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The sound field generated by tethered stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris): inferences on its potential as a recruitment mechanism inside the hive

HRNCIR, Michael; SCHORKOPF, Dirk Louis P.; SCHMIDT, Veronika M.; ZUCCHI, Ronaldo; BARTH, Friedrich G.
Fonte: COMPANY OF BIOLOGISTS LTD Publicador: COMPANY OF BIOLOGISTS LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
In stingless bees, recruitment of hive bees to food sources involves thoracic vibrations by foragers during trophallaxis. The temporal pattern of these vibrations correlates with the sugar concentration of the collected food. One possible pathway for transfering such information to nestmates is through airborne sound. In the present study, we investigated the transformation of thoracic vibrations into air particle velocity, sound pressure, and jet airflows in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. Whereas particle velocity and sound pressure were found all around and above vibrating individuals, there was no evidence for a jet airflow as with honey bees. The largest particle velocities were measured 5 mm above the wings (16.0 +/- 4.8 mm s(-1)). Around a vibrating individual, we found maximum particle velocities of 8.6 +/- 3.0 mm s(-1) (horizontal particle velocity) in front of the bee`s head and of 6.0 +/- 2.1 mm s(-1) (vertical particle velocity) behind its wings. Wing oscillations, which are mainly responsible for air particle movements in honey bees, significantly contributed to vertically oriented particle oscillations only close to the abdomen in M. scutellaris(distances <= 5 mm). Almost 80% of the hive bees attending trophallactic food transfers stayed within a range of 5 mm from the vibrating foragers. It remains to be shown...

Trophallaxis in Dehydrated Leaf Cutting Colonies of Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

SILVA, Antonio Carlos da; NAVAS, Carlos A.; RIBEIRO, Pedro Leite
Fonte: CALIFORNIA STATE UNIV Publicador: CALIFORNIA STATE UNIV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.34%
Trophallaxis, the transfer of liquid among individuals by oral regurgitation or anal deposition, occurs in many insect groups including ants. The first indication that trophallaxis could occur in leaf cutting ants (Atta sexdens rubropilosa) was made by Autuori in 1942. He reported water collection by this ant species, and highlighted what in those days was an undescribed behavior for this species. In 2005, Da-Silva and Ribeiro presented preliminary results suggesting the existence of trophallaxis in A. sexdens rubropilosa. Here we report on a formal test of the hypothesis of trophallaxis in that species. Our approach was to test ant pairs in which only one individual (Group I) had access to blue-dyed water and the other individual (Group II), a nest-mate, came from a colony dehydrated by offering dry crushed corn for fungal growth. Positive results for trophallaxis were obtained in ants from four colonies and accounted for 33%-46% of all tests in which ants from Group I drank dyed water. These results indicate that trophallaxis occurs in this species.

Estudo da atividade de coleta de água em Atta sexdens rubropilosa; Study of activity of water collection in Atta sexdens rubropilosa

Silva, Antonio Carlos da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/02/2011 PT
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O estudo da divisão de tarefas e de sua participação na manutenção das condições adequadas à sobrevivência de insetos sociais têm recebido importantes contribuições ao longo dos anos. O elaborado grau de organização de muitos insetos sociais e a presença de polimorfismo em muitos grupos com formação de castas, tornam a investigação da divisão de tarefas ainda mais interessante. Essa dissertação apresenta os resultados de três experimentos com colônias de formigas cortadeiras Atta sexdens rubropilosa: 1) Foi verificado se há trofalaxia de água marcada entre companheiras de ninho de A. sexdens rubropilosa em colônias em condição de estresse hídrico. Os resultados encontrados mostraram que a trofalaxia é um evento que ocorre com freqüência em colônias em estresse hídrico. 2) Foi testado a divisão de tarefas associado a dinâmica dos tamanhos envolvidos na atividade de coleta de água as distâncias de 0 metro, 1 metro e 10 metros para colônias em condição de estresse hídrico. Encontramos que após um tempo a coleta de água foi associada a uma casta especializada, de menor porte, ou seja, no início da atividade com formigas de maior porte e com o tempo formigas menores passaram a realizar a tarefa...

Trophallaxis and reproductive conflicts in social bees

Contrera, F. A. L.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V. L.; Koedam, D.
Fonte: Birkhauser Verlag Ag Publicador: Birkhauser Verlag Ag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 125-132
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.1%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Processo FAPESP: 99/10883-8; Processo FAPESP: 02/00582-5; In the eusocial Hymenoptera, reproductive division of labour is a key aspect of colony organisation. In most of its species, workers are sterile and are unable to reproduce, while the queen monopolises reproduction. When workers are able to reproduce, a conflict with the queen or with other workers over male production is predicted. Because this reproduction may involve costs for the colony, the potential conflict over male parentage gives rise to important questions, such as what are the proximate mechanisms that allow a queen to control the reproductive potential of its workers, and which factors make some workers fertile and others not. In the groups where it occurs, an important mechanism for the regulation of reproduction is trophallaxis (the process of mutual feeding through regurgitation that occurs in several species of social insects). Trophallaxis gives dominant individuals a trophic advantage by taking nutrients from submissive individuals. In advanced eusocial species of bees, trophallaxis may also serve as an alternative hierarchical interaction in the absence of agonistic conflicts. In this way...

PHEROMONES and EXOCRINE GLANDS IN ISOPTERA

Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives; Litwack, G
Fonte: Elsevier Academic Press Inc. Publicador: Elsevier Academic Press Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 521-549
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone...

Behavior of Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) workers during the preparation of the leaf substrate for symbiont fungus culture

De Andrade, Ana Paula P.; Forti, Luiz C.; Moreira, Aldenise A.; Boaretto, Maria Aparecida C.; Ramos, Vânia M.; De Matos, Carlos Alberto O.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 293-306
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
The behavioral repertory of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) workers marked by size category was studied during the preparation of the leaf substrate in the laboratory. The workers were marked according to three physical castes, i.e., minima, generalist and forager. Seven types of behavioral acts were recorded for each caste, with the following frequencies: licking leaf fragments (64.6%), holding fragments on the surface of the fungus garden (16.4%), shredding the fragments (6.0%), chewing and crimping the edges of the fragments (9.0%), incorporating the fragments (2.7%), touching the surface of the fungus with their mandibles and other mouthparts after incorporation (0.3%), and depositing fecal fluid (0.1%). The minima workers were found to be more specialized in the activities related to the preparation of the leaf substrate, which represented 52% of the total number of tasks performed. The generalists performed 40.3% of these tasks, and the foragers 7.9%. Licking the substrate was the behavior most frequently recorded and performed for a longer period of time. In this way, the workers may feed and at the same time eliminate microorganisms that are harmful to the symbiont fungus. The smaller castes, minima and generalists...

Male behavior in colonies of the social wasp Polistes lanio (Hymenoptera, Vespidae)

Giannotti, Edilberto
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 551-555
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.4%
Sixteen post-emergent colonies of Polistes lanio were studied while producing males in the course of the colonial cycle. Individually, they remained in the nest only 10.5 days (5-31, n=165). Twelve different male behaviors were observed: remaining immobile on the nest (82,8%), giving alarm (4,8%), flying out from the nest (2,4%), copulating on the nest (2,4%), being dominated (1,6%), self-grooming (1,2%), checking cells (1,2%), adult-adult trophallaxis (receiving food) (0,8%), larva-adult trophallaxis (0,8%), chewing prey and giving it to the larvae (0,8%), returning to the nest without food (0,8%), and fanning the nest (0,4%). In comparison to the behavioral repertory of females (28 items), they performed fewer tasks and remained immobile most of the time on the nest. Their behavior was largely related to self maintenance, but also included giving chewed prey to the larvae, giving alarm signals and fanning the nest.

Comparative study of the histology, histochemistry and ultramorphology of the proventriculus in the cephalotini tribe (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Bution, Murillo Lino; Caetano, Flávio Henrique
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 185-193
ENG
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The use of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy propitiated the comparative examination of the nature of the histology, histochemistry and ultramorphology of the proventriculus bulb of Cephalotes atratus, C. clypeatus and C. pusillus. This portion of the digestive tract possesses highly sclerotized cuticular projections which act in the selection of victuals. A layer of amorphous material with mucous characteristics is present over the cuticle projections. That layer seems to optimize the efficiency of the proventriculus in the selection of food for social function in the colony (trophallaxis). More details of the characteristics of this structure are described in this study.

The role of workers in transferring queen substances and the differences between worker castes in the leaf-cutting ant, Acromyrmex subterraneus brunneus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Camargo, Roberto S.; Forti, Luiz C.; Lopes, Juliane F. S.; Andrade, Ana Paula P.; Raetano, Carlos G.; Mendonça, Cristina G.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 503-513
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
The present study focused on the relationship between the queen and workers in Acromyrmex subterraneus brunneus colonies mediated by the possible transfer of substances from the fertile to the sterile caste. The queens were submitted to different situations of physical limitation, i.e., they were kept isolated in cages with holes that only permitted the entry of workers but left the queen isolated. A tracer (water-soluble dye) was applied to the pronotum and gaster of the queen and its dispersal among workers was analyzed. The results demonstrated that the minor sub caste (0.7-0.9 mm) passed on the dye through allogrooming and self-grooming, or transferred the dye through trophallaxis to the major sub caste (1.2-2.0 mm) when they were not in direct contact with the queen. These findings indicate the communication and probable transfer of substances from the queen to the workers, as well as a substance transfer between workers.

Trophallaxis in a communal halictine bee Lasioglossum (Chilalictus) erythrurum.

Kukuk, P F; Crozier, R H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.1%
Food exchange by means of oral trophallaxis was confirmed for a communal halictine bee Lasioglossum (Chilalictus) erythrurum. These results demonstrate an independent evolution of trophallaxis in bees. The occurrence of trophallaxis in a communal species questions the role of trophallaxis in the evolution of sociality. Neutral arena encounters between one fed and one unfed female indicate that food exchange is not associated with familiarity. Donor females fed nestmates and nonnestmates in the same proportion, even when nonnestmates were from a separate nest aggregation located 7 km away. Such universal acceptance is expected if positive fitness benefits accrue from nearly all interactions with conspecifics in nature.

Social learning of floral odours inside the honeybee hive

Farina, Walter M; Grüter, Christoph; Díaz, Paula C
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
A honeybee hive serves as an information centre in which communication among bees allows the colony to exploit the most profitable resources in a continuously changing environment. The best-studied communication behaviour in this context is the waggle dance performed by returning foragers, which encodes information about the distance and direction to the food source. It has been suggested that another information cue, floral scents transferred within the hive, is also important for recruitment to food sources, as bee recruits are more strongly attracted to odours previously brought back by foragers in both honeybees and bumble-bees. These observations suggested that honeybees learn the odour from successful foragers before leaving the hive. However, this has never been shown directly and the mechanisms and properties of the learning process remain obscure. We tested the learning and memory of recruited bees in the laboratory using the proboscis extension response (PER) paradigm, and show that recruits indeed learn the nectar odours brought back by foragers by associative learning and retrieve this memory in the PER paradigm. The associative nature of this learning reveals that information was gained during mouth-to-mouth contacts among bees (trophallaxis). Results further suggest that the information is transferred to long-term memory. Associative learning of food odours in a social context may help recruits to find a particular food source faster.

Extraordinary starvation resistance in Temnothorax rugatulus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) colonies: Demography and adaptive behavior

Rueppell, O.; Kirkman, R. W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
Ant colony mortality has not been sufficiently studied, even though it is crucial for understanding social insect population biology and can serve as an important model for general aging and mortality processes. Particularly, studies on proximate mechanisms on mortality and stress resistance of ant colonies are lacking. This study explores the long-term colony starvation resistance of the small myrmecine ant Temnothorax rugatulus. We report extraordinary starvation resistance in the 21 colonies investigated, as most survived the eight months of total starvation. Furthermore, we studied demographic and behavioral changes over the experimental period. Brood decline began first (after two months) and mortality was highest, worker decline was intermediate, and queen mortality started latest and remained lowest. We found brood (its relative change during the first four months and the level of brood relative to colony size) to be the only significant predictor of colony starvation resistance, but not the degree of polygyny. As expected, rates of trophallaxis increased during the starvation period while colony activity bouts occurred more frequently but were much shorter, leading to an overall decrease in activity levels. This study is the first to comprehensively study mechanisms of starvation resistance in ant colonies...

Chemical disguise as particular caste of host ants in the ant inquiline parasite Niphanda fusca (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

Hojo, Masaru K.; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Akino, Toshiharu; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Ozaki, Mamiko; Yamaoka, Ryohei
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.4%
The exploitation of parental care is common in avian and insect ‘cuckoos’ and these species engage in a coevolutionary arms race. Caterpillars of the lycaenid butterfly Niphanda fusca develop as parasites inside the nests of host ants (Camponotus japonicus) where they grow by feeding on the worker trophallaxis. We hypothesized that N. fusca caterpillars chemically mimic host larvae, or some particular castes of the host ant, so that the caterpillars are accepted and cared for by the host workers. Behaviourally, it was observed that the host workers enthusiastically tended glass dummies coated with the cuticular chemicals of larvae or males and those of N. fusca caterpillars living together. Cuticular chemical analyses revealed that N. fusca caterpillars grown in a host ant nest acquired a colony-specific blend of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). Furthermore, the CHC profiles of the N. fusca caterpillars were particularly close to those of the males rather than those of the host larvae and the others. We suggest that N. fusca caterpillars exploit worker care by matching their cuticular profile to that of the host males, since the males are fed by trophallaxis with workers in their natal nests for approximately ten months.

Hygienic Behavior, Liquid-Foraging, and Trophallaxis in the Leaf-Cutting Ants, Acromyrmex subterraneus and Acromyrmex octospinosus

Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Errard, Christine
Fonte: University of Wisconsin Library Publicador: University of Wisconsin Library
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/12/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.1%
Neotropical leaf-cutting ants (tribe Attini) live in obligate symbiosis with fungus they culture for food. To protect themselves and their fungus garden from pathogens, they minimize the entry of microorganisms through mechanical and chemical means. In this study, focusing on the species Acromyrmex subterraneus and A. octospinosus, (Hymeoptera: Formicidae). Self- and allo-grooming behavior were quantified and it was found that A. octospinosus workers spend less time in self-grooming than A. subterraneus. In the experimental absence of fungus in A. subterraneus, the times spent in these two behaviors are not affected; however workers spend significantly more time immobile. Hygienic and trophallaxis behaviors were examined as well as the possibility that workers exchange food, and the grooming behavior of foraging and non-foraging workers were compared. Behavioral observations revealed that large workers spent more time grooming than small workers, and more than 62% of replete foragers passed collected liquid food via trophallaxis to a nestmate. However, trophallaxis was rarely observed between non-forager workers. These results suggest that trophallaxis permits the exchange of alimentary liquid between colony members, but it is not important for spreading the colony odor signature.

High-Resolution Analysis of Gut Environment and Bacterial Microbiota Reveals Functional Compartmentation of the Gut in Wood-Feeding Higher Termites (Nasutitermes spp.)

Köhler, Tim; Dietrich, Carsten; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H.; Brune, Andreas
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
Higher termites are characterized by a purely prokaryotic gut microbiota and an increased compartmentation of their intestinal tract. In soil-feeding species, each gut compartment has different physicochemical conditions and is colonized by a specific microbial community. Although considerable information has accumulated also for wood-feeding species of the genus Nasutitermes, including cellulase activities and metagenomic data, a comprehensive study linking physicochemical gut conditions with the structure of the microbial communities in the different gut compartments is lacking. In this study, we measured high-resolution profiles of H2, O2, pH, and redox potential in the gut of Nasutitermes corniger termites, determined the fermentation products accumulating in the individual gut compartments, and analyzed the bacterial communities in detail by pyrotag sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes. The dilated hindgut paunch (P3 compartment) was the only anoxic gut region, showed the highest density of bacteria, and accumulated H2 to high partial pressures (up to 12 kPa). Molecular hydrogen is apparently produced by a dense community of Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres, which also dominate the gut of other Nasutitermes species. All other compartments...

Division of Labor in Colonies of the Eusocial Wasp, Mischocyttarus consimilis

Torres, Viviana O.; Montagna, Thiago S.; Raizer, Josué; Antonialli-Junior, William F.
Fonte: University of Wisconsin Library Publicador: University of Wisconsin Library
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/02/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.74%
The division of labor between castes and the division of labor in workers according to age (temporal polyethism) in social wasps are crucial for maintaining social organization. This study evaluated the division of labor between castes, and the temporal polyethism in workers of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). To describe the behavioral repertory of this species, observations were made of 21 colonies, with 100 hours of observations. In order to observe temporal polyethism, each newly emerged wasp was marked with colored dots on the upper area of the thorax. This allowed the observation of behavioral acts performed by each worker from the time of emergence to its death. Through hybrid multidimensional scaling, a clear division between queens and workers could be identified, in which the behaviors of physical dominance and food solicitation characterized the queen caste; while behaviors such as adult—adult trophallaxis, destruction of cells, alarm, foraging for prey, foraging for nectar, and unsuccessful foraging characterized the worker caste. Hybrid multidimensional scaling characterized two groups, with intra—nest activities preferentially accomplished by younger workers, while extra—nest activities such as foraging were executed more frequently by older workers.

Cellulolytic Protist Numbers Rise and Fall Dramatically in Termite Queens and Kings during Colony Foundation

Shimada, Keisuke; Lo, Nathan; Kitade, Osamu; Wakui, Akane; Maekawa, Kiyoto
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.4%
Among the best-known examples of mutualistic symbioses is that between lower termites and the cellulolytic flagellate protists in their hindguts. Although the symbiosis in worker termites has attracted much attention, there have been only a few studies of protists in other castes. We have performed the first examination of protist population dynamics in queens and kings during termite colony foundation. Protist numbers, as well as measurements of hindgut and reproductive tissue sizes, were undertaken at five time points over 400 days in incipient colonies of Reticulitermes speratus, as well as in other castes of mature colonies of this species. We found that protist numbers increased dramatically in both queens and kings during the first 50 days of colony foundation but began to decrease by day 100, eventually disappearing by day 400. Hindgut width followed a pattern similar to that of protist numbers, while ovary and testis widths increased significantly only at day 400. Kings were found to contain higher numbers of protists than queens in incipient colonies, which may be linked to higher levels of nutrient transfer from kings to queens than vice versa, as is known in some other termite species. Protists were found to be abundant in soldiers from mature colonies but absent in neotenics. This probably reflects feeding of soldiers by workers via proctodeal trophallaxis and of reproductives via stomodeal trophallaxis. The results reveal the dynamic nature of protist numbers during colony foundation and highlight the trade-offs that exist between reproduction and parental care during this critical phase of the termite life cycle.

Hygienic behavior, liquid-foraging, and trophallaxis in the leaf-cutting ants, Acromyrmex subterraneus and Acromyrmex octospinosus

Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Errard, Christine
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.1%
Neotropical leaf-cutting ants (tribe Attini) live in obligate symbiosis with fungus they culture for food. To protect themselves and their fungus garden from pathogens, they minimize the entry of microorganisms through mechanical and chemical means. In this study, focusing on the species Acromyrmex subterraneus and A. octospinosus, (Hymeoptera: Formicidae). Self- and allo-grooming behavior were quantified and it was found that A. octospinosus workers spend less time in self-grooming than A. subterraneus. In the experimental absence of fungus in A. subterraneus, the times spent in these two behaviors are not affected; however workers spend significantly more time immobile. Hygienic and trophallaxis behaviors were examined as well as the possibility that workers exchange food, and the grooming behavior of foraging and non-foraging workers were compared. Behavioral observations revealed that large workers spent more time grooming than small workers, and more than 62% of replete foragers passed collected liquid food via trophallaxis to a nestmate. However, trophallaxis was rarely observed between non-forager workers. These results suggest that trophallaxis permits the exchange of alimentary liquid between colony members...

Trophallaxis and prophylaxis: social immunity in the carpenter ant Camponotus pennsylvanicus

Hamilton, Casey; Lejeune, Brian T.; Rosengaus, Rebeca B.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.74%
In social insects, group behaviour can increase disease resistance among nest-mates and generate social prophylaxis. Stomodeal trophallaxis, or mutual feeding through regurgitation, may boost colony-level immunocompetence. We provide evidence for increased trophallactic behaviour among immunized workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus pennsylvanicus, which, together with increased antimicrobial activity of the regurgitate droplet, help explain the improved survival of droplet recipient ants relative to controls following an immune challenge. We have identified a protein related to cathepsin D, a lysosomal protease, as a potential contributor to the antimicrobial activity. The combined behavioural and immunological responses to infection in these ants probably represent an effective mechanism underlying the social facilitation of disease resistance, which could potentially produce socially mediated colony-wide prophylaxis. The externalization and sharing of an individual's immune responses via trophallaxis could be an important component of social immunity, allowing insect colonies to thrive under high pathogenic pressures.

Physiological State Influences the Social Interactions of Two Honeybee Nest Mates

Wright, Geraldine A.; Lillvis, Joshua L.; Bray, Helen J.; Mustard, Julie A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/03/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.74%
Physiological state profoundly influences the expression of the behaviour of individuals and can affect social interactions between animals. How physiological state influences food sharing and social behaviour in social insects is poorly understood. Here, we examined the social interactions and food sharing behaviour of honeybees with the aim of developing the honeybee as a model for understanding how an individual's state influences its social interactions. The state of individual honeybees was manipulated by either starving donor bees or feeding them sucrose or low doses of ethanol to examine how a change in hunger or inebriation state affected the social behaviours exhibited by two closely-related nestmates. Using a lab-based assay for measuring individual motor behaviour and social behaviour, we found that behaviours such as antennation, willingness to engage in trophallaxis, and mandible opening were affected by both hunger and ethanol intoxication. Inebriated bees were more likely to exhibit mandible opening, which may represent a form of aggression, than bees fed sucrose alone. However, intoxicated bees were as willing to engage in trophallaxis as the sucrose-fed bees. The effects of ethanol on social behaviors were dose-dependent...