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Estudo biológico e morfométrico dos estádios ninfais de Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae)

Ponsoni, E. J.; Marconato, E.; Da Rosa, J. A.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 125-128
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
The following parameters of the biological cycle of the Rhodnius neglectus were determined under a temperature of 28°C and relative humidity of the air varying between 52-94%: a) average period of incubation: 13.67 days; b) rate of the eggs eclosion: 86.18%; c) average period of growth of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th instar nymphs: 18.91, 15.19, 21.38, 21.34, 30.43 days, respectively; d) percentage of death in the instar nymphs: 13.82, 18.26, 9.95, 8.78, 15.06% respectively; e) percentage of changes per instar nymphs: 86.18, 81.74, 90.05, 91.22, 84.94% respectively. The morphometric study with the stereoscopic microscope and Leica image analyses system, using the Qwin software, of the five instar nymphs showed that in the five instar nymphs a gradual growth of the head, thorax and abdomen occurs. In all the instars the abdomen is the largest segment. In the four first instars the head is larger than the thorax. In the fifth instar the head and the thorax present equivalent sizes.

Thorax, pelvis and hip pattern in the frontal plane during walking in unilateral transtibial amputees: biomechanical analysis

Molina-Rueda,Francisco; Alguacil-Diego,Isabel M.; Cuesta-Gómez,Alicia; Iglesias-Giménez,Javier; Martín-Vivaldi,Andrés; Miangolarra-Page,Juan C.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background: Lower limb amputees exhibit postural control deficits during standing which can affect their walking ability. Objectives: The primary purpose of the present study was to analyze the thorax, pelvis, and hip kinematics and the hip internal moment in the frontal plane during gait in subjects with Unilateral Transtibial Amputation (UTA). Method: The participants included 25 people with UTA and 25 non-amputees as control subjects. Gait analysis was performed using the Vicon(r) Motion System. We analyzed the motion of the thorax, pelvis, and hip (kinematics) as well as the hip internal moment in the frontal plane. Results: The second peak of the hip abductor moment was significantly lower on the prosthetic side than on the sound side (p=.01) and the control side (right: p=.01; left: p=.01). During middle stance, the opposite side of the pelvis was higher on the prosthetic side compared to the control side (right: p=.01: left: p=.01). Conclusions: The joint internal moment at the hip in the frontal plane was lower on the prosthetic side than on the sound side or the control side. Thorax and pelvis kinematics were altered during the stance phase on the prosthetic side, presumably because there are mechanisms which affect postural control during walking.

A misexpression study examining dorsal thorax formation in Drosophila melanogaster.

Peña-Rangel, María Teresa; Rodriguez, Isabel; Riesgo-Escovar, Juan Rafael
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2002 EN
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We studied thorax formation in Drosophila melanogaster using a misexpression screen with EP lines and thoracic Gal4 drivers that provide a genetically sensitized background. We identified 191 interacting lines showing alterations of thoracic bristles (number and/or location), thorax and scutellum malformations, lethality, or suppression of the thoracic phenotype used in the screen. We analyzed these lines and showed that known genes with different functional roles (selector, prepattern, proneural, cell cycle regulation, lineage restriction, signaling pathways, transcriptional control, and chromatin organization) are among the modifier lines. A few lines have previously been identified in thorax formation, but others, such as chromatin-remodeling complex genes, are novel. However, most of the interacting loci are uncharacterized, providing a wealth of new genetic data. We also describe one such novel line, poco pelo (ppo), where both misexpression and loss-of-function phenotypes are similar: loss of bristles and scutellum malformation.

A Second New Species of Ice Crawlers from China (Insecta: Grylloblattodea), with Thorax Evolution and the Prediction of Potential Distribution

Bai, Ming; Jarvis, Karl; Wang, Shu-Yong; Song, Ke-Qing; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Liang; Li, Wen-Zhu; Wang, Wei; Yang, Xing-Ke
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/09/2010 EN
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Modern grylloblattids are one of the least diverse of the modern insect orders. The thorax changes in morphology might be associated with the changes of the function of the forelegs, wing loss, changes in behavior and adaptation to habitat. As temperature is the main barrier for migration of modern grylloblattids, the range of each species is extremely limited. The potential distribution areas of grylloblattids remain unclear. A second new species of ice crawlers (Insecta: Grylloblattodea), Grylloblattella cheni Bai, Wang et Yang sp. nov., is described from China. The distribution map and key to species of Grylloblattella are given. A comparison of the thorax of extant and extinct Grylloblattodea is presented, with an emphasis on the pronotum using geometric morphometric analysis, which may reflect thorax adaptation and the evolution of Grylloblattodea. Potential global distribution of grylloblattids is inferred. Highly diversified pronota of extinct Grylloblattodea may reflect diverse habitats and niches. The relatively homogeneous pronota of modern grylloblattids might be explained by two hypotheses: synapomorphy or convergent evolution. Most fossils of Grylloblattodea contain an obviously longer meso- and metathorax than prothorax. The length of the meso- and metathorax of modern grylloblattids is normally shorter than the prothorax. This may be associated with the wing loss...

The MYST-Containing Protein Chameau Is Required for Proper Sensory Organ Specification during Drosophila Thorax Morphogenesis

Hainaut, Matthieu; Sagnier, Thierry; Berenger, Hélène; Pradel, Jacques; Graba, Yacine; Miotto, Benoit
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/03/2012 EN
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The adult thorax of Drosophila melanogaster is covered by a stereotyped pattern of mechanosensory bristles called macrochaetes. Here, we report that the MYST containing protein Chameau (Chm) contributes to the establishment of this pattern in the most dorsal part of the thorax. Chm mutant pupae present extra-dorsocentral (DC) and scutellar (SC) macrochaetes, but a normal number of the other macrochaetes. We provide evidences that chm restricts the singling out of sensory organ precursors from proneural clusters and genetically interacts with transcriptional regulators involved in the regulation of achaete and scute in the DC and SC proneural cluster. This function of chm likely relies on chromatin structure regulation since a protein with a mutation in the conserved catalytic site fails to rescue the formation of supernumerary DC and SC bristles in chm mutant flies. This is further supported by the finding that mutations in genes encoding chromatin modifiers and remodeling factors, including Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) members, dominantly modulate the penetrance of chm extra bristle phenotype. These data support a critical role for chromatin structure modulation in the establishment of the stereotyped sensory bristle pattern in the fly thorax.

Thorax morphology of selected species of the genus Cacopsylla (Hemiptera, Psylloidea)

Drohojowska, Jowita; Kalandyk-Kołodziejczyk, Małgorzata; Simon, Ewa
Fonte: Pensoft Publishers Publicador: Pensoft Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/07/2013 EN
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The paper concerns with characteristics of a thorax morphological structure Cacopsylla Ossiannilsson, 1970 species, referring to an analysis of five species classified in the past in three subgenera. The structure of the sternites, tergites and pleurites of all the parts of the thorax was studied by a scanning microscope. Descriptions of particular elements building up thorax plates, their shape, size and links as well as a course of all the clefts and sulcus are provided. The study of thorax morphology of Cacopsylla species suggests that the thorax morphology is relatively homogenous within a genus.

Differential Growth and Development of the Upper and Lower Human Thorax

Bastir, Markus; García Martínez, Daniel; Recheis, Wolfgang; Barash, Alon; Coquerelle, Michael; Rios, Luis; Peña-Melián, Ángel; García Río, Francisco; O’Higgins, Paul
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/09/2013 EN
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The difficulties in quantifying the 3D form and spatial relationships of the skeletal components of the ribcage present a barrier to studies of the growth of the thoracic skeleton. Thus, most studies to date have relied on traditional measurements such as distances and indices from single or few ribs. It is currently known that adult-like thoracic shape is achieved early, by the end of the second postnatal year, with the circular cross-section of the newborn thorax transforming into the ovoid shape of adults; and that the ribs become inclined such that their anterior borders come to lie inferior to their posterior. Here we present a study that revisits growth changes using geometric morphometrics applied to extensive landmark data taken from the ribcage. We digitized 402 (semi) landmarks on 3D reconstructions to assess growth changes in 27 computed tomography-scanned modern humans representing newborns to adults of both sexes. Our analyses show a curved ontogenetic trajectory, resulting from different ontogenetic growth allometries of upper and lower thoracic units. Adult thoracic morphology is achieved later than predicted, by diverse modifications in different anatomical regions during different ontogenetic stages. Besides a marked increase in antero-posterior dimensions...

Effect of Trunk Sagittal Attitude on Shoulder, Thorax and Pelvis Three-Dimensional Kinematics in Able-Bodied Subjects during Gait

Leardini, Alberto; Berti, Lisa; Begon, Mickaël; Allard, Paul
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/10/2013 EN
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It has been shown that an original attitude in forward or backward inclination of the trunk is maintained at gait initiation and during locomotion, and that this affects lower limb loading patterns. However, no studies have shown the extent to which shoulder, thorax and pelvis three-dimensional kinematics are modified during gait due to this sagittal inclination attitude. Thirty young healthy volunteers were analyzed during level walking with video-based motion analysis. Reflecting markers were mounted on anatomical landmarks to form a two-marker shoulder line segment, and a four-marker thorax and pelvis segments. Absolute and relative spatial rotations were calculated, for a total of 11 degrees of freedom. The subjects were divided into two groups of 15 according to the median of mean thorax inclination angle over the gait cycle. Preliminary MANOVA analysis assessed whether gender was an independent variable. Then two-factor nested ANOVA was used to test the possible effect of thorax inclination on body segments, planes of motion and gait periods, separately. There was no significant difference in all anthropometric and spatio-temporal parameters between the two groups, except for subject mass. The three-dimensional kinematics of the thorax and pelvis were not affected by gender. Nested ANOVA revealed group effect in all segment rotations apart those at the pelvis...

Evolution of thorax architecture in ant castes highlights trade-off between flight and ground behaviors

Keller, Roberto A; Peeters, Christian; Beldade, Patrícia
Fonte: eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd Publicador: eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.11%
The concerted evolution of morphological and behavioral specializations has compelling examples in ant castes. Unique to ants is a marked divergence between winged queens and wingless workers, but morphological specializations for behaviors on the ground have been overlooked. We analyzed thorax morphology of queens and workers in species from 21 of the 25 ant subfamilies. We uncovered unique skeletomuscular modifications in workers that presumably increase power and flexibility of head–thorax articulation, emphasizing that workers are not simply wingless versions of queens. We also identified two distinct types of queens and showed repeated evolutionary associations with strategies of colony foundation. Solitary founding queens that hunt have a more worker-like thorax. Our results reveal that ants invest in the relative size of thorax segments according to their tasks. Versatility of head movements allows for better manipulation of food and objects, which arguably contributed to the ants’ ecological and evolutionary success.

Thorax Injury Lowers Resistance to Infection in Drosophila melanogaster

Chambers, Moria C.; Jacobson, Eliana; Khalil, Sarah; Lazzaro, Brian P.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
The route of infection can profoundly affect both the progression and outcome of disease. We investigated differences in Drosophila melanogaster defense against infection after bacterial inoculation into two sites—the abdomen and the thorax. Thorax inoculation results in increased bacterial proliferation and causes high mortality within the first few days of infection. In contrast, abdomen inoculation results in minimal mortality and lower bacterial loads than thorax inoculation. Inoculation into either site causes systemic infection. Differences in mortality and bacterial load are due to injury of the thorax and can be recapitulated by abdominal inoculation coupled with aseptic wounding of the thorax. This altered resistance appears to be independent of classical immune pathways and opens new avenues of research on the role of injury during defense against infection.

Effect of thorax correction exercises on flexed posture and chest function in older women with age-related hyperkyphosis

Jang, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Myung-jun; Kim, Suhn-yeop
Fonte: The Society of Physical Therapy Science Publicador: The Society of Physical Therapy Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.23%
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of thorax correction exercises on flexed posture and chest function in older women with age-related hyperkyphosis. [Subjects and Methods] The study participants included 41 elderly women who were divided into a thorax correction exercise group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 21). Participants in the exercise group completed a specific exercise program that included breathing correction, thorax mobility, thorax stability, and thorax alignment training performed twice per week, 1 hour each session, for 8 weeks. Outcome measures included the flexed posture (thoracic kyphosis angle, forward head posture) and chest function (vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in a second, and chest expansion length). [Results] Participants in the thorax correction exercise group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in thoracic kyphosis angle, forward head, and chest expansion than those in the control group. [Conclusion] This study provides a promising exercise intervention that may improve flexed posture and chest function in older women with age-related hyperkyphosis.

Evidence of Different Thermoregulatory Mechanisms between Two Sympatric Scarabaeus Species Using Infrared Thermography and Micro-Computer Tomography

Verd??, Jos?? R.; Alba-Tercedor, Javier; Jim??nez Manrique, M??nica
Fonte: Public Library of Science (PLOS) Publicador: Public Library of Science (PLOS)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.11%
In endotherms insects, the thermoregulatory mechanisms modulate heat transfer from the thorax to the abdomen to avoid overheating or cooling in order to obtain a prolonged flight performance. Scarabaeus sacer and S. cicatricosus, two sympatric species with the same habitat and food preferences, showed daily temporal segregation with S. cicatricosus being more active during warmer hours of the day in opposition to S. sacer who avoid it. In the case of S. sacer, their endothermy pattern suggested an adaptive capacity for thorax heat retention. In S. cicatricosus, an active ???heat exchanger??? mechanism was suggested. However, no empirical evidence had been documented until now. Thermographic sequences recorded during flight performance showed evidence of the existence of both thermoregulatory mechanisms. In S. sacer, infrared sequences showed a possible heat insulator (passive thermal window), which prevents heat transfer from meso- and metathorax to the abdomen during flight. In S. cicatricosus, infrared sequences revealed clear and effective heat flow between the thorax and abdomen (abdominal heat transfer) that should be considered the main mechanism of thermoregulation. This was related to a subsequent increase in abdominal pumping (as a cooling mechanism) during flight. Computer microtomography scanning...

Differential growth and development of the upper and lower human thorax

Bastir, Markus; García Martínez, Daniel; Recheis, Wolfgang A.; Barash, Alon; Coquerelle, Michael; Ríos, Luis; Peña-Melián, Ángel L.; García-Rio, Franciso; O'Higgins, Paul
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.11%
The difficulties in quantifying the 3D form and spatial relationships of the skeletal components of the ribcage present a barrier to studies of the growth of the thoracic skeleton. Thus, most studies to date have relied on traditional measurements such as distances and indices from single or few ribs. It is currently known that adult-like thoracic shape is achieved early, by the end of the second postnatal year, with the circular cross-section of the newborn thorax transforming into the ovoid shape of adults; and that the ribs become inclined such that their anterior borders come to lie inferior to their posterior. Here we present a study that revisits growth changes using geometric morphometrics applied to extensive landmark data taken from the ribcage. We digitized 402 (semi) landmarks on 3D reconstructions to assess growth changes in 27 computed tomography-scanned modern humans representing newborns to adults of both sexes. Our analyses show a curved ontogenetic trajectory, resulting from different ontogenetic growth allometries of upper and lower thoracic units. Adult thoracic morphology is achieved later than predicted, by diverse modifications in different anatomical regions during different ontogenetic stages. Besides a marked increase in antero-posterior dimensions...

Modeling the biodynamical response of the human thorax with body armor from a bullet impact.

Lobuono, John A.; Kwon, Young W.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório Formato: xvi, 79 p.;28 cm.
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The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model of the human thorax with a protective body armor system so that the model can adequately determine the thorax's biodynamical response from a projectile impact. The finite element model of the human thorax consists of the thoracic skeleton, heart, lungs, major arteries, major veins, trachea, and bronchi. The finite element model of the human thorax is validated by comparing the model's results to experimental data obtained from cadavers wearing a protective body armor system undergoing a projectile impact. When the model is deemed valid, a parametric study is performed to determine the components of the model that have the greatest effect on its biodynamical response to a projectile impact.

Modeling the biodynamical response of the human thorax with body armor from a bullet impact.

Lobuono, John A.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.11%
The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model of the human thorax with a protective body armor system so that the model can adequately determine the thorax's biodynamical response from a projectile impact. The finite element model of the human thorax consists of the thoracic skeleton, heart, lungs, major arteries, major veins, trachea, and bronchi. The finite element model of the human thorax is validated by comparing the model's results to experimental data obtained from cadavers wearing a protective body armor system undergoing a projectile impact. When the model is deemed valid, a parametric study is performed to determine the components of the model that have the greatest effect on its biodynamical response to a projectile impact.; Lieutenant, United States Navy

Impact analysis of a biomechanical model of the human thorax

Jolly, Johannes E.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xx, 114 p.;28 cm.
EN_US
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The biomechanical response of a finite element model of the human thorax and a protective body armor system was studied under impact loading from a projectile. The objective of the study was to create a viable finite element model of the human thorax. This objective was accomplished through the construction of a three-dimensional finite element model in DYNA3D, a finite element analysis program. The model was validated by comparing the results of tests of body armor systems conducted on cadavers to results obtained from finite element analysis. A parametric study was undertaken to determine the essential components of the model. The results from this investigation determined that the path of force propagation from a body armor system to the thorax upon bullet impact is directly through the vest to the sternum and then through the skeleton to the rest of the body. Thus, any parameters that affect the components in this pathway were essential to the model. This included the muscles, their geometries, material properties, and viscosity, as well as the Young's modulus of the sternochondral cartilage and the bones themselves.; U.S. Naval Reserve (U.S.N.R.) author.

Transverse and dorso-ventral changes in thoracic dimension during equine locomotion

Thorpe, C.; Marlin, D.; Franklin, S.; Colborne, G.
Fonte: Bailliere Tindall Publicador: Bailliere Tindall
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
Changes in shape of the equine thorax during locomotion are not well defined, although it has been shown recently that the transverse hemi-diameter changes its dimension by up to 80mm on the side of the trailing forelimb during gallop, despite minimal change in thoracic circumference. The aim of this project was to analyse transverse and dorso-ventral changes in shape of the thorax simultaneously, and to determine if leading limb, treadmill slope and speed have an effect on these shape changes. Reflective markers were placed on the horse's hemi-thorax and movement of the markers was recorded using a motion capture system while the horse trotted and cantered on a treadmill. Treadmill speed and slope, and the lead the horse cantered on were varied to determine the effects these had on transverse hemi-diameter and dorso-ventral diameter. There was a negative correlation between transverse and dorso-ventral changes in thoracic dimension, the strength of which increased with speed on the trailing limb side. On the leading side, the relationship was either weakly negative or positive. The changes in dimension of the hemi-thorax were significantly greater on the trailing side compared to the leading side. Speed had small effects on thoracic shape changes...

Evolution of thorax architecture in ant castes highlights trade-off between flight and ground behaviors

Keller, Roberto A; Peeters, Christian; Beldade, Patrícia
Fonte: Elife Sciences Publications Publicador: Elife Sciences Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/01/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.11%
The concerted evolution of morphological and behavioral specializations has compelling examples in ant castes. Unique to ants is a marked divergence between winged queens and wingless workers, but morphological specializations for behaviors on the ground have been overlooked. We analyzed thorax morphology of queens and workers in species from 21 of the 25 ant subfamilies. We uncovered unique skeletomuscular modifications in workers that presumably increase power and flexibility of head-thorax articulation, emphasizing that workers are not simply wingless versions of queens. We also identified two distinct types of queens and showed repeated evolutionary associations with strategies of colony foundation. Solitary founding queens that hunt have a more worker-like thorax. Our results reveal that ants invest in the relative size of thorax segments according to their tasks. Versatility of head movements allows for better manipulation of food and objects, which arguably contributed to the ants' ecological and evolutionary success. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01539.001.; FCT fellowship: (SFRH/BPD/65529/2009), Oeiras Municipality Installation Grant.

Medidas fractales de radiografías de tórax de pacientes con diferentes patologías; Toracic X-Ray Fractal Measures in Patients with Different Pathologies

Rodríguez, Javier; Prieto, Signed; Correa, Catalina; Avilán, Nicolás; Ulloa, Heber; Caicedo, Rubén
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/05/2010 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18%
Introducción: La geometría fractal permite la descripción objetiva de objetos irregulares tales como las estructuras del cuerpo humano: Por ello, en este caso, se aplicó al desarrollo de una nueva metodología de caracterización de la cavidad cardiotorácica.Material y métodos: Estudio exploratorio descriptivo en el que se desarrolló una metodología de medición basada en la geometría fractal aplicada a 14 radiografías de tórax de sujetos con diferentes patologías. Se calcularon las dimensiones fractales de la cavidad torácica, la silueta cardíaca y la superposición de estas partes con el método de Box-Counting.Resultados: Se obtuvieron nuevas medidas morfométricas objetivas y reproducibles de placas de tórax a partir de dimensiones fractales.Conclusiones: La geometría fractal permite la caracterización matemática de placas de tórax de pacientes con diferentes patologías. Es posible que el desarrollo de esta metodología en posteriores investigaciones permita generar parámetros útiles de aplicación clínica, independientes de la experiencia del médico y de su observación subjetiva, de modo que garantice la reproducibilidad y objetividad de las medidas.; Introduction: Fractal geometry allows the objective description of irregular objects like the human body structures. In this case it was applied to the development of a new thorax cavity characterization methodology. Materials and methods: Exploratory descriptive study where it was applied a measurement methodology based on the fractal geometry to 14 thorax x-rays from different pathologies patients. There were calculated the fractal dimensions of the thorax cavity...

Morphologie und Physiologie der Drüsen in Kopf und Thorax der Honigbiene (Apis mellifica L.); Morphologie et physiologie des glandes céphaliques et du thorax de l'abeille

Kratky, Erich
Fonte: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França Publicador: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França
Tipo: Journal Article-postprint
DE
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