongest force driving the increasing skilled/unskilled wage differential in industrialized countries. On reviewing Latin America's gaps in education, and technology, the central premise is that skills upgrading, technological change and interactions between the two are major factors behind total factor productivity (TFP) growth, and that TFP is a key determinant of long term growth. Skill-based technological change is being transferred faster today to LAC countries that are more open to trade...

Is Skill-Biased Technological Change Here Yet? Evidence from Indian Manufacturing in the 1990

Berman, Eli; Somanathan, Rohini; Tan, Hong W.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Most high and middle-income countries showed symptoms of skill-biased technological change in the 1980s. India-a low income country-did not, perhaps because India's traditionally controlled economy may have limited the transfer of technologies from abroad. However the economy underwent a sharp reform and a manufacturing boom in the 1990s, raising the possibility that technology absorption may have accelerated during the past decade. The authors investigate the hypothesis that skill-biased technological change did in fact arrive in India in the 1990s using panel data disaggregated by industry and state from the Annual Survey of Industry. These data confirm that while the 1980s were a period of falling skills demand, the 1990s showed generally rising demand for skills, with variation across states. They find that increased output and capital-skill complementarity appear to be the best explanations of skill upgrading in the 1990s. Skill upgrading did not occur in the same set of industries in India as it did in other countries, suggesting that increased demand for skills in Indian manufacturing is not due to the international diffusion of recent vintages of skill-biased technologies.

Technological Learning, Energy Efficiency, and CO2 Emissions in China's Energy Intensive Industries

Rock, Michael T.; Toman, Michael; Cui, Yuanshang; Jiang, Kejun; Song, Yun; Wang, Yanjia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.16%
Since the onset of economic reforms in 1978, China has been remarkably successful in reducing the carbon dioxide intensities of gross domestic product and industrial production. Most analysts correctly attribute the rapid decline in the carbon dioxide intensity of industrial production to rising energy prices, increased openness to trade and investment, increased competition, and technological change. China's industrial and technology policies also have contributed to lower carbon dioxide intensities, by transforming industrial structure and improving enterprise level technological capabilities. Case studies of four energy intensive industries -- aluminum, cement, iron and steel, and paper -- show how the changes have put these industries on substantially lower carbon dioxide emissions trajectories. Although the changes have not led to absolute declines in carbon dioxide emissions, they have substantially weakened the link between industry growth and carbon dioxide emissions.

The Effect of Climate and Technological Uncertainty in Crop Yields on the Optimal Path of global land use

Cai, Yongyang; Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Elliott, Joshua; Hertel, Thomas W.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.22%
The pattern of global land use has important implications for the world's food and timber supplies, bioenergy, biodiversity and other eco-system services. However, the productivity of this resource is critically dependent on the world's climate, as well as investments in, and dissemination of improved technology. This creates massive uncertainty about future land use requirements which compound the challenge faced by individual investors and governments seeking to make long term, sometimes irreversible investments in land conversion and land use. This study assesses how uncertainties associated with underlying biophysical processes and technological change in agriculture affect the optimal profile of land use over the next century, taking into account the potential irreversibility in these decisions. A novel dynamic stochastic model of global land use is developed, in which the societal objective function being maximized places value on food production, liquid fuels (including bio-fuels), timber production...

Knowledge disclosure as a weapon in technological change battles: straight shot or backfire?

Cortezi, Fernando
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
This work aims at evaluating how effective is knowledge disclosure in attenuating institutional negative reactions caused by uncertainties brought by firms’ new strategies that respond to novel technologies. The empirical setting is from an era of technological ferment, the period of the introduction of the voice over internet protocol (VoIP) in the USA in the early 2000’s. This technology led to the convergence of the wireline telecommu- nications and cable television industries. The Institutional Brokers’ Estimate System (also known as the I/B/E/S system) was used to capture reactions of securities analysts, a revealed important source of institutional pressure on firms’ strategies. For assessing knowledge disclosure, a coding technique and a established content analysis framework were used to quantitatively measure the non-numerical and unstructured data of transcripts of business events occurred at that time. Eventually, several binary response models were tested in order to assess the effect of knowledge disclosure on the probability of institutional positive reactions. The findings are that the odds of favorable institutional reactions increase when a specific kind of knowledge is disclosed. It can be concluded that knowledge disclosure can be considered as a weapon in technological changes situations...

Mudança tecnologica na industria de bens de capital no Estado de Sao Paulo, 1928-1937; Technological change in the capital goods industry in Sao Paulo´s state, 1928-1937

Michel Deliberali Marson
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/09/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.01%
A indústria brasileira durante a Grande Depressão tem sido estudada sob vários ângulos, mas são relativamente escassos trabalhos que tratam das eventuais mudanças no uso de recursos produtivos. Ainda mais escassos são os trabalhos que buscaram examinar as mudanças na indústria de bens de capital, urna indústria significativamente mais complexa em termos tecnológicos. O presente trabalho tentou contribuir com a historiografia econômica da industrialização brasileira estudando a indústria de bens de capital no estado de São Paulo em aspectos técnicos através de fontes de dados relativamente pouco utilizadas. Os principais resultados encontrados foram que entre 1928 e 1932 o crescimento da indústria de bens de capital é resultado de um aprofundamento do capital, ou seja, um ajuste para um nível mais alto de capital por trabalhador efetivo. Para o período de 1933 a 1937 o fator responsável pelo crescimento nessa indústria foi o progresso técnico ou o trabalho efetivo, dependendo da metodologia adotada; The Brazilian industry during the Great Depression has been studied under several angles, but healthy relatively scarce works that are about the eventual changes in the use of produc~ive resources. Still scarcer they are the work.s that looked for to examine the changes in the industry 01' capital goods...

Biased Technological Change, Impatience and Welfare

Moreno Herrera, Laura Liliana; Pérez Pérez, Jorge Eduardo
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
En este artículo utilizamos un modelo de generaciones traslapadas con heterogeneidad en la tasa de impaciencia para mostrar que los efectos de un cambio tecnológico aumentador de capital no son simétricos en los agentes y pueden conllevar una reducci on en el consumo. La asimetría en la tasa de impaciencia de los agentes en un período, tiene consecuencias sobre los beneficios del cambio tecnológico para las generaciones futuras. Menores tasas de impaciencia llevan a mayores niveles de capital y de consumo, si se entiende que la economía tiene el suficiente nivel de capital per capita.; In this paper we use an OLG model where agents are heterogeneous within each generation, differing in their impatience rate. We show that the e ects of a capital-using technological change are not sym- metric between agents and can cause a reduction in consumption. The asymmetry in impatience rates has consequences on the bene- ts derived from technological change for further generations. Lower impatience rates lead to higher capital levels, and to higher levels of consumption provided that the economy has enough capital per capita.

Technological change for environmental improvement : the case of the Mexican automobile sector

Aoki, Chizuru, 1968-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 278 p.; 26979551 bytes; 26979305 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
The main objective of this research was to articulate the processes and factors of technological change that promote environmental improvement while contributing to development goals in the Mexican automobile sector. The motivation stemmed from the need for air pollution mitigation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The research analyzed three cases of environmental technology introduction in passenger vehicles, and synthesized the case findings into a conceptual model. The case studies were complemented with quantitative analyses of parameters of national technological capability acquisition, and scenario analysis of emission mitigation potential. The research showed that environmental technological change in the Mexican auto sector is increasingly influenced by external factors, specifically global sector development and conditions in countries with major auto producers and export markets. Environmental technological change could be articulated within the framework of conventional technological change, with some differences, such as: the need to account for environmental policy as a distinct factor, different motivations of private sector actors in acquiring technological capabilities and deploying technology, and interactions and conflicts between environmental policy and other factors...

Cyclical technological evolution and comparative economic growth

Thompson, Peter; Dinopoulos, Elias
Fonte: Universidad de Chile. Facultad de Economía y Negocios Publicador: Universidad de Chile. Facultad de Economía y Negocios
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.19%
A two-country model of growth is developed with exogenous fluctuations in the rate of technological progress. Technological growth in the leading country follows a random walk, while in the lagging country the rate of advance depends on the technological distance between the two countries and the efficiency of limitation. In the absence of cyclical technological change or lags in technology transfer, there is monotonic convergence in income levels. If the two countries share initially identical technologies, their standards of living never diverge. In the presence of cyclical technological change and lags of limitation, a rich pattern of relative growth emerges: the model generates convergence, divergence and leapfrogging along balanced growth equilibria, and also demonstrates why observed convergence rates may be substantially slower than those predicted by the standard neoclassical model.

FTT:Power : A global model of the power sector with induced technological change and natural resource depletion

Mercure, Jean-Francois
Fonte: 4CMR, Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge Publicador: 4CMR, Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge
Tipo: Article; submitted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
Submitted for publication to Energy Policy; This work introduces a model of Future Technology Transformations for the power sector (FTT:Power), a representation of global power systems based on market competition, induced technological change (ITC) and natural resource use and depletion. It is the first component of a family of sectoral bottom-up models of future technology transformations, designed to be integrated into the global macroeconometric model E3MG. ITC occurs as a result of technological learning as given by cumulative investment and leads to highly nonlinear, irreversible and path dependent technological transitions. The model makes use of a dynamic coupled set of logistic differential equations. As opposed to traditional bottom-up energy models based on systems optimisation, logistic equations offer an appropriate treatment of the times and rates of change involved in sectoral technology transformations. Resource use and depletion are represented by local cost-supply curves, which give rise to different regional energy landscapes. The model is explored using two simple scenarios, a baseline and a mitigation case where the price of carbon is gradually increased. While a constant price of carbon leads to a stagnant system...

Emissions trading and technological change

Calel, Raphael
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
Emissions trading programmes have grown in number and scope over the last forty years, and in the last decade they have become a centrepiece of global climate change policy. Emissions trading can in principle offer policy makers a flexible mechanism to reduce harmful emissions - polluters can choose their own emissions abatement strategy, and the trading mechanism can reduce overall abatement cost by flexibly redistributing emissions permits to those polluters that find abatement costliest. In the context of climate policy, though, it is the potential to stimulate innovation and technological change that is most alluring. Without transforming production, the quantity of emissions abatement will be insufficient; without technological change, the cost will be prohibitive. Emissions trading programmes are clearly not the only policy that affect technological change, but the extent to which these programmes encourage low-carbon technological change is perhaps still the most important criterion on which to judge their success or failure. Advances in monitoring, greater data availability, and improvements in statistical and computational techniques have only recently made it possible to systematically study the impacts of emissions trading on a large scale. In recent years...