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Electrophysiological assessment of neuromuscular adaptations to training

Vila-Chã, Carolina
Fonte: Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia Publicador: Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
Over the last decades, it has been shown that the human neuromuscular system is highly adaptive and can be modified in response to different motor training programs. Depending on the demands of the motor training, the adaptations seem to involve distinct structural and functional changes across the motor cortex, spinal cord and skeletal muscle. The technological development observed in the last years, increased the use of electrophysiological techniques to assess the neuromuscular adaptations to motor training. Nonetheless, the current evidences on the neuromuscular adaptations to different motor training are inconsistent and incomplete, in particular regarding endurance and strength training. This is mainly due to lack of studies based on a rigorous consideration of the limitations of the available techniques. Therefore, the main goal of this dissertation is to give new insights on the adaptations of the neuromuscular system by systematically investigating the changes in its central and peripheral properties in response to endurance and strength training. For this purpose, recent developed techniques for recording and processing electromiographycal (EMG) signals were applied. The first study (STUDY I) investigated if 6 weeks of either endurance or strength training alters the motor unit behavior and if such changes were accompanied by alterations in muscle fiber properties. Intramuscular and multichannel surface EMG recordings were used to investigate the motor unit discharge rates and motor unit conduction velocity (MUCV) of the vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis during submaximal isometric contractions. The results demonstrated that endurance training increased endurance capacity and was accompanied by a decrease of the motor unit discharge rates. In contrast...

Monitoramento da carga interna de treinamento no tênis: validação e aplicações do método da percepção subjetiva da sessão; Monitoring the internal training load in Tennis: validation and applications of the session RPE method

Gomes, Rodrigo Vitasovic
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/04/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
O presente estudo é constituído por três experimentos diferentes, que tem como ponto central a investigação do método da PSE da sessão. No primeiro experimento foi avaliada a validade do método da percepção subjetiva do esforço (PSE) da sessão para a quantificação da carga interna de treinamento (CIT) no Tênis. Neste experimento foram monitoradas 384 sessões de treinamento técnico/tático, 23 partidas simuladas e 13 partidas oficiais. A CIT foi calculada utilizando dois métodos de quantificação da CIT: o método da PSE da sessão e o método proposto por Edwards, baseado no comportamento da frequência cardíaca. Posteriormente, foi calculado o índice de correlação entre os dois métodos. Foi detectada correlação individual entre os métodos (r = 0,58 - 0,89; p<0,01). Também foi observada correlação entre os métodos para as sessões de treinamento técnico/tático (r = 0,74), os jogos simulados (r = 0,57) e os jogos oficiais (r = 0,99). Estes resultados sugerem que o método da PSE da sessão é uma alternativa válida, não invasiva, para quantificar a CIT de tenistas. O segundo experimento, descreve o padrão de distribuição da intensidade utilizada por tenistas durante a pré-temporada e no início do período competitivo...

Os efeitos de três treinamentos concorrentes nas adaptações neuromusculares e cardiorrespiratórias de mulheres jovens; The effects of three concurrent training on neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory adaptations in women

Silva, Rodrigo Ferrari da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
Diversas causas são apresentadas como possíveis responsáveis pela interferência nas adaptações neuromusculares quando realizamos simultaneamente o treinamento aeróbio e o de força, chamado treinamento concorrente. Tanto a intensidade quanto a modalidade do exercício aeróbio podem ser possíveis causas dessa interferência. Contudo, não foram encontrados estudos avaliando longitudinalmente a influência de diferentes intensidades e modalidades de exercício aeróbio no treinamento concorrente. Sendo assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi comparar os efeitos de três treinamentos concorrentes, diferentes na intensidade e no exercício aeróbio utilizado, e de um treinamento de força nas adaptações neuromusculares e cardiorrespiratórias de mulheres jovens. Quarenta e quatro mulheres fisicamente ativas (22,3 ± 2,5 anos) foram divididas em quatro grupos: Grupo força (GF, n=12), que realizou apenas o treinamento de força; Grupo concorrente 1 (GCC, n=10), que realizou o TA em esteira, a partir da corrida contínua, além do TF; Grupo concorrente 2 (GCI, n=11), que realizou o TA em esteira, a partir da corrida intervalada, além do TF; e Grupo concorrente 3 (GCB, n=11), que realizou o TA contínuo em cicloergômetro, além do TF. Cada grupo treinou 2 vezes por semana durante 11 semanas o treinamento de força...

Training and development - a study of practices in Irish based companies

Heraty, Noreen
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis; all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
non-peer-reviewed; This thesis represents an exploratory study of training and development practices in Irish based companies, and seeks to ascertain the degree to which these practices reflect a strategic orientation. In particular, it examines the main training and development activities undertaken, the role of the training specialist, and the power of the training and development function. The study had five main objectives: to review the extant literature in order to determine the factors promoting the emergence of Human Resource Development (HRD) as a key mechanism of employee development, and to highlight critical characteristics of strategic HRD; to examine the contingent nature of the HRD concept, and thereby identify key contextual organisational characteristics that impact upon the functioning of HRD; to examine current employee development practices in Ireland in order to assess whether training and development activities reflect a strategic orientation, or are moving towards a strategic model of employee development; to identify whether the contextual factors identified in the literature affect the nature of training and development practices in Ireland; and to examine the role of the training specialist in Ireland and the relative status of the training and development function. In order to fulfill these objectives...

Investment in Job Training : Why Are SMEs Lagging So Much Behind?

Almeida, Rita K.; Aterido, Reyes
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
This paper analyzes the link between firm size and investment in job training by employers. Using a large firm level data set across 99 developing countries, the analysis shows that a strong and positive correlation in investment in job training and firm size is a robust statistical finding both within and across countries with very different institutions and level of development. However, the findings do not support the view that this difference is mostly driven by market imperfections disproportionally affecting small and medium enterprises. Rather, the evidence is supportive of small and medium enterprises having a smaller expected return from the investment in job training than larger firms. Therefore, the findings call for caution when designing pro-small and medium enterprises policies fostering investment in on-the-job training.

Revitalizing Public Training Centers in Indonesia : Challenges and the Way Forward

World Bank
Fonte: Jakarta Publicador: Jakarta
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
The goal of this report is to examine the effectiveness and efficiency of the public vocational training centers (Balai Latihan Kerja, hereinafter BLK) in Indonesia. Its findings and recommendations will contribute to the ongoing effort of the Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration (MoMT) to revitalize the BLK training system. There are wide variations in terms of the size and capacities of BLK operating at central, provincial and district levels. This is indicated by the average number of graduates from the centers at each of these different levels in 2009, with 1,300 centrally managed BLK, compared with only around 650 and 340 at the provincial and district levels respectively. The variation in the average number of graduates may indicate deep differences in the operations of the training centers at the three levels. Due to these differences, various approaches at each of the different levels may be required to improve the centers. The emphasis and orientation of BLK programs has changed since their first establishment. In particular...

Skill Development in India : The Vocational Education and Training System

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
This paper stresses that despite the fact that India is a fast developing economy difficulties have led the Government to conclude that far more needs to be done to engender more employment opportunities for the majority of Indians, to enable them to participate in the benefits of growth and to contribute to that growth. To do this they must have education and training that equips them for the labor market. One of the sources of the skilled workforce is the vocational education and training system. However, the government realizes that the system is not being able to appropriately respond to the needs of the labor market. A key issue, then, is what reforms/interventions are needed to improve the effectiveness of the system. Answering that question is far from easy and this paper attempts to provide some options for doing so. On the one hand India faces the future with its changing realities; on the other hand it must deal with the nature of its established traditions and structures. This paper has laid out some key reforms that must be undertaken in different areas to make the vocational education and vocational training systems more responsive to the needs of the labor market. The reform agenda is fairly comprehensive and all the reforms cannot be implemented immediately. Given this...

Mexico : In-Firm Training for the Knowledge Economy

Hong Tan; Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
The authors use panel firm-level data to study in-firm training in Mexican manufacturing in the 1990s, its determinants, and effects on productivity and wages. Over this decade, not only did the incidence of employer-provided training become more widespread among manufacturing enterprises, but a higher proportion of the workforce received training within firms. Technological change, as proxied by research and development (R&D), was an important driver of these training trends. It contributed to increased training over time through a rising share of firms doing R&D, but more important, through a greater propensity over time to train conditional on conducting R&D. The authors investigate the productivity and wage effects of training in several ways: 1) Estimating the wage and productivity effects of training treated as endogenous. 2) Using training event histories to examine the impact of changing training status over time. 3) Looking at how training (and technology) practices changed where firms were located in productivity and wage distributions over the 1990s. Together...

Demand and Supply of Skills in Ghana : How Can Training Programs Improve Employment?

Darvas, Peter; Palmer, Robert
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
Ghana has a youthful population of 24 million and has shown impressive gains in economic growth and in poverty reduction over the last two decades. The necessary sustained growth requires three critical steps: (1) increase productivity in the strategic economic sectors, (2) diversify the economy, and (3) expand employment. Raising the level and range of skills in the country provides a key contribution to these core drivers of sustained growth. Skills development in Ghana encompasses foundational skills (literacy, numeracy), transferable and soft skills, and technical and vocational skills. These skills are acquired throughout life through formal education, training, and higher education; on the job through work experience and professional training; through family and community; and via the media. This report focuses on one segment of Ghana s skills development system: formal and informal technical and vocational education and training (TVET) at the pre-tertiary level. Although TVET alone does not guarantee productivity gains or job creation...

The Impact of Private Sector Internship and Training on Urban Youth in Kenya

Honorati, Maddalena
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
This study uses a randomized experiment to evaluate the impacts of the training and internship program piloted in Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu counties by the Kenya Private Sector Alliance and the Government of Kenya with support from the World Bank’s Kenya Youth Empowerment Project. The program provided three months of classroom-based technical training coupled with three months of internships in private firms to vulnerable youths between ages 15 and 29 years, with vulnerable being defined as those out of school and/or with no permanent job. The analysis in this paper is based on survey data collected before the program started (July 2012) and 15 months after the program ended (July 2014). The results of the impact evaluation show that the program has been successful in placing youths in paid jobs and has contributed to an increase of 15 percent in current employment among male participants. The evaluation also found that the program has had positive effects on wage earnings, especially those of females and among older males...

Entwicklung und Evaluation des Tübinger Trainings sozialer Kompetenzen (TTsK) für sechs- bis zwölfjährige Kinder; Development and Evaluation of the Tübinger Training of Social Competences (TTsK) for Children between Six and Twelve Years

Wekenmann, Stefanie B.
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war die Entwicklung und Evaluation eines multimodalen Interventionsprogramms für 6- bis 12jährige Kinder, das – im Unterschied zu derzeit verfügbaren und verbreiteten Programmen – soziale Kompetenzen störungsübergreifend vermittelt. Unerwünschtes Sozialverhalten soll verringert und erwünschtes Sozialverhalten gezielt gefördert werden. Das Tübinger Training sozialer Kompetenzen (TTsK) greift dabei einzelne Merkmale des Prozessmodells zur sozialen Informationsverarbeitung von Crick und Dodge (1994) auf. Die Voraussetzungen für angepasstes Verhalten wie auch die Risiken für fehlangepasste Verhaltensmuster sind daraus ableitbar. Darüber hinaus vermittelt das Modell Ansatzpunkte für differenzierte Interventionsschwerpunkte. Im TTsK werden Fertigkeiten vermittelt und eingeübt, die für eine angemessene Wahrnehmung und Beurteilung sozialer Situationen von wesentlicher Bedeutung sind. Mit Rollenspielen haben die Kinder Gelegenheit, bei unterschiedlichen sozialen Anforderungen ihr Verhalten zu erproben, es ggf. zu verändern und es durch Gleichaltrige und TrainerInnen bewerten zu lassen. Selbst- und Fremdverstärkung für angemessenes Verhalten sind ein wichtiges Kontingenzmuster in diesem Trainingskonzept. Mit individuellen Zielen und Regeln können die für das einzelne Kind wichtigen Schwerpunkte gesetzt werden. Das Gruppentraining erstreckt sich über acht wöchentliche Trainingssitzungen mit einer Dauer von jeweils 120 Minuten. Hinzu kommen trainingsbegleitende Hausaufgaben für die Kinder und Informationsbriefe für die Eltern. Die Hypothesen zur Wirksamkeit des TTsKs wurden im Rahmen eines randomisierten Kontrollgruppendesigns mit Messwiederholung überprüft. Die Kinder der Experimentalgruppe nahmen unmittelbar nach der ersten Datenerhebung (t1) am Training teil...

Evaluation of a training program for device operators in the Australian Government's Point of Care Testing in General Practice Trial: issues and implications for rural and remote practices

Shephard, M.; Mazzachi, B.; Watkinson, L.; Shephard, A.; Laurence, C.; Gialamas, A.; Bubner, T.
Fonte: Deakin University Publicador: Deakin University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
INTRODUCTION: From September 2005 to February 2007 the Australian Government funded the Point of Care Testing (PoCT) in General Practice Trial, a multi-centre, cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the safety, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and satisfaction of PoCT in General Practice. In total, 53 practices (23 control and 30 intervention) based in urban, rural or remote locations across three states (South Australia [SA], New South Wales [NSW] and Victoria [VIC]) participated in the Trial. Control practices had pathology testing performed by their local laboratory, while intervention practices conducted pathology testing by PoCT. In total, 4968 patients (1958 control and 3010 intervention) participated in the Trial. The point-of-care (PoC) tests performed by intervention practices were: haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) on patients with diabetes, total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol on patients with hyperlipidaemia, and international normalised ratio (INR) on patients on anticoagulant therapy. Three PoCT devices measured these tests: the Siemens DCA 2000 (Siemens HealthCare Diagnostics, Melbourne, VIC, Australia) for HbA1c and urine ACR; Point of Care Diagnostics Cholestech LDX analyser (Point of Care Diagnostics; Sydney...

Technical Vocational Education and Training in Xinjiang

Xiao, Liping; Song, Jin
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
This report documents progress, analyzes strengths and weaknesses of the Xinjiang Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) system, and proposes recommendations that can be used to enrich policy dialogue and open opportunities for future cooperation between Xinjiang and the World Bank. The World Bank team discussed and agreed with the foreign capital project management office of the Xinjiang education department, the main counterpart for this study, on the selection criteria for the Principal Investigator (PI) responsible for data collection and the desk review of available documentation and interviews with key informants, including officials from related departments and representatives of training institutes and enterprises. This report is composed of three sections. The first section provides a brief overview and analysis of the Xinjiang setting, including economic trends, status of the workforce and TVET system. This is followed by a summary of the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-Workforce Development (WfD) results including three dimensions...

The Nuts and Bolts of Designing and Implementing Training Programs in Developing Countries

Honorati, Maddalena; McArdle, Thomas P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
Training programs mainly address market failures related to lack of skills (technical, cognitive, non-cognitive). This paper conducts a comprehensive review of training programs effectiveness in developing countries. Based on relevant international experiences, the paper highlights key design features associated with program success as well as implementation challenges and discusses their policy implication. Success of training programs is deeply related with the content of the skills provided and how well they serve the local labor demand (demand-driven design) and with the presence of a sound governance structure for training providers and beneficiaries. In particular, the effectiveness of training programs for youth tends to be higher when a 'comprehensive' approach is taken by combining different types of training with complementary support services. The ultimate goal is to inform new program design and improve the performance of current training programs.

The Impact of Vocational Training for the Unemployed : Experimental Evidence from Turkey

Hirshleifer, Sarojini; McKenzie, David; Almeida, Rita; Ridao-Cano, Cristobal
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
A randomized experiment is used to evaluate a large-scale, active labor market policy: Turkey's vocational training programs for the unemployed. A detailed follow-up survey of a large sample with low attrition enables precise estimation of treatment impacts and their heterogeneity. The average impact of training on employment is positive, but close to zero and statistically insignificant, which is much lower than either program officials or applicants expected. Over the first year after training, the paper finds that training had statistically significant effects on the quality of employment and that the positive impacts are stronger when training is offered by private providers. However, longer-term administrative data show that after three years these effects have also dissipated.

Institutional Assessment of Sindh Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
Providing quality training that leads young people to jobs is critical for the economic and social development of the Province of Sindh, Pakistan. This working paper assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the Sindh Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority (STEVTA) as a provincial apex body in Technical Education and Vocational Training (TVET). The recent establishment of STEVTA was a major step to reduce fragmentation of training policies and programs. The paper assesses the Authority's legal foundation, governance, management, organization, human resources, financial resources and management, and networking with external organizations. The institutional assessment finds that Government of Sindh and STEVTA need to: (i) strengthen its governance by establishing a clearer reporting structure for the management of the authority's director, and by increasing the involvement of the private sector in the board, (ii) enhance its institutional capacity through hiring of teachers in its institutions based upon increased funding and a sustainable HR rationalization plan for the system that is coordinated with planned physical investments in institutions...

Education, Training and Labor Market Outcomes for Youth in Indonesia

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
This report is part of the Analytical and Advisory Activities (AAA) program focusing on the engagement area of 'skills development, competitiveness, and knowledge economy' and is based on several background papers and technical notes written on the characteristics of youth employment and the role of education and skills in the school-to-work transition in Indonesia. The slow transition of graduates is explored in detail in section two, which pays special attention to differences by education levels. It highlights the difficulties of senior secondary school graduates in accessing good quality jobs and the high unemployment rate that they face upon graduation. Given these worrisome signs of young senior secondary school graduates (considered the lower tier of 'skilled' workers) and expected increases in the transition to senior secondary education (which are already rising rapidly), section three focuses on the senior secondary school level. Seeking to shed some light on the question of whether senior secondary education is providing the right skills for its students...

Strategic Reform Road-map for the Technical and Vocational Education and Training Sector in West Bengal

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
This report focuses on one of the key pillars of economic growth - namely, human development, and in particular, on skills development in West Bengal. It examines the current status of skills development, and potential ways forward for making the production of skills in the state more aligned to its economic growth needs. More specifically, the report investigates the characteristics of the technical and vocational education and training system that produces skills, how these skills match up in quantity and quality with what is in demand from employers in the organized and informal sectors, governance and quality assurance systems, emerging partnerships between the government and private providers of skills, and the availability of financial resources for skills development. Based on the findings from primary surveys, secondary data analysis, in-depth consultations with stakeholders, and declared policy priorities, the report provides a strategic framework and a time-based implementation road-map for reforming and reorienting technical and vocational education and training in West Bengal. This task was undertaken at the specific request of the new Government of West Bengal (GOWB) who took office in 2011. The GOWB wanted to know how to improve the quality of vocational and technical education and training in the state...

Turkey : Evaluating the Impact of Iskur's Vocational Training Programs; Turkiye - Iskur mesleki egitim programlarinin etki degerlendirmesi

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
Turkey's economic performance during the 2000s is a global success story; high-income status is now within reach but this will require creating more and better jobs. Upgrading the skills of the current labor force is crucial for creating more and better jobs. The Turkish Employment Agency (ISKUR) plays a leading role in upgrading the skills of jobseekers and facilitating their access to productive employment by providing vocational training and other employment support services. The increasing importance of ISKUR vocational training prompted the government to commission the present study to evaluate its impact and to identify ways to enhance it. The study evaluates the main type of ISKUR's vocational training courses at a particular point in time, and thus it does not take into account recent reforms. The study evaluates a representative sample of general vocational training courses, which account for about two thirds of ISKUR vocational trainees (the other one-third mostly take courses on demand by employers) that took place between December 2010 and June 2011. The evaluation has an experimental design...

Predicting post-training reactions from pre-training attitudes

Adomaityte, Aurelija
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
Les programmes de formation et d’apprentissage sont devenus des éléments parmi les plus essentiels pour les compagnies et la question se pose de savoir ce qui influence l’efficacité d’une formation. Récemment, la motivation pour la formation a été considérée comme le facteur déterminant. Ainsi, les objectifs de cette étude étaient d’examiner si la motivation pour la formation corrèle bien avec les antécédents et les réactions des employés formés, ainsi que d’analyser si la motivation joue un rôle de médiateur dans la prédiction des résultats d’une formation. Trois variables de « pré-formation » ont été choisies pour cette étude : l’attitude générale envers la formation, le sentiment d’efficacité personnelle en formation, et la planification de carrière. Les réactions immédiates des employés formés ont été choisies comme variable de « post-formation ». Un total de 152 employés d’une large compagnie québécoise a participé à cette étude en remplissant un questionnaire en début de formation et un autre à la fin. Les résultats de cette étude ont mis en évidence que la motivation pour la formation peut être prédite par l’attitude générale envers la formation, le sentiment d’efficacité personnelle en formation et la planification de carrière. De plus...